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the Gandhara king who was quick in the use of weapons,
speedily appeared to our view. 3 * Chekitana and Cikhandin
and the (five) sons of Draupadi, sire, having slain a large
number of thy troops, blew their conchs. 39 Beholding all thy
troops flying away with their faces from the field, those (Pan-
dava) heroes pursued and smote them like bulls pursuing van-
quished bulls. 40 Then the mighty Savyasachin the son of
Pandu, beholding a remnant of thy army still keeping their
ground, became filled with rage, king! 4 ' Suddenly, mon-
arch, he shrouded that remnant of thy forces with arrows. The
dust, however, that was then raised, enveloped the scene, in
consequence of which we could not see anything. 42 Darkness
also spread over the scene and the field of battle was covered
with arrows. Thy troops, monarch, then fled away in fear on
all sides. 43 When his army was thus broken, the Kuru king, O
monarch, rushed against both friends and foes. 44 Then Duryo-
dhana challenged all the Pandavas to battle, chief of Bharata's
race, like the Asura Vali in days of yore challenging all the
celestials. 45 The Pandavas then, uniting together and filled
with rage, upbraiding him repeatedly and shooting diverse
weapons, rushed against the roaring Duryodhana. 46 The latter,
however,, fearlessly smote his foes with shafts, The prowess

Paruti.] CALYA PARVAi 13

that wc then saw of thy sod was exceedingly wonderful, 47 since
all the Pandavaa together were unable to transgress him. At
this time Duryodhana beheld, staying at a little distance from
him, his troops, exceedingly mangled with shafts, and prepared
to fly away. Rallying them then, monarch, thy son, resolved
on battle and desirous of gladdening them, addressed those war-
riors, saying, 48 "" — I do not see that spot on plain or mountain
whither, if ye fly, the Pandavaa will not slay ye ! What use
then in flight ? so The Pandava army hath now been reduced
to a small remnant. The two Krishnas have been exceedingly
mangled. If all of us make a stand here, we are certain to
have victory. 81 If, however, ye fly away, breaking your array,
the Pandavas, pursuing your sinful selves, will slay ye all!
Death in battle, therefore, is for our good l* 2 Death in the
field of battle while engaged in fight according to Kshatriya
practices, is pleasant. 'Such death produces no kind of grief.
By encountering such a death, a person enjoys eternal happi-
ness in the other world. 53 Let all the Kshatriyas assembled
here listen to me ! It were better that they should even submit
to the power of the angry Bhimasena than that they should
abandon the duties practiced by them from the days of their
ancestors !* 4 There is no act more sinful for a Kshatriya than
flight from battle ! Ye Kauravas, there is not a better path
to heaven than the duty of battle : 5S The warrior acquires
in a day regions of bliss (in the other world) that take many
long years for ethers to acquire !— Fulfilling those words of
the king, the great Kshatriya car-warriors* 6 once more rushed
against the Pandavas, unable to endure their defeat and firmly
resolved to put forth their prowess.* 7 Then commenced a
battle once more, that was exceedingly fierce, between thy
troops and the enemy, and that resembled the one between the
gods and the Asaras. iS Thy son Duryodhana then, <> monarch
with all his troops, rushed against the Pandavas headed by
Yudhishthira.' " 8S


Section IV.

"Sanjaya said, — 'Beholding the fallen boxes of cars* as also
the cars of high-souled warriors, and the elephants and foot-
soldiers, sire, slain in battle, 1 — seeing the field of battle
assume an aspect as awful as that of the sporting ground of
Rudra, — observing the inglorious end obtained by hundreds and
thousands of kings, 8 — witnessing also the prowess of Partha
after the retreat of thy son with grief-stricken heart and when
thy troops, filled with anxiety 3 and fallen into great distress,
O Bharata, were deliberating as to what they should next do,
hearing also the loud wails of the Kaurava warriors that were
being crushed, 4 and marking the displaced and disordered tokens
of great kings, the Kuru leader Kripa of great energy, possess-
ed of years and good conduct and fifled with compassion, 5
and endued with eloquence, approached king Duryodhana, and
angrily said these words unto him :' — Duryodhana, listen, O
Bharata, to these words that I will say unto thee ! Having
heard them, monarch, do thou act according to them, O
sinless one, if it please thee ! 7 There is no path, monarch,
that is better than the duty of battle ! Having recourse to
that path, Kshatriyas, bull of the Kshatriya order, engage
in battle ! 8 He who lives in the observance of Kshatriya prac-
tices fights with son, sire, brother, sister's son, and maternal
uncle, and relatives, and kinsmen. 9 If he is slaughtered in
battle, there is great merit in it. Similarly, there is great sin
if he flies from the field. It is for this that the life of a person
desirous of living by the adoption of Kshatriya duties is ex-
ceedingly terrible. 10 Unto thee, as regards this, I will say a
few beneficial words. After the fall of Bhishma and Drona and
the mighty car-warrior Kama, 11 after the slaughter of Jaya-
dratha and thy brothers, skiless one, and thy son Lakshmana,
what is there now for us to do ? ia They, upon whom resting
all burdens we had been enjoying sovereignty, have all gone
to regions of blessedness attainable by persons conversant with

* Nida, a niche or box for tin; driver.— T.

rarva.] Calya tarva, 15

Brahma, casting off their bodies ! 18 As regards ourselves,
deprived of those great car-warriors possessed of numerous
accomplishments, we shall have to pass our time in grief, having
caused numerous kings to perish !'* When all those heroes
were alive, even then Vibhatsu could not bo vanquished. Hav-
ing Krishna, for his eyes, that mighty-armed hero is incapable
of being defeated by the very gods !" The vast (Kaurava)
host, approaching his Ape-bearing standard that is lofty as au
Indra's pole (set up in the season of spring) and that is effulgent
as Indra's bow, hath always trembled in fear. 16 At the leonine
roars of Bhimasena and the blare of Pdnchajanya, and the
twang of Gdndiva, our hearts will die away within us. 17
Moving like flashes of lightning, and blinding our eyes, Ar-
juna's Gdndiva is seen to resemble a circle of fire. 18 Decked
with pure srold, that formidable bow, as it is shaken, looks
like lightning's flash moving about on every side. 19 Steeds
white in hue and possessed of great speed and endued with
the splendour of the Moon or the Kaga grass, and that run
devouring the skies, are yoked unto his car. 20 Urged on by
Krishna, like masses of clouds driven by the wind, and their
limbs decked with gold, they bear Arjuna to battle. 21 That
foremost of all persons conversant with arms, viz., Arjuna,
burnt that great force of thine like a swelling conflagration
consuming dry grass in the forest in the season of winter. 28
Possessed of the splendour of Indra himself, while penetrat-
ing into our ranks, we have seen Dhananjaya to look like an
elephant with four tusks. 23 While agitating thy army and
inspiring the kings with fear, we have seen Dhananjaya to
resemble an elephant agitating a lake overgrown with lotuses. 84
While terrifying all the warriors with the twang of his bow, we
have again seen the son of Pandu to resemble a lion inspiring
smaller animals with dread. 85 Those two foremost of bowmen
in all the worlds, those two bulls among all persons armed with
the bow, viz., the two Krishnas, clad in mail, are looking
exceedingly beautiful. 26 Today is the seventeenth day of this
awful battle, O Bharata, of those that are being slaughtered in
the midst of this fight !" The diverse divisions of thy army
are broken and dispersed like autumnal clouds dispersed by the

la m.murttarata, [Qalya-badha

wind. 18 Savyasachin, O monarch, caused thy army to tremble
and reel like a tempest- tossed boat exposed on the bosom of the
ocean. 29 Where was the Suta's son, where was Drona with
all his followers, where was I, where wert thou, Avhere was
Hridika's son, where thy brother Duscasana accompanied by his
brothers, (when Jayadratha was slain) ? 30 Upon beholding
Jayadrutha and finding him within the range of his arrows,
Arjuna, putting forth his prowess upon all thy kinsmen and
brothers and allies and maternal uncles, and placing his feet
upon their heads, slew king Jayadratha in the very sight of
all ! What then is there for us to do now ? 31-3a Who is there
among thy troops now that would vanquish the son of Pandu ? 3S
That high-souled warrior possesses diverse kinds of celestial
weapons. The twang, again, of Gdndiva robbeth us of our
energies ! 34 This army of thine that is now without a leader is
like a night without the Moon, or like a river that is dried up
with all the trees on its banks broken by elephants. 38 The
mighty-armed Arjuna of white steeds will, at his pleasure,
career amid this thy masterless host, like a blazing conflagra-
tion amid a heap of grass ! 35 The impetuosity of those two,
viz., Satyaki and Bhimasena, would splifc all the mountains or
dry up all the oceans ! 37 The words that Bhima spoke in the
midst of the assembly have all been nearly accomplished by him,
O monarch ! That which remains unaccomplished will again be
accomplished by him ! 38 While Kama was battling before it,
the army of the Pandavas, difficult to be defeated, was vigorous-
ly protected by the wielder of Gdndiva." Yd, have done many
foul wrongs, without any cause, unto the righteous Pandavas !
The fruits of those acts have now come ! 40 For the sake of thy
own objects thou hadst, with great care, mustered together a
laree force ! That vast force as also thyself, O bull of Bharata's
race, have fallen into great danger ! 41 Preserve thy own self
now, for self is the refuge of everything ! If the refuge is
broken, sire, everything inhering thereto is scattered on
every side. 42 He that is being weakened should seek peace by
conciliation. He that is growing should make war. This is
the policy taught by Vrihaspati. 48 We are new inferior to the
sons of Pandu as regards the strength of our army, There-

Turret,] OALYA PAR71, l?

fore, O lord, I think peace with the Pandavas is for our good !**
He that does not know what is for his good or (knowing) dis-
regards what is for his good, is soon divested of his kingdom
and never obtains any good. 45 If by bowing unto king Yudhish-
thira sovereignty may still remain to us, even that would be for
our good, and not, king, to sustain through folly defeat (afc
the hands of the Pandavas) !* 5 Yudhishthira is compassionate.
At the request of Vichitraviryya's son and of Govinda, he
will allow you to continue king. 47 Whatever Hrishikeca will
say unto the victorious king Yudhishthira and Arjuna and
Bhimasena, all of them will, without doubt, obey. 48 Krishna
will not, I think, be able to transgress the words of Dhrita-
rashtra of Kuril's race, nor will the son of Pfmdu be able to
transgress those of Krishna. 49 A cessation of hostilities with
the sons of Prithii is what I consider to be for thy good. I
do not say this unto thee from any mean motives nor for pro-
tecting my life. I say, king, that which I regard to be
beneficial. Thou wilt recollect these words when thou wilfc
be on the point of death (if thou ncglectest them now) !*° —
Advanced in years, Kripa the son of Caradwat said these words
weepingly. Breathing long and hot breaths, he then gave way
to sorrow and almost lost his senses.' " il

Section V.

"Sanjava said, — 'Thus addressed by the celebrated son of
Gotama, the king ( Duryodhana ), breathing long and hot
breaths, remained silent, O monarch !' Having reflected for a
little while, the high-souled son of Dhritarilshtra, that scorcher
of foes, then said those words unto Caradwat's son Kripa : 8 —
Whatever a friend should say, thou hast said unto me ! Thou
hast also, whilst battling, done everything for me, without
caring for thy very life ! 3 The world has seen thee penetrate
into the midst of the Pandava divisions and fight with the
mighty car-warriors of the Pandavas endued with great energy.*
That which should be said by a friend has been said by thee.
Thy words, however, do not please me like medicine that
pleases the person that is on the point of death.* These bene-

IS MAHABHARATA, l<pdlya-badkct

ficial and excellent words, fraught with reason, that thou, O
mighty-armed one, hast said, do not seem acceptable to me,
O foremost of Brahmanas ! e Deprived by us of his kingdom
(on a former occasion), why will the son of Pandu repose his
trust on us ! That mighty king was once defeated by us at dice.
Why will we again believe my words ? 7 * So also, Krishna, ever
engaged in the good of the Parthas, when he came to us as an
envoy, was deceived by us. That act of ours was exceedingly
ill-judged. Why then, O regenerate one, will Hrishikeca trust
my words ? 8 The princess Krishna, while standing in the
midst of the assembly, wept piteously. Krishna will never
forget that act of ours, nor that act, viz., the deprivation of
Yudhishthira by us of his kingdom ! 9 Formerly it was heard
by us that the two Krishnas have the same heart between them
and are firmly united with each other ! Today, lord, we
have seen it with our eyes ! 10 Having heard of the slaughter
of his sister's son, Kecava passeth his nights in sorrow. We
have offended him highly. Why will he forgive us then ?"
Arjuna also, in consequence of Arhimanyu's death, hath be-
come very miserable. Even if solicited, why will he strive for
my good ? 12 The second son of Pandu, the mighty Bhima-
sena, is exceedingly fierce. He has made a terrible vow. He
will break but not bend. 13 The heroic twins, breathing ani-
mosity against us, when clad in mail and armed with their
swords, resemble a pair of Yamas. 1 * Dhrishtadyumna and
Cikhandin have drawn their swords against me. Why will those
two, best of Brahmanas, strive for my good ? 15 While clad
in a single raiment and in her season, the princess Krishna-
was treated cruelly by Duscasana in the midst of the assem-
bly and before the eyes of all. 16 Those scorchers of foes, viz.,
Pandavas, who still remember the naked Draupadi plunged
into distress, can never be dissuaded from battle. 17 Then again,
Krishna the daughter of Drupada, is, in sorrow, undergoing
the austerest of penances for my destruction and the success of
the objects cherished by her husbands, and sleepeth every day
on the bare ground, intending to do so till the end of tho

' A triplet in the Bengal texts.— T,

Tarva.J CALTi parva. 10

hostilities is attained. 13 Abandoning honor and pride, the
uterino sister of Viisudcva (Subhadrii) is always serving Drau-
padi as a veritable waiting-woman. 19 Everything, therefore, hath
flamed np. That fire can never be quenched. Peace with them
hath become impossible in conscquonce of the slaughter of
Abhimanyu. 20 Having also enjoyed the sovereignty of this
Earth bounded by the ocean, how shall I be able to enjoy, under
favor of the Pandavas, a kingdom in peace ?" Having shone
like the Sun upon the heads of all the kings, how shall I
walk behind Yudhishthira like a slave ?" Having enjoyed all
enjoyable articles and shown great compassion, how shall I lead
a miserable life now with miserable men as my companions ? as
I do not hate those mild and beneficial words that thou hast
spoken. I, however, do not think that this is the time for
peace. 84 To fight righteously is, O scorcher of foes, what I
regard to be good policy. This is not the time for acting lika
a eunuch. On the other hand, this is the time for battle. 8S I
have performed many sacrifices. I have given away DaJcshinas
to Brahmanas. I have obtained the attainment of all my
wishes. I have listened to Vedic recitations. I have walked
upon the heads of my foes. 86 My servants have all been well
cherished by me. I have relieved people in distress. I dare not,

foremost of regenerate ones, address such humble words to
the Pandavas. 27 I have conquered foreign kingdoms. I have
properly governed my own kingdom. I have enjoyed diverse
kinds of enjoyable articles. Religion and profit and pleasure

1 have pursued. I have paid off my debt to the Pitris and to
Kshatriya duty. 23 Certainly, there is no happiness here ! What
becomes of kingdom, and what of good name ? Fame is all
that one should acquire here. That fame can be obtained by
battle, and by no other means. 29 The death that a Kshatriya
meets with at homo is censurable. Death on one's bed at
home is highly sinful. 80 The man who casts away his body in
the woods or in battle after having performed sacrifices, ob-
tains great glory. 81 He is no man who dies miserably wc>
ing in pain, afflicted by disease and decay, in the midst of
crying kinsmen. ? * Abandoning diverse objects of enjoyment,
I shall now. by righteous battle, proceed to the regiofia of

20 Mahabhakata. [£alya-badhii

Cakra, obtaining the companionship of those that have attained
to the highest end. 53 Without doubt, the habitation of heroes
of righteous behaviour, who never retreat from battle, who
are gifted with intelligence and devoted to truth, who are
performers of sacrifices, and who have been sanctified in the
sacrifice of weapons, is in heaven. 8 * The diverse tribes of
Apsaras, without doubt, joyfully gaze at such heroes when
engaged in battle. Without doubt, the Pitris behold them
worshipped in the assembly of the gods and rejoicing in
heaven, in the company of Apsaras* 1 We will now ascend
the path that is trod by the celestials and by heroes unreturn-
ing from battle, 86 that path, viz., which has been taken by
our venerable grandsire, by the preceptor endued with great
intelligence, by Jayadratha, by Kama, and by Duscasana ! 87
Many brave kings, who had exerted themselves vigorously for
my sake in this battle, have been slain. Mangled with arrows
and their limbs bathed in blood, they lie now on the bare
Earth. 58 Possessed of great courage and conversant with ex-
cellent weapons, those kings, who had, again, performed sacri-
fices as ordained in the scriptures, having cast off their life-
breaths in the discharge of their duties, have now become the
denizens of Indra's abode. 39 They have paved the way (to
that blessed region). That road will once more become diffi-
cult in consequence of the crowds of heroes that will hurry
along it for reaching that blessed goal.* 40 Remembering with
gratitude the feats of those heroes that have died for me,
I desire to pay off the debt I owe them, instead of fixing my
heart upon kingdom. 41 If, having caused my friends and
brothers and grandsires to be slain, I save my own life, the
world will, without doubt, censure me. 42 What kind of sover-
eignty will that be which I will enjoy, destitute of kinsmen

* Some texts read durgamo hi sukham bhavet for durgamo hi punar-
bhavet. If the former reading be accepted, the meaning will be, 'once
difficult, that road will become easy in consequence of the crowds of
heroes that will hurry along it for reaching that blessed goal.' Duryo-
dhana, iu that case, would be held to be alluding to the many Kshatriyas
that would yet die for obtaining regions of bliss in the other world, if
tb.9 battle 3 instead pi ceasing^ were allowed to go ou,— T,

Tarva.] Calya tarva, 21

and friends and well-wishers, and bowing duwn unto the son
of Panda ? 48 I, who have lorded it over the universe in that
way, will now acquire heaven by fair fight. It will not bo
otherwise !** — Thus addressed by Duryodhana, all the Kshatri-
yas there applauded that speech and cheered tho king, say-
ing, — Excellent, Excellent !*' — Without at all grieving for
their defeat, and firmly resolved upon displaying their prowess,
all of them, having determined to fight, became filled with
enthusiasm. 46 Having groomed their animals then, the Kau-
ravas, delighting at the prospect of battle, took up their quar-
ters (for the night) at a spot little less than two Yojanas dis-
tant from the field. 47 Having obtained the Saraswati of red
waters on the sacred and beautiful table-land at the foot of
Himavat, they bathed in that water and quenched their thirst
with it. Their spirits raised by thy son, they continued to
wait (on their resting ground). 48 Once more rallying their
own selves as well as one another, all those Kshatriyas, O
king, urged by fate, waited (in their encampment).'

' "49

Section VI.

"Sanjaya said, — 'On that table-land at the foot of Himavat,
those warriors, O monarch, delighting at the prospect of battle
and assembled together, passed the night. 1 Indeed, Calya
and Chitrasena and the mighty car-warrior Cakuni and Acwat-
thaman and Kripa and Kritavarman of the Satwata race,"
and Sushena and Arishtasena and Dhritasena of great energy
and Jayatsena and all these kings passed the night there. 8
After the heroic Kama had been slain in battle, thy sons,
inspired with fright by the Pandavas desirous of victory,
failed to obtain peace anywhere else than on the mountains of
Himavat. 4 All of them then, O king, who were resolved on
battle, duly worspipped tho king and said unto him, in the
presence of Calya, these words ! 8 — It behoveth theo to fight
with the enemy, after having made some one the generalissimo
of thy army, protected by whom in battle we will vanquish
our foes !* — Then Duryodhana, without alighting from his car,
(proceeded towards]* that foremost of car-warriors, that hero

* These words occur lower down in verae 17.— T.

22 mahabharata, [galya-badha,

conversant with all the rules of battle,* (viz., Acwatthaman,)
who resembled the Destroyer himself in battle. 7 Possessed of
beautiful limbs, of head well-covered, of a neck adorned with
three lines like those in a conch-shell, of sweet speech, of ej 7 es
resembling the petals of a full-blown lotus, and of a face like
that of the tiger, of the dignity of Meru, 8 resembling the bull
of M ihadeva as regards neck, eyes, tread, and voice, endued
with arms that were large, massive, and well-joined, having a
chest that was broad and well-formed, 9 equal unto Garuda on
the wind in speed and might, gifted with a splendour like
that of the rays of the Sun, rivalling Ucanas himself in in-
telligence 10 and the Moon in beauty and form and charms of
face, with a body that seemed to be made of a number of
golden lotuses, with well-made joints, 11 of well-formed thighs-
and waist and hips, of beautiful feet, beautiful fingers, and
beautiful nails, he seemed to have been made by the Creator
with great care after recollecting one after another all the
beautiful and good attributes of creation. 12 Possessed of every
auspicious mark, and clever in every act, he was an ocean
of learning. Ever vanquishing his foes with great speed, he
was incapable of being forcibly vanquished" by foes. 13 He
knew, in all its details, the science of weapons consisting of
four pachas and ten Angas.f He knew also the'- four Veclas
with all their branches, and the Akhytinas as the fifth. 14
Possessed of great ascetic merit, Drona, himself not born of
woman, having worshipped the Three-eyed deity with great
attention and austere vows, begat him .upon a wife not born of
woman. 15 Approaching that personage of unrivalled feats, that
one who is unrivalled in beauty on Earth, that one who has
mastered all branches of learning, that ocean of accomplish-
ments, the faultless Acwatthaman, thy son told him these
words : — Thou, O preceptor's son, art today our highest re-

* The correct reading, I apprehend, is Sarva yuddhavidhanajnam as
in some of the Bengal texts, and not Sai'vayuddkavibhdvajnam, as in
the Bombay edition, although Nilakantha notices the latter in his gloss.

t A pada is a great division of a subject, an a?ig<.c being a smaller
division, or subdivision,— T,

f>arva.] CALTA parva, 23

fucre ! Tell us, therefore, who is to be the generalissimo of
my forces now, placing whom at our head, all of us, united
together, may vanquish the Pandavas ? — 16 " 13

" '[Thus addressed,] the son of Drona answered,— Let Calya
become the leader of our army ! In descent, in prowsss, in
energy, in fume, in beauty of person, and in every other
accomplishment, he is superior! 19 Mindful of the services
rendered to him, he has taken up our side, having abandoned
the sons of his own sister ! Owning a large force of his own,
that mighty-armed one is like a second (Kartikeya, the) celes-
tial generalissimo ! 20 Making that king the commander of

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