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nuance of that sacrifice at Pushkara and in the presence of
the Grandsire, the Rishis, O king, said,— 'This sacrifice can-
not be said to possess high attributes, 11 since that foremost
of rivers, viz, Saraswati, is not to be seen here !'— Hearing
these words, the divine Brahman cheerfully thought of Sara-



Parva.] cilya paiiva. 153

swati." Summoned at Pushkara by the Grandsire engaged in
the performance of a sacrifice, Saraswati, king, appeared

there, under the name of Suprabha. 1 ' Beholding Saraswati
quickly pay that regard to the Grandsire, the Munis esteem-
ed that sacrifice highly. 1 * Even thus thai foremost of rivers,
viz., the Saraswati, made her appearance at Pushkara for
the sake of the Grandsire and for gratifying the Munis. 1 * (At
another time), O king, many Munis, mustering together at
Naimisha, book up their residence there. Delightful disquisi-
tions occurred among them, king about the Veritas. 1 ' Thera
where those Munis, conversant with diverse scriptures, took
up their abode, there they thought of the Saraswati. 17 Thus
thought of, monarch, by those Rishis performing a sacrifice,
tha highly blessed and sacred Saraswati, for rendering assistance,
O king, to those high-souled Munis assembled together, made
her appearance at Naimisha and came to be called Kancha-
nakshi.'*"" That foremost of rivers, worshipped by all, thus
came there, Bharata! While (king) Gaya was engaged in
the performance of a great sacrifice at Gaya. 20 the foremost of
rivers. Saraswati, summoned at Gaya's sacrifice, (made her
appearance there). The Rishis of rigid vows that were there,
named this form of hers at Gaya as Vicala,." That river of
swift current flows from the sides of Hi ma vat. Ouddalaka
had also, O Bharata, performed a sacrifice." A large con-
coursi of Munis had been gathered there. It was on that
sacred region, viz., the northern part of Korali, king, that
that sacrifice of the high-souled Ouddalaka was performed. JI
B3fore Ouddalaka began his sacrifice, he had thought of tha
Saraswati. That foremost of rivers came to that region for
the sake of those Rishis.** Worshipped by all those M tin is
clad in barks and deer-skins, she became known bv the name of
Manorama as those Rishis mentally called her. 2 ' While, again,
the high-souled Kuru was engaged in a sacrifice at Kuru-
kshetra, that foremost of rivers, the highly blessed Saraswati,
made her appearance there. 26 Summoned, O monarch, by the
high-souled Vacishtha (who assisted Kuru in his sarrifW),
the Saraswati, full of celestial water, appeared at Kurukshetra
under the name of Oghavati." Daksha at one time performed

20



154 JfAHABHARATA. [GaddyuddhM

a sacrifice at the source of Ganga. The Saraswati appeared
there under the name of the fast flowing Surenu."* Once
again, while Brahman was engaged in a sacrifice on the sacred
forest of the Himavat mountains, the adorable Saraswati, sum-
moned (by him), appeared there. 19 All these seven forms then
came and joined together in that tirtha where Valadeva came.
And because the seven mingled together at that spot, therefore
is that tirtha known on Earth by the name of Sapta-sara-
swuti.* Thus have I told thee of the seven Saraswatis, ac-
cording to their names. I have also told thee of the sacred
tirtha called Sapta-sciraswat.* 1 Listen now to a great feat of
Mankanaka, who had from his youth led the life of a Brahma-
•charin. While employed in performing his ablutions in the
•river, 8 * he beheld (one day), O Bharata, a woman of faultless
limbs and fair brows, bathing in the river at will, her person
uncovered. At this sight, O monarch, the vital seed of the
Mishi fell unto the Saraswati. SJ The great ascetic took it up
and placed it within his earthen pot. Kept within that vessel,
the fluid became divided into seven parts. 84 From those seven
portions were born seven Rishis, from whom sprung the (nine
and forty) Maruts. The seven Rishis were named Vayuvega,
Vayuhan, Vayumandala, 85 Vayujata, Vayuretas, and Vayu-
chakra of great energy. Thus were born these progenitors of
the diverse Maruts}* Hear now a more wonderful thing,
O king, a fact exceedingly marvellous on Earth, about the
conduct of that great Rishi, which is well known in the three
worlds. 87 In days of yore, after Mankanaka had become crown-
ed with success, king, his hand, on one occasion, became
pierced with a Kuga blade. Thereupon a vegetable juice came
out of the wound (and not red blood). 8 * Seeing that vege-
table juice, the Rishi became filled with joy and danced about



* Afer the 25th verse, almost all the editions have a single line,
noticed by Nilakantha in his gloss>, about the Surenu. It is evidently
an interpolation. In the first enumeration of the seven Saraswatis,
Surenu comes after Oghavati. The occurrence of this one line, therefore,
mentioning Surenu before Oghavati, and assigning it a place different
from that which is assigned to it in veree 29, leaves little room for doubt,
that it i9 au interpolation. — T,



?arva.}\ calya p art a, 15S

on the spot. Seeing him dance, all mobile and immobile
creatures, O hero, stupified by his energy, began to dance."
Then the gods with Brahman at their head, and the Rishia
possessed of wealth of asceticism, O king, all went to Maha-
deva and informed him of the act of the Rishi (Mankanaka).
And they said unto him, — 'It behoveth thee, god, to do that
which may prevent the Rishi from dancing f 4 * — Then Maha-
deva, seeing the Rishi filled with great joy, and moved by the
desire of doing good unto the gods, addressed him, saying, 41 —
'Why, O Brahmana, dost thou dance in this way, acquainted
as thou art with thy duties ? What grave cause is there for
such joy of thine, sage, that, ascetic as thou art, best of
Brahmanas, and walking as thou dost along the path of virtue
thou shouldst act in this way ?'**

"The Rishi said, — 'Why, seesfc thou not, Bhahmana,
that a vegetable juice is flowing from this wound of mine ?
Seeing this, lord, I am dancing in great joy f 4 * Laughing at
the Rishi who was stupified by passion, the god said, — T do not,
O Brahmana, at all wonder at this ! Behold me !' 44 — Having
said this unto that foremost of Rishis, Mahadeva of great in-
telligence struck his thumb with the end of one of his fingers. 48
Thereupon, king, ashes, white as snow, came out of that
wound. Seeing this, the Rishi became ashamed, O monarch,
and fell at the feat of the god. 4 * He understood the god to
be none else than Mahadeva. Filled with wonder, he said, — 'I
do not think that thou art any one else than Rudra, that great
and Supreme being ! 4T O wielder of the trident, thou art the
refuge of this universe consisting of gods and Asuras ! The
wise say that this universe hath been created by thee! 48
At the universal destruction, everything once more enters thee !
Thou art incapable of being known by the gods, how then
canst thou be known by me ? 4 * All forms of being that are
in the universe are seen in thee ! The gods with Brahman at
their head worship thy boon-giving self, O sinless one ! ,c Thou
art everything ! Thou art the creator of the gods and it was-
thou who hadst caused them to be created ! Through thy
grace, the gods pass their time in joy and perfect fearlessness !'
Having praised Mahadeva in this manner, the Rishi bowed '



1.36 hahabharata. [Oadayuddkti

him. 5 ' — 'L'3t not this absence of gravity, ridiculous in the
extreme, that I displayed, O god, destroy my ascetic merit !
I pray to thee for this !'*' — The god, with a cheerful heart, once
more said unto him, — 'Let thy asceticism increase a thousand-
fold, O Brahmana, through my grace ! I shall also always dwell
with thee in this asylum !" The man that will worship me in
this tirtha, viz., Sapta-saraswat, there will be nothing unattain-
able by him here or hereafter. Without doubt, such a one shall
go to the region called Saraswat (in heaven), after death ''** Even
this the history of Manhanaka of abundant energy. He was a
eon begotten by the god of wind upon (the lady) Sukanya."'



Section XXXIX.

Vaicampayana said, — 'Having passed one night there,
Kama, having the plough for his weapon, worshipped the
dwellers of that tirtha and showed his regard for Mankanaka. 1
Having given wealth unto the Bramanas, and passed the night;
there, the hero having the plough for his weapon was wor-
shipped by the Munis. Rising up in the morning,* he took
leave of all the ascetics, and having touched the sacred water,
O Bharata, set out quickly for other tirthasS Valadeva then
went to the tirtha known by the name of Uganas. It is also
called Kapalamochana. Formerly, Rama (the son of Daca-
ratha) slew a Rdkshasti and hurled his head to a great distance,
That head, king, fell upon the thigh of a great sage named
Mahodara and stuck to it. Bathing in this tirtha, the great
Rishi became freed from that burthen. The high-souled Kavi
(Cukra) had performed his ascetic penances there. 4 " 6 It was
there that the whole science of politics and morals (that goes
by Cukra's name) appeared to him by inward light. While
residing there, Cukra meditated upon the war of the Daityas
and the Danavcts (with the gods).' Arrived at that foremost
of tirthas, Valadeva, king, duly male presents unto the
high-souled Brahmanas." 7

Janamejaya said,— 'Why is it called Kapalamochana, where
the great Muni became freed (from the lidLshdsa's hoad) ?
For what reason and how did that head stick unto him ?"•



Parva.] CALYA PARVJL ■ 157

Vai<;ampavana said, — "Formerly, tiger among kings, the
high-souled Kama (the son of Dacaratha) lived (for sometime)
in the forest of Dandaka, from desire of sla} ing the JidJcaha-
sas. 9 At Janasthana he cut off the head of a wicked-souled
Rakshasu with a razor-headed shuft of great sharpness. That
head fell in the deep forest. 10 That head, coursing at will
(through the welkin) fell upon the thigh of Mahodara while
the latter wa? wandering through the woods. Piercing his
thigh, O king, it stuck to it and remained there. 11 In conse-
quence of that head thus sticking to his thigh, the Brahmana
(Mahodara) of great wisdom could not (with ease) proceed to
tirthas and other sacred spots. 1 * Airlicted with great pain and
with putrid matter flowing from his thigh, he went to all the
tirthas of the Earth (one after another), as heard by us." Ho
went to all the rivers and to the ocean also. (Not finding any
relief), the great ascetic spoke of his sufferings to many liishis
of cleansed souls 1 * about his having bathed in all the tirthas
without having found the relief he sought. That foremost of
Brahraanas then heard from those sages words of high import"
about this foremost of tirthas situate on the Saraswati, and
known by the name of Ucanasa, which was represented as
competent to cleanse from every sin and as an excellent spot
for attaining to (ascetic) success." That Brahmana then,
repairing to that Oucanasa tlrtha, bathed in its waters. Upon
this, the Rakshasa's head, leaving the thigh, fell into the water. 17
Freed from that (dead) head, the Rishi felt great happiness. As
regards the head itself, it was lost in the waters. 1 " Mahodara
then, king, freed from the Rdksliasa's head, cheerfully re-
turned, with cleansed soul and all his sins washed away, to his
asylum nfter achieving success." The great ascetic, thus freed,
after returning to his sacred asylum, spoke of what had hap-
pened to th »se Rishis of cleansed souls. 80 The assembled
Rishis, having heard his words, bestowed the namo of Kapalctr
mochana on the tirtha.* 1 The great Rishi Mahodara, repair-
ing once more to that foremost of tirthas, drank its water and
attained to great ascetic success.** He of Madhu'a race, having
given away much wealth unto the Brahmanas and worshipped
them, then proceeded to the asylum »f Rushatgu." There,



158 Uahabharata, [GadayUddk*

O Bharata, Irshtishena had in former days undergone the
austerest of penances. There the great Muni Vicwamitra
(who had before been a Kshatriya) became a Brahmana.**
That great asylum is capable of granting the fruition of every
wish. It is always, O lord, the abode of Munis and Brahm-
anas. 88 Valadeva of great beauty, surrounded by Brahmanas,
then went to that spot, O monarch, where Rushangu had, in
former days, cast off his body.* 6 Rushangu, O Bharata, was an
old Brahmana who was always devoted to ascetic penances.
Resolved to cast off his body, he reflected for a long while."
Endued with great ascetic merit, he then summoned all his
sons and told them to take him to a spot where water was
abundant. 28 Those ascetics, knowing their sire had become
very old, took that ascetic to a tirtha on the Saraswati.**
Brought by his sons to the sacred Saraswati containing hun-
dreds of tirthas and on whose banks dwelt Rishis unconnected
with the world, that intelligent ascetic 80 of austere penances
bathed in that tirtha according to due rites, and conversant as
that foremost of Rishis was w'.th the merits of tirthas, then
cheerfully said, tiger among men, unto all his sons who were
dutifully waiting upon hitn these words : S1 — 'He that would casl
off his body on the northern bank of the Saraswati containing
much water, while employed in mentally reciting sacred man-
tras, would never again be afflicted with death !' 88 The righte-
ous-souled Valadeva, touching the water of that tirtha and
bathing in it, gave considerable wealth unto the Brahmanas,
devoted as he was to them. 88 Possessed of great might and
great prowess, Valadeva then proceeded to that tirtha where
the adorable Grandsire had created the mountains called Loka-
loka, where that foremost of Rishis, viz., Arshtishena of
rigid vows, thou of Kuru's race, had by austere penances
acquired the status of Brahmanhood, where the royal sage
Sindhudwipa, and the great ascetic Devapi, and the adorable
and illustrious Muni Vicwamitra of austere penances and fierce
energy, had all acquired a similar status



"84-8S



Farvc]



Section XL.



Janamojaya said, — "Why did the adorable Arshtishena un-
dergo the austerest of penances ? How also did Sindhudwipa
acquire the status of a Brahmana ? l How also did Devapi,
O Brahmana, and how Vic,wamitra, best of men, acquire
the same status? Tell me all this, adorable one ! Great is
my curiosity to listen to all this !"*

Vaicampayana said, — "Formerly, in the Krita age, king,
there was a foremost of regenerate persons called Arshtishena.
Residing in his preceptor's house, he attended to his lessons
every day. 8 Although, king, he resided long in the abode
of his preceptor, he could not still acquire the mastery of any
branch of knowledge or of the Vedas, monarch !* In great
disappointment, king, the great ascetic performed very
austere penances. By his panances he then acquired the mas-
tery of the Vedas than which there is nothing superior. 1
Acquiring great learning and a mastery of the Vedas, that
foremost of Rishis became crowned with success in that tirtha.
He then bestowed three boons on that place. 6 (He said) —
'From this day, a person, by bathing in this tirtha of the
great river (Saraswati), shall obtain the great fruit of a horse
sacrifice ! 7 From this day there will be no fear in this tirtha
from snakes and wild beasts ! By small exertions, again, one
shall attain to great results here!'* Having said these words,
that Miutii of great energy proceeded to heaven. Even thus
the adorable Arshtishena of great energy became crowned with
success. 9 In that very tirtha, in the Krita age, Sindhudwipa
of great energy, and Devapi also, monarch, had acquired
the high status of Brahmanhood. 10 Similarly Kinjika's son,
devoted to ascetic penances and with his senses under control,
acquired the status of Brahmanhood by practising well-
directed austerities. 11 There was a great Kshatriya, celebrated
over the world, known by the name of Gadhi. He had a son
born to him, of the name of Vic,wainitra of great prowess."
King Kaucika became a great ascetic. Possessed of great



100 mahabharata. [Gadayuddh*

his throne, 18 himself having resolved to cast off his body.
His subjects, bowing unto him, said, — 'Thou shouldst not go
awav, O thou of great wisdom, but do thou protect us from a
great fear !' 14 Thus addressed, Gadhi replied unto his subjects,
saying, — 'My son will become the protector of the wide uni-
verse !' 18 Having said these words, and placed Vicwamitra (on
the throne), Gadhi, king, went to heaven, and Vicwamitra
became king. He could not, however, protect the Earth with
even his best exertions. 16 The king then heard of the existence
of a great fear of Rfikshasaa (in his kingdom). With his
four kinds of forces, he went out of his capital. 17 Having
proceeded far on his way, he reached the asylum of Vacishtha.
His troops, king, caused much mischief there. 18 The ador-
able Brahmana Vacishtha, when he came to his asylum, saw
the extensive woods in course of destruction. 19 That best of
Rishis, viz., Vacishtha, O king, became angry, monarch,
with ViQwamitra. He commanded his own (homa) cow, say-
\ n a — 'Create a number of terrible Cavaras !' 20 Thus addressed,
the cow created a swarm of men of frightful visages. These
encountered the army of Vicwamitra and began to cause a
great carnage everywhere." Seeing this, the troops fled away.
Vicwamitra the son of Gadhi, however, regarding ascetic
austerities highly efficacious, set his heart upon them." In
this foremost of tirthas of the Saraswati, king, he began
to emaciate his own body by means of vows and fasts with fixed
resolve. 23 He made water and air and (the fallen) leaves of
trees his food. He slept on the bare ground, and observed
other vows (enjoined for ascetics). 24 The gods made repeated
attempts for impeding him in the observance of his vows. His
heart, however, never swerved from the vows (he had proposed
to himself ). 2i Then, having practised diverse kinds of austeri-
ties with great devotion, the son of Gadhi became like the
Sun himself in effulgence, 46 The boon-giving Grandsire, of
great energy, resolved to grant Vicwamitra, when he had
become endued with ascetic merit, the boon the latter desired."
The boon that Vicwamitra solicited was that he should be
permitted to become a Brahmana. Brahman, the Grandsire
of all the worlds, said unto him,— 'So be it.'* 8 Having by



2*(*mi.] GALYA PARYA, 161

his austere penances acquired the status of Bruhmanhood,
the illustrious Vicwiimitra, after tho attainment of his wish,
wandered over the whole Earth like a celestial." Giving away
diverse kinds of wealth in that foremost of tirthas, Rama also
cheerfully gave away milch cows and vehicles and beds, and
ornaments, and food and drink of the best kinds, k : ng, unto
many foremost of Brahmanas, after having worshipped them
duly."" 11 Then, O king, Rama proceeded to the asylum of
Vaka which was not very distant from where he was, that asy-
lum in which, as heard by us, Dalvya-vaka had pracfciied tha
augterest of penances." 1 "



Section XLI.

Vaic.ampayana said, — "That delighter of the Yadus then
proceeded to the asylum (of Vaka) which resounded with tht
chaunting of the Vcdas. There the great ascetic, O king,
named Dalvya-vaka, 1 poured the kingdom of Dhritarashtra the
son of Vichitravirya as a libation (on the sacrificial fire). By
practising very austere penances ho emaciated his own body.
Endued with great energy, the virtuous Rishi, filled with
great wrath, (did that act). 8 In former times, the Rishis
residing in the Naimisha forest had performed a sacrifice ex-
tending for twelve years. In course of that sacrifice, after
a particular one called Vi$wajit had been completed, the
Rishls set out for the country of the Panchalas. 8 Arived there,
they solicited the king for giving them one and twenty strong
and healthy calves to be given away as Dakshind (in the
sacrifice they had completed).* Dalvya-vaka, however, (call-
ing those Rishis), said unto them, — 'Do you divide those
animals (of mine) among ye ! Giving away these (unto ye),
I shall solicit a great king (for some) !' 6 Having said so unto
all those Rishls, Vaka of great energy, that best of Brahma-
nas, then proceeded to the abode of Dhritarashtra. 8 Arrived
at the presence of king Dhritarashtra, Dalvya begged some
animals of him. That best of kings, however, seeing that
s>me of his kino had died without, any cause, angrily ^aid
unto him,— 'Wretch of a Brahman.^ take, if thou likest, .the,s^

21



Iti2 MiHABHAR-ATi, [Qad&yuddhn

animals that (are dead) !'■ Hearing these words, the Mishi,
conversant wtih duties, thought, — 'Alas, cruel are the words
that have been addressed to me in the assembly !' 9 Having
reflected in this strain, that best of Brahmanas, filled with
wrath, set his heart upon the destruction of king Dhritarash-
tra. 10 Cutting the flesh from off the dead animals, that best
of sages, having ignited a (sacrificial) fire on the tirtha of the
Sarasvvati, poured those pieces as libations for the destruction
of king Dhritarashtra's kingdom. Observant of rigid vows,
the great Dalvya-vaka, O monarch, poured Dhritarashtra's
kingdom as a libation on the fire, with the aid of those pieces
of meat. 12 * Upon the commencement of that fierce sacrifice
Recording to due rites, the kingdom of Dhritarashtra, mon-
arch, began to waste away. 18 Indeed, O lord, the kingdom of
that monarch began to waste away even as a large forest begins
to disappear when men proceed to cut it down with th8 axe.
Overtaken by calamities, the kingdom began to lose its pros-
perity and life. 1 * Seeing his kingdom thus afflicted, the puis-
sant monarch, king, became very cheerless and thoughtful."
Consulting with the Brahmanas, he began to make great en-
deavours fur freeing his territories (from affliction). No good,
however, came of his efforts, for the kingdom continued to
waste away. 18 The king became very cheerless. The Brahmanas
also, sinless one, became filled with grief. When at last the
king failed to save his kingdom, 17 he asked his counselors,
O Janamejaya, (about the remedy). The counselors reminded
him of the evil he had done in connection with the dead kine."
And they said, — 'The sage Vaka is pouring thy kingdom as a
libation on the firo with the aid of the flesh (of those animals).
Thence is this great waste of thy kingdom ! 19 This is the
consequence of ascetic rites. Thence is this great calamity !
Go, king, and gratify that Rishi by the side of a receptacle
of water on the bank of the Saraswati !'*° Repairing to
the bank of the Saraswati, the king falling at his feet and
touching them with his head, joined his hands and said, O thou



* Pouring a kingdom on the fire means pouring libations ©d tbe fire
lor the object of destroying a kingdom,— T.



Parva.] calya parti. 163

Bharata's race, these words, — 'I gratify thee, adorable one,
forgive my offence !" I am a senseless fool, a wretch inspired
with avarice ! Thou art my refuge, thou art my protector
it behoveth thee to show me thy grace !'" Beholding him
thus overwhelmed with grief and indulging in lamentations
like these, Vaka felt compassion for him and freed his-
kingdom. 18 The Rislti became gratified with him, having
dismissed his angry feelings. For freeing his kingdom, the
sage again poured libations on the fire.* 4 Having freed the
kingdom (from calamities) and taken many animals in gift,
he became pleased at heart and once more proceeded to the
Naimisha woods.** The liberal-minnded king Dhritarashtra
also, of righteous soul, with a cheerful heart, returned to hia
own capital full of prosperity."

"In that tirtha, Vrihashpati also, of great intelligence, for
the destruction of the Asuras and the prosperity of the deni-
zens of heaven, 87 poured libations on the sacrificial fire, with
the aid of flesh. Upon this, the Asuras began to waste away
and were destroyed by the gods, inspired with desire of victory,
in battle. 88 Having with due rites given unto the Brahmanas
steeds and elephants and vehicles with mules yoked, unto them
and jewels of great value and much wealth and much corn,
the illustrious and mighty-armed Rama then proceeded, O
king, to the tirtha called Yayata}*** There, monarch, at
sacrifice of the high-souled Yayati the son of Nahusha, the
Saras wati produced milk and clarified butter." That tiger
among men, viz., king Yayati, having performed a sacrifice
there, went cheerfully to heaven and obtained many regions
of blessedness. 88 Once again, O lord, king Yayati performed
a sacrifice there. Beholding his great magnanimity of soul
and his immutable devotion to herself, the river Saraswati



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