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elephants and female slaves and sheep and goats, he then
retired into the woods. 10 Having bathed in that sacred and
foremost of tirthas that was the resort of gods and regenerate
Rishis, Valadeva duly worshipped the ascetics there, and then
proceeded to the tirtha called Yamuna. 11 Endued with great
effulgence, Varuna, the highly blessed son of Aditi, had in
days of yore performed in that tirtha the Rajasuya sacrifice,
O lord of Earth ! ia Having in battle subjugated both men and
celestials and Gandharvas and Rakshasas, Varuna, O king, 1 *
that slayer of hostile heroes, performed his grand sacrifice in
that tirtha. Upon the commencement of that foremost of
sacrifices, a battle ensued between the gods and the Danavas,
Inspiring the three worlds with terror. 14 After the completion
of that foremost of sacrifices, viz., the Rajasuya (of Varuna),
a terrible battle, O Janamejaya, ensued amongst the Ksha-
triyas. 15 The ever liberal and puissant Valadeva, having wor-
shipped the RisJiis there, made many presents unto those that
dosired them. 15 Filled with joy and praised by the great Rishis,
'/aladeva, that hero ever decked with garlands of wild flower3
and possessed of eyes like lotus leaves, then proceeded to the
tirtha called Aditya. 17 There, best of kings, the adorable
Surya of great splendour, having performed a sacrifice, obtained
the sovereignty of all luminous bodies (in the universe) and
acquired also his great energy. 15 There, in that tirtha situate
on the bank of that river, all the gods with Vasava at their
head, the Vigtvedevas, the Ma ruts, the Gandharvas, the
Apsaras, 13 the Island bom (Vyasa), Cuka, Krishna the slayer

Panw.] CALYA PARVA, 197

of Madhu, the Yahhas, the Rakshasas, and the Pi$achas, O
king," and diverse others, numbering by thousands, all crowned
with ascetic success, always reside. Indeed, in that auspicious
and sacred tirtha of the Saraswati, Vishnu himself, having in
days of yore slain the A suras Madhu and Kaitabha, had, O
chief of the Bharatas, performed his ablutions. 21 "" The Island-
born (Vyasa) also, of virtuous soul, O Bhiirata, having bathed
in that tirtha, obtained great Yoga powers and attained to
high success.* 8 Endued with great ascetic merit, the Rishi
Asita-Devala also, having bathed in that very tirtha with soul
rapt in high Yoga meditation, obtained great Yoga powers."**

Section L.

Vaicampiiyana said, — "In that tirtha lived in days of yore
a Rishi of virtuous soul, named Asita-Devala, observant
of the duties of domesticity. 1 Devoted to virtue, he led a life
of purity and self-restraint. Possessed of great ascetic merit,
he was compassionate unto all creatures and never injured
any one. In word, deed, and thought, he maintained an equal
behaviour towards all creatures.* Without wrath, monarch,
censure and praise were equal to him. Of equal attitude
towards the agreeable and the disagreeable, he was, like Yama
himself, thoroughly impartial.* The great ascetic looked with
an equal eye upon gold and a heap of pebbles. He daily
worshipped the gods and guests, and the Brahmanas (that
came to him). Ever devoted to righteousness, he always prac-
tised the vow of Brahmacharya * Once upon a time, an
intelligent ascetic, O monarch, of the name of Jaigishavya,
devoted to Yoga and rapt in meditation and leading the life of
a mendicant, came to Devala's asylum. 5 Possessed of groat
splendour, that great ascetic, ever devoted to Yoga, monarch,
while residing in Devala's asylum, became crowned with ascetic
success. 6 Indeed, while the great Muni Jaigishavya resided
there, Devala kept his eyes on him, never neglecting him
at any time. 7 Thus, monarch, a long time was passed
by the two in days of yore. On one occasion, Devala lost
sight of Jaigishavva, that foremost of ascetics. 8 At the hour,

19S KABABHARATA. [Gadayuddha-

however, of dinner, Janamejaya, the intelligent and righte-
ous ascetic, leading a life of mendicancy, approached Devala
for soliciting alms. 9 Beholding that great ascetic re-appear in
the guise of a mendicant, Devala showed him great honors
and expressed milch gratification. 10 And Devala worshipped
his guest, Bharata, according to the measure of his abilities,
after the rites laid down by the Rishis and with great
attention for many years. 11 One day, however, O king, in
the sight of that great Muni, a deep anxiety perturbed the
heart of the high-souled Devala. 11 The latter thought within
himself, — 'Many years have I passed in worshipping this-
ascetic. This idle mendicant, however, hath not yet spoken
to me a single word f 18 — Having thought of this, the blessed
Devala proceeded to the shores of the ocean, journeying through
the welkin and bearing his earthen jug with him. 1 * Arrived
at the coast of the Ocean, that lord of rivers, O Bharata, the
righteous-souled Devala saw Jaigishavya arrived there before
him. 1 * The lord Asita, at this sight, became filled with wonder
and thought within himself, — 'How could the mendicant come
to the ocean and perform his ablutions even before my arrival ?' lS
Thus thought the great Rishi Asita. Duly performing his
ablutions there and purifying himself thereby, he then began
to silently recite the sacred mantras. 17 Having finished his
ablutions and silent prayers, the blessed Devala returned
to his asylum, O Janamejaya, bearing with him his earthen
vessel filled with water. 18 As the ascetic, however, entered his
own asylum, he saw Jaigishavya seated there. 1 ' The great
ascetic Jaigishavya never spoke a word to Devala but lived in
the latter's asylum as if he were a piece of wood.* Having
beheld that ascetic, who was an ocean of austerities, plunged
in the waters of the sea (before his own arrival there), Asita-
now saw him returned to his hermitage before his own re-
turn." 1 Witnessing this power, derived through Yoga, of Jaigi-
shavya's penances, Asita-Devala, O king, endued with great
intelligence, began to reflect upon the matter. 82 Indeed, that
best of ascetics, monarch, wondered much, saying, — 'How
could this one be seen in the ocean and again in my hermit-
age ?'•• While employed in such thoughts, the ascetic Devala,

Parva.] calya parva, 199

conversant with mantras, then soared aloft, monarch, from
his hermitage into the sky, for ascertaining who Jaigishavya
wedded to a life of mendicancy really was. 84 Devala saw crowds
of sky-ranging Siddhas rapt in meditation, and he saw Jaigi-
shavya reverentially worshipped by those Siddhas.** Firm in
the obervance of his vows and persevering (in his efforts),
Devala became filled with wrath at the sight. He then saw
Jaigishavya set out for heaven.* 6 He next beheld him proceed
to the region of the Pitris. Devala saw him then proceed to
the region of Yama. 87 From Yama's region the great ascetic
Jaigishavya was then seen to soar aloft and proceed to the abode
of Soma. He was then seen to proceed to the blessed regions
(one after another) of the performers of certain rigid sacri-
fices. 88 Thence he proceeded to the regions of the Agnihotris
and thence to the region of those ascetics that perform the
Darca and the Paurnamasa sacrifices. 89 The intelligent Devala
then saw him proceed from those regions of persons performing
sacrifices by killing animals to that pure region which is wor-
shipped by the very gods. 80 Devala next saw the mendicant
proceed to the place of those ascetics that perform the sacri-
fice called Chdtarmdsya and diverse others of the same kind.
Thence he proceeded to the region belonging to the performers
of the Agnishtoma sacrifice. 51 Devala then saw his guest
repair to the place of those ascetics that perform the sacrifice
called Agnishutta." Indeed, Devala next saw him in the
regions of those highly wise men that perform that foremost of
sacrifices, viz., Vdjapeya, and that other sacrifice in which a
profusion of gold is necessary. 58 Then he saw Jaigishavya in
the region of those that perform the Rdjasuya and the Funda-
rilca.** He then saw him in the regions of those foremost of
men that perform the horse-sacrifice and the sacrifice in which
human beings are slaughtered. 81 Indeed, Devala saw Jaigi-
shavya in the regions also of those that perforin the sacrifice
called Sautrdmani and that other in which the flesh, so diffi-
cult to procure, of all living animals is required. 1 * Jaigi-
shavya was then seen in the regions of those that perform the
sacrifice called Dddacdlta and diverse others of a similar
ttanrcteri* T Asita next saw his guest sojourning in the region

200 mahabhar&ta. [Gadayuddhd

of Mitravaruna and then in that of the Adityas. 58 Asita then
saw his guest pass through the regions of the Rudras, the Vasus,
and Vrihaspati. 89 Having soared next into the blessed region
called Goloka, Jaigishavya was next seen to pass into these
of the Brahmasatris.* Having by his energy passed through
three other regions, he was seen to proceed to those regions
that are reserved for women that are chaste and devoted to
their husbands. 41 Asita, however, at this point, O chastiser
of foes, lost sight of Jaigishavya, that foremost of ascetics,
who, rapt in Yoga, vanished from his sight." The highly
blessed Devala then reflected upon the power of Jaigishavya
and the excellence of his vows as also upon the unrivalled
success of his Yoga? 1 Then the self-restrained Asita, with
joined hands and in a reverentialspirit, enquired of those fore-
most of Siddhas in the regions of the Brahmasatris, say-
ing/ 14 — 'I do not see Jaigishavya ! Tell me where that ascetic
of great energy is ! I desire to hear this, for great is my
curiosity !' 4S

'•The Siddhas said,— Listen, Devala of rigid vows, as wq
speak to thee the truth ! Jaigishavya hath gone to the eternal
region of Brahman !' " 4 *

Vaicampayana continued, — "Hearing these words of those
Siddhas residing in the regions of the Brahmasatris, Asita
endeavoured to soar aloft but he soon fell down. 47 The Sid-
dhas then, once more addressing Devala, said unto him, —
•Thou, Devala, art not competent to proceed thither, viz.,
the abode of Brahman, whither Jaigishavya hath gone !' " 48

Vaicampayana continued, — "Hearing those words of the
Siddhas, Devala came down, descending from one region to
another in due order. 49 Indeed, he repaired to his own sacred
asylum very quickly, like a winged insect. As soon as he
entered his abode he beheld Jaigishavya seated there. 80 Then
Devala, beholding the power derived through Yoga of Jaigi-
shavya's penances, reflected upon it with his righteous under-
standing, 81 and approaching that great ascetic, king, with
humility, addressed the high-souled Jaigishavya, saying,— 'I
desire, adorable one, to adopt the religion of Moksha (Eman-
cipation) !'»" Hearing these words of his, Jaigishavya gave

Parva.] ^lyi parva. 20!.

him lessons. And he also taught him the ordinances of Yoga
and the supreme and eternal duties and their reverse. 83 The
great ascetic, seeing him firmly resolved, porformed all the acts
(for his admission into that religion) according to the rites
ordained for that end. 54 Then all creatures, with the Pitris t
beholding Devala resolved to adopt the religion of Moksha,
began to weep, saying, — 'Alas, who will henceforth give us
food!'" He uring these lamentations of all creatures that re-
sounded through the ten points, Devala set his heart upon
renouncing the religion of Mok*ha. Si Then all kinds of sacred
fruits and roots, Bharata, and flowers and deciduous herbs,
in thousands, began to weep, saying, 97 — 'The wicked hearted
and mean Devala will, without doubt, once more pluck and cufi
1 us! Alas, having once assured all creatures of his perfect]
harmlessness, he sees not the wrong that he meditates to do !' ss
At this, that best of ascetics began to reflect with the aid of
his understanding, saying, — 'Which amongst these two, viz.,
the religion of Moksha or that of Domesticity, will be the
better for me ?*' s:) Reflecting upon this, Devala, best of
kings, abandmod the religion of Domesticity and adopted thai]
of Moksha.* Having indulged in those reflections, Devala,
in consequence of that resolve, obtained the highest success,
Bharata, and the highest Yoga.* 1 The celestials then,
headed by Vrihaspati, applauded Jaigishavya and the penances
of that ascetic. 6 ' Then that foremost of ascetics, viz., Narada,
addressing the gods, said, — 'There is no ascetic penance in
I Jaigishavya since he rilled Asita with wonder !'" — The denizens
of heaven then, addressing Xarada who said such frightful
words, told him, — 'Do not say so about the great ascetic
Jaigishavya! 51 There is no one superior or even equal to this
high-souled one in force of energy and penance and Yoga !'**
Even such was the power of Jaigishavya as also of Asita.
This is the place of those two, and this the tirtha of those two

* The religion of Domesticity requires the worship of godfl and
guests, and the performance of sacrifices. That of Moksha does not
require the performance of these or any other duties, abstention from
injury to creatures and meditation being its chief characteristics.— X,


262 MA.EABHARATA, [Gadayuddhn

high-souled persons." Bathing there and giving away wealth
unto the Brahmanas, the high-souled wielder of the plough,
of noble deeds, earned great merit, and then proceeded to the
tirtha of Soma."* 1

Section LI.

Vaicampavana said,— "There, in that tirtha, O Bharata,
■where the Lnrd of stars had in former days performed the
Rctjasuya sacrifice, a great battle was fought in which Taraka
was the root of the evil. 1 Bathing in that tirtha and making
many presents, the virtuous Vala of cleansed soul proceeded
to the tirtha of the Muni named Saraswat. There, during a
drought extending for twelve years, the sage Saraswat. in
former days, taught the Vedas unto many foremost of Brah-


man as.

Janamejaya said, — "Why did the sage Saraswat, thou of
ascetic merit, teach the Vedas unto the Mishis during a twelve
years, drought ?"*

Vaicnmpayana continued, — "In days of yore, monarch,
there was an intelligent sage of great ascetic merit. He was
celebrated by the name of Dadhicha. Possessing a complete
control over his senses, he led the life of a Brahviacharin*
In consequence of his excessive ascetic austerities Cakra was
afflicted with a great fear. The sage could not- be turned
(away from his penances) by the offer of even diverse kinds
of rewards. 8 At last the chastiser of Paka, for tempting
the saqe, despatched unto him the exceedingly beautiful
and celestial Apsara by name Alamvusha. 7 Thither where on
the banks of the Saraswati the high-souled sage was engaged
in the ace of gratifying the gods, the celestial damsel named
above, monarch, made her appearance. 8 Beholding that
damsel of beautiful limbs, the vital seed of that ascetic of
cleansed soul came out. Having fallen into the Saraswati,
the latter held it with care. 9 Indeed, O bull among men, the
River, beholding that seed, held it in her womb. In time the
seed developed into a fcetus and the great river held it so
thaj it mi^ht b? inspired with life as a child," When the

Farva.] CALYA PARVA, 203

time came, the foremost of river.s brought forth that child and
then went, lord, taking it with her, to that JtisJii. 11 Be-
holding that best of Jlishis in a conclave, Saraswati, O mon-
arch, while making over the child, said these words :'* —
regenerate Rishi, this is thy son whom I held through
devotion for thee! That seed of tbine, which fell at sight of
the ApsarS Alamvushil." had been held by me in my womb,
regenerate Rishi, through devotion for thee, and well know-
ing that that energy of thine would never suffer destruction !'*
Given by me, accept this faultless child of thy own !' Thus
addressed by her, the Rishi accepted the child and felt great
joy. 1 * Through affection, that foremost of Brahmanas then
smelt the head of his son and held him in a close embrace, O
foremost one of Bharata's race, for some time. 1 * Gratified with
the River, the great ascetic Dadhicha then gave a boon to her,
saving. — The Vicwedevas, the R ; shis, and all the tribes of
the Gandharvas and the Apsara*, will henceforth, blessed
one, derive great; happiness when oblations of thy water are
presented unto them !' 17 Having said so unto that great river,
the sage, gratified and filled with joy, then praised her in these
words. Listen to thorn duly, king! 18 — 'Thou hast taken
thy rise, highly blessed one, from the lake of Brahman in
days of old. All ascetics of rigid vows know thee, foremost
of rivers!" Always of agreeable features, thou hast done me
great g >od ! This thy great child, O thou of the fairest com-
plexion, will be known by the name of Saraswati* This
thy son, capable of creating new worlds, will become known
after thy name ! Indeed, that great ascetic will bo known by
the name of Saraswat !*' During a drought extending for
twelve years, this Saraswat. O blessed one, will teach the
Vedds unto many foremost of Brahmanas!" O blessed Sara;
swati, through my grace, thou shalt, O beautiful one, always
become the foremost of all sacred rivers !' s3 Even thus was the
great River praised by the sage after the latter had granted
her boons. The River then, in great joy, went away, bull
of Bharata's race, taking with her that child. 2 * Meanwhile,
on the occasion of a war between the gods and the Dd'.iaias,
Cikra wandered through the three worlds in search of weap-





ons." The great god, however, failed to find such weapons
as were fit to slay the foes of the celestials. 28 Cakra then said
unto the gods, — The great Asuras are incapable of being dealt
with by me ! Indeed, without the bones of Dadhicha, our foes
could not be slain I 27 Ye best of celestials, repair, therefore,
to that foremost of Rishis and solicit him, saying, — Grant us,
O Dadhicha, thy bones ! With them we will slay our foes !' — * 3
Beseeched by them for his bones, that foremost of Rishis,
O chief of Kuru's race, unhesitatingly gave up his life. Hav-
ing done what was agreeable to the gods, the sage obtained
many regions of inexhaustible merit. 29 With his bones,
meanwhile, Cakra joyfully caused to be made many kinds of
weapons, such as thunder-bolts, disci, heavy maces, and many
kinds of clubs and bludgeons. 80 Equal unto the Creator him-
self, Dadhicha, had been begotten by the great Rishi Bhrigu,
the son of the Lord of all creatures, with the aid of his aus-
tere penances.* 31 Of stout limbs and possessed of great
energy, Dadhicha had been made the strogest of creatures in
the world. The puissant Dadhicha, celebrated for his glory,
became tall like the king of mountains. The chastiser of Paka
had always been anxious on account of his energy. 82 With
the thunder-bolt born of Brahma energy, and inspired with
'mantras, Bharata, Indra made a loud noise when he hurled
it, and slew nine and ninety heroes among the Daityas. 11
After a long and dreadful time had elapsed since then, a
drought, O king, occurred that extended for twelve years. 3 *
Daring that drought extending for twelve years, the great
Jiishis, for the sake of sustenance, fled away, monarch, on all
sides. 35 Reholding them scattered in all directions, the sage
Saraswat also set his heart on flight. The river Saraswati
then said unto him, 36 — 'Thou needst not, O son, depart hence,
for I will always supply thee with food even here by giving the*
large fishes ! Stay thou, therefore, even here !' 87 Thus ad-
dressed (by the river), the sage continued to live there and
offor oblations of food unto the Rishis and the gods. He got
also his daily food and thus continued to support both his life-

* Nilakaiitha seems to rue to misunderstand this verse — T,

Parva.] galya parva. 205

breaths and the gods. 38 After that twelve years' drought had
passed away, the great Rishis a ilicited one another for lectures
on the Vedas.*' While wand) ring with famished stomachs,
the Rishis had lost the knowledge of the Vedas. There was,
indeed, not one amongst them that could understand the
scriptures.* It chanced that some one amongst them encoun-
tered Saraswat, that foremost of Rishis, while the latter was
reading the Vedas with concentrated attention. 41 Coming
back to the conclave of Rishis, he spoke to them of Saraswat
of unrivalled splendour and god-like mien engaged in reading
the Vedas in a solitary furest. 43 Then all the great Rishis
came to that spot, and jointly spoke unto Saraswat, that best
of ascetics, .these words : 48 — 'Teach us, sage !' Unto them
the ascetic replied, saying, — 'Become ye my disciples duly!' 44
The conclave of ascetics answered, — '0 son, thou art too young
in years!' Thereupon he answered the ascetics, — 'I must act
in such a way that my religious merit may not suffer a diminu-
tion ! 4S He that teaches improperly, and he that learns impro-
perly, are b)th lost in no time and come to hate each other ! 48
It is not upon years, or decrepitude, or wealth, or the number
of kinsmen, that Rishis found their claim to merit ! He
am mgst us is great who is capable of reading and understand-
ing the Vedas /' 47 Hearing these words of his, those Munis
duly became his disciples and obtaining from him their Vedas
once more began to practise their rites. 48 Sixty thousand
Munis became disciples of the regenerate Rishi Saraswat for
the sake of acquiring their Vedas from him. 49 Owning obe-
dience to that agreeable Rishi though a boy, the Munis each
brought a handful of grass and offered it to him for his seat. 80
The mighty son of 11 >hiui, and elder brother of Kecava, hav-
ing given away wealth in that tirtha, then joyfully proceeded
to another where lived (in days of yore) an old lady without
having passed through the ceremony of marriage. Si

Section LII.

Janamejaya said, — "Why, regenerate one, did that man.

j ike herself to ascetic penances in days of old ? For what




reason did she practise penances, and what was her vow ?*
Unrivalled and fraught with mystery is the discourse that
I have already heard from thee ! Tell me (now) all the parti-
culars in detail regarding how that maid employed herself
in penances."*

Vaicampayana said,— "There was a Rishi of abundant
energy and great fame, named Kuni-Garga. That foremost
of ascetics, having practised the austerest of penances, king, 9
created a fair-browed daughter by a fiat of his will. Behold-
ing her, the celebrated ascetic Kuni-Garga became filled with
joy. He abandoned his body, king, and then went to
heaven. 4 That faultless and amiable and fair-browed maiden,
meanwhile, of eyes like lotus petals, continued -to practise
severe and very rigid penances. She worshipped the Pilris and
the gods with fasts. 5 In the practice of such severe penances
a long period elapsed. Though her sire had been for giv-
ing her away to a husband, she yet did not wish for marriage,
for she did not see a husband that could be worthy of her. 8
Continuing to emaciate her body with austere penances, she
devoted herself to the worship of the Pitris and the gods in
that solitary forest. 7 Although engaged in such toil, mon-
arch, and although she emaciated herself by age and austeri-
ties, yet she regarded herself happy. 8 At last when she (be-
came very old so that she) could no longer move even a single
step without being aided by any one, she set her heart upon
departing for the other world. 9 Beholding her about to cast
off her body, Narada said unto her. — "0 sinless one, thou
hast no regions of blessedness to obtain in consequence of thy
not having cleansed thyself by the rite of marriage ! 10 thou
of great vows, we have heard this in heaven ! Great hath
been thy ascetic austerities, but thou hast no claim to regions
of blessedness!' 11 Hearing these words of Narada, the old
lady went to a concourse of liishis and said,— "I shall give
him half my penances who will accept my hand in marriage !'"
After she had said those words, Galava's son, a Rishi known
by the'namo of Cringavat, accepted her hand, having proposed
this compact to her : 18 — 'With this compact, O beautiful lady,
I shall accept thy hand, viz. ; that thou shalt live with me fvi

f&rva.] CAI.VA PART*, 207

only one night !' Having agreed to that compact, she gave
him her hind.'* Indeed, Galava's son, according to the ordi-
nances laid d iwn mid having duly poured libations on the fire,
it ipted her hand and married her." On that night, she became
a. young lady of the fairest complexion, robed in celestial attire

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