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CONTENTS. *i

PAGE.

Tha story of Indra'a curse and hii expiation ... 163
Th story of the installation of Kartikeya in the

command of the celestial army ... ... 170

Kartikeya's birth ... ... ••• 171

Uma and others ask Brahman to give some kind of

sovereignty to Kartikeya ... ••• 173

Brahman makes Kartikeya the celestial generalissimo ib

The investiture of Kartikeya ... ... 174

The gods give Companions to Kartikeya ... 175

The celestial mothers that assembled round Skanda 181
Skanda, a3companied by the celestial force, proceeds

against the Daityas and slays Taraka and Mohiaha 185

Ditto slays other Daitya leaders ... ... 186

Story of the tirtha called Taijasa and that of the

installation of Varuna ... ... ... 188

Story of Agni-tirtha ... ... ... 189

Story of the Kauvera and Vadara-pachana tirthas... 190

Story of the tirtha called after Indra ... ... 195

The other tirthas visited by Valadeva ... 196

The story of Asita-Dcvala and Jaigishavya ... 197

Devala adopts the religion of Mokaha ... ... 201

The story of the Rishi called Saraswat ... 202

The story of the old maiden ... ... 205

The history of Samantapanchaka ... ... 208

Valadeva meets with Narada on the heights of Himavat 211
Narada gives Valadeva a brief history of the great

battle, including the names of those chiefs

that have fallen ... ... ... .ib

Narada asks Valadeva to go to the field for witnessing

the mace-encountar between Bhima and Duryodhana 212

Valadeva's praise of the Saraswati ... ... i&

Valadeva comes to the spot selected for the encounter

between Bhima and Duryodhana ... ... 218

Bhima and Duryodhana as they look on the eve of

the encounter ... ... ... 214

The Kshatriya chiefs take their seats as Bhima and

Duryodhana prepare for the fight ... ... 215



X?



CONTENTS



PAGE.

The word}' encounter between the two heroes ... 216

The commencement of the fierce encounter ... 210

The progress of the encounter ... ... 220

Arjuna enquires of Krishna about the relative merits

of the two combatants and Krishna's answer ... 224

Arjuna slaps his own thigh for reminding Bhimasena

of his vow ... ... ... ... 22G

Bhimasena breaks the thighs of Duryodhana by a ruse 227
The portents upon Duryr.dhana's fall ... ... . ib

)f the Pandavas and the Snmakas ... ib

5himasena strikes Duryodhana's head with his left foot 229
Ya Ihishthira forbids Bhimasena to offer such insult

to his fallen foe ... ... ... ib

Yudhishthira's grief at Duryodhana's fall ... 230

Valad^va's wrath up >n seeing Duryodhana struck

below the navel and he rushes for slaying Bhima 231

Krishna seizes Valadeva and pacifies him with soft words ib
Valadeva praises Duryodhana and curses Bhimasena 233

Bhima addresses Yudhishthira asking him to take

the sovereignty of the Earth ... ... 234

The joy of the Pandava warriors at seeing Duryo-
dhana's full ... ... ... ... 235

Bhima praised by the Pandava warrnrs ... ib

Krishna asks the r^ndava warriors to forbear

insulting Duryodhana ... ... ... ib

Duryodhana's angry reply to Krishna, charging him

with every unfair act in course of the battle ... 236

Krishna reminds Duryodhana of his own evil acts and
refers to his miserable end as the inevitable conse-
quence of those acts ... ... ... 237

Duryodhana's boast wiuh his reference to his end

which he pronounces to be most glorious ... 238

Celestial showers decend on Duryodhana's head ... ib

Krishna justifies the use of unfair means for the

s'aughter of the Kuru warriors ... ... 23£

The Fauiuuva warriors proceed to the Kuru camp

which is entirely deserkd ,., ... 240



CONTENTS.



XIII



Krishna congratulates Yudhishthira on his victory
Yudhishthira attributes that victory to Krishna's power
The Pandavas with Satyaki, at Krishna's suggestion,

resolve to pans the night at a spot outside the camp
Yudhishthira despatches Krishna to Eastinapura fer

pacifying the wrath of Gandhari
Krishna arrives at Dhritarashtra's palace
Krishna comforts Dhritarashtra
Krishna addresses Gandhari
Gandhari's reply
Krishna takes a hasty leave of Dhritarashtra

and Gandhari
Dhritarashtra and Gandhari ask Krishna to protect the

Pandavas from the wicked designs of Acwatthaman
Krishna comes back to the Pandavas ...
Sanjaya narrates to Dhritarashtra the lamentations of

Duryodhana while lying on the field with his

thighs broken
Duryodhana's message to the three survivors of the

Kuril army...
His instructions to the ordinary message-bearers

of hi3 court...
He commands his men to inform his friend Charvaka

of the circumstances of his death ...
The messengers inform Drona's son of Duryodhana's

last words ...
The three survivors of the Kuru army come to Duryo-
dhana where he lies wounded
Acwatthaman's lament at the sight of the fallen

monarch and Duryodhana's reply ...
Acwatthaman vows to slay all the Panchalas and

solicits the king's permission
Duryodhana commands Kripa to install Acwat-
thaman as the Kuru generalissimo ...
The three Kuru heroes take leave of Duryodhana...
Duryodhana left alone on the spot where he fell ...

FINIS*



PA i I
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ib

04.0

ib
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ib
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247

ib

ib
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248

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ib

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254

ib



THE MAHABHARATA

OF

KRISHNA-DWAIIAYANA VYASA
TRANSLATED

INTO

ENGLISH PROSE.



Published and distributed chiefly gratis

BY

PRATIPA CHANDRA RAY, c. i. e.
SA UPTIKA P ARV A.




CALCUTTA :

BHaRATA PRESS.

No. 1, Raja Gooroo Dass' Street.
1890,

( The right of translation is reserved. )



THE M A II A B HA RATA



SAITTIKA PARVA.



lh»N I.



Having bowed down unto Ndrdyana, and JSTara the most
exalted of main beings, and. a,*'* the goddess Sa ran teat i,
must the word Java be uttered

"Sanjaya said, — 'Those heroes then together proceeded to-
wards the smth. At the hour of sunset they reached a spot
near the (Kuru) encampment. 1 Letting their animals loose,
they became very much frightened. Reaching then a forest,
they secretly entered it.* They took up their quarters there
at no great distance from the encampment. Cut and mangled
with many keen weapons, they breathed long and hot sighs,
thinking of the Pandavas. 1 Hearing the loud noise made
by the victorious Pandavas, they feared a pursuit and there-
fore fled towards the east. 4 Having proceeded for sometime,
their animals became tired and they themselves became thirsty,
Overp nvered by wrath and vindictiveness, those great bow-
men could not put up with what had occurred, burning as they
did with (grief tit) the slaughter of the king. They, however,
took rest for a while.*

"Dhritarashtra said, — 'The feat, O Sanjaya, that Bhimfl
achieved seems to be incredible, since my son who was struck
down p >ssessed the strength of ten thousand elephants.' In
manhood's prime and possessed of an adamantine frame, ho
was not capable of being slain by any creature ! Alas, ev- u
that son of mine was struck down by the Pandavas in b;ittle !
Without doubt, O Sanjaya, my heart is made of adamant;,
since it breaks not into a thousand fragments even after hear-
ing of the slaughter ■. f my hundred sons ! Alas, what ffUl ba



2 MAHABHARATA,

the plight of myself and my spouse, an old couple destitute o?
children ! I dare not dwell in the dominions of Pandu's son ! T-l5>
Having been the sire of a king and a king myself, Sanjaya,
how shall I pass my days as a slave obedient to the commands
of Pandu's son! 11 Having laid my commands over the whole
Earth and having staid over the heads of all, Sanjaya, how
shall I live now as a slave in wretchedness ?'* How shall I be
able, Sanjaya, to endure the words of Bhima who hath,
single-handed, slain a full hundred sons of mine ?'* The words
of the high-souled Vidura have come to be realised ! Alas, my
son, Sanjaya, did not listen to those words ! 14 What, how-
ever, did Kritavarman and Kripa and X>rona's son do after my
son Duryodhana had been unfairly struck down ?" 11

"Sanjaya said, — "They had not proceeded far, king, when
they stopped, for they beheld a dense forest abounding with
trees and creepers." Having rested for b little while, they
entered that great forest, proceeding on their cars drawn by
their excellent steeds whose thirst had been assuaged. 17 That
forest abounded with diverse kinds of animals, and it teemed
with various species of birds. And it was covered with many
trees and creepers and was infested by numerous carnivorous
creatures. 1 * Covered with many pieces of water and adorned
with various kinds of flowers, it had many lakes overgrown
with blue lotuses. 19 Having entered that dense forest, they
cast their eyes about and saw a gigantic banian with thou-
sands of branches. 40 Repairing to the shade of that banian,
those great car- warriors, king, those foremost of men, saw
that that was the biggest tree in that forest.* 1 Alighting
from their cars, and letting loose their animals, they cleansed
themselves duly and said their evening prayers." The Sun
then reached the Asta mountains, and Night, the mother of
the universe, came. 88 The firmament, bespangled with planets
and stars, shone like an ornamented piece of brocade and pre-
sented a highly agreeable spectacle.* 4 Those creatures that
walk the night began to howl and utter their cries at will,
while they that walk the day owned the influence of sleep."
Awful became the noise of the night-wandering animals.
Ta9 carnivorous creatures bacame. full of glee, aud tihe nig'ht,



SAUPTIKA PARV1, %

as it deepened, became dreadful." At that hour, filled with
grief and sorrow, Kritavarman and Kripa and Drona's sua
all sat down together.* 7 Seated under that banian, they
began to give expression to their sorrow in respect of that
very matter, viz., the destruction that had taken place of
both the Kurus and the Pandavas.** Heavy with sleep, they
laid themselves down on the bare earth. They had been ex-
ceedingly tired and greatly mangled with shafts.* 9 The two
great car-warriors, Kripa and Kritavarman, succumbed to sleep.
However deserving of happiness and undeserving of misery,
they then lay stretched on the bare ground. 80 Indeed, O mon-
arch, those two who had always slept on costly beds now slept,
like helpless persons, on the bare ground, afflicted with toil
and grief. 11 Drona's son, however, O Bharata, yielding to the
influence of wrath and revenge, could not sleep, but continued
to breathe like a snake." Burning with rage he could not
get a wink of slumber. That hero of mighty arms cast his
eyes on every side of that terrible forest. 8 * As he surveyed
that forest peopled with diverse kinds of creatures, the great
warrior beheld a large banian covered with crows.* 4 On that
banian thousands of crows roosted in the night. Each perch-
ing separately from its neighbour, those crows slept at ease,
O Kauravya !*' As, however, those birds were sleeping
securely on every side, Aijwatthamau beheld an owl of terri-
ble aspect suddenly make its appearance there. 1 ' Of frightful
cries and gigantic body, with green eyes and tawny plumage,
its nose was very large and its talons were long. And
the speod with which it came resembled that of Garuda."
Uttering soft cries, that winged creature, O Bharata, secretly
approached the branches of that banian.* 8 That ranger of
the sky, that slayer of crows, alighting on one of the branches
of the banian, slew a large number of his sleeping enemies. 8 '
He tore the wings of some and cut off the heads of others
with his sharp talons and broke the legs of many. Endued
with great strength, he slew many that fell down before his
eyes. 40 With the limbs and bodies, monarch, of the slain
crows, the ground covered by the spreading branches of the
banian became thickly strewn on every side, 41 H



4 MAHABHARATA, 3

those crows, the owl became filled with delight like a slayer of
foes after having behaved towards his foes according to his
pleasure. 4 * Beholding that highly suggestive deed perpetrated
in the night by the owl, Drona's son began to reflect on it,
desirous of framing his own conduct by the light of that exam-
ple. 43 He said unto himself, — This owl teaches me a lesson in
battle. Bent as I am upon the destruction of the foe, the time
for the deed has come ! 44 The victorious Panda vas are incapa-
ble of being slain by me ! They are possessed of might, endued
with perseverance, sure of aim, and skilled in smiting. 48 In
the presence, however, of the king I have vowed to slay
them. I have thus pledged myself to a self-destructive act
like an insect essaying to rush into a blazing fire ! 46 If I were
to fight fairly with them, I shall, without doubt, have to lay
down my life ! By an act of guile, however, success may yet
be mine and a great destruction may overtake my foes !*'
People generally, as also those versed in the scriptures, always
applaud those means which are certain over those which
are uncertain. 48 Whatever of censure and evil repute this
act may provoke ought to be incurred by a person that is
observant of Kshatriya practices. 49 The Pandavas of tin-
cleansed souls have, at every step, perpetrated very ugly and
censurable acts that are again full of guile.* As regards this
matter, certain ancient verses, full of truth, are heard, sung
by truth-seeing and righteousness-observing persons, who sang
them after a careful consideration of the demands of justice.* 1
Those verses are even these : — The enemy's force, even ivhen
fatigued, or wounded with iveajxms, or employed in eating,
or when retiring, or wlten resting within their cam}), should
he smitten.* 2 They should be dealt with in the same way wlten
afflicted with sleep at dead of night, or when reft of com-
manders, or when broken, or when under the impression of an
error.*' — Having reflected in this way, the valiant son of Drona
formed the resolution of slaying during the night the slumber-
ing Pandavas and the Panchalas.' 4 Having formed this wicked
resolution and pledged himself repeatedly to its execution, he
uwoke both his maternal uncle and the chief of the Bhojas."
Awakened from sleep, those two illustrious and mighty



Sauptika pauva.

persons, viz., Kripa and the Bhnja chief, heard Ac,watthaman'a
scheme. Filled with shame, both of thorn abstained from
giving a suitable reply.*' Having reflected for a short while,
Acwatthamau said with tearful eyes, — King Duryodhana, that
one hero of great might, for whose sake we were waging hosti-
lities with the Pandavas, hath been alain ! Deserted and
alone, though he was the lord of eleven Akuliauidnis of
troops, that hero of unstained prowess hath been struck down
by Bhimasena and a large number of wretches banded to-
gether in battle ! 57 " s * Another wicked act hath been perpetrated
by the vile Vrikodara, for the latter hath touched with his
foot the head of a person whose coronal locks underwent the
sacred bath ! s9 The Panchalaa are uttering loud roars and
cries and indulging in loud bursts of laughter. Filled with
joy, they are blowing their conchs and beating their drums !'°
The loud p?al of their instruments, mingled with the blare of
conchs, is frightful to the ear, and borne by the winds, is
filling all the points of the compass. 61 Loud also is the din
made by their neighing steeds and grunting elephants and
roaring warriors ! ta That deafening noise made by the rejoic-
ing warriors as they are inarching to their quarters, as also
the frightful clatter of their car- wheels, comes to us from tho
east." So great hath been the havoc made by the Pandavas
on the Dhartarashtras that we three are the only survivors of
that great carnage ! c * Sjtne were endued with the might of a
hundred elephants, and some were masters of all weapons. Yet
have they been slain by the sons of Pandu ! I regard this to
be an instance of the reverses brought about by Time ! 6S
Truly, this is the end to which such acts leads! Truly, al-
though the Pandavas have achieved such difficult feats, even
this should bo the result of those feats !"* If your wisdom hath
not been driven away by stupefaction, then say what is proper
for us to do in view of this calamitous and grave affair ! — ' '



* Acwatthaman seem3 to justify his own cruel purpo e bv regarding
it as a just consequence of the dreadful slaughter made bv the P&u
vas, The verse seeuir: to be ybstiue.— T.



Section IT.

" 'Kripa said, — We have heard all that thou hast said,
puissant one ! Listen, however, to a few words of mine, O
mighty-armed one ! All men a-re subjected to and governed by
these two forces, viz., Destiny and Exertion. There is nothing
higher than these two. 8 * Our acts do not become successful
in consequence of destiny alone, nor of exertion alone, O be3t
of men ! Success springs from the union of the two. 8 All
purposes, high and low, are dependent on a union of those two.
In the whole world, it is- through these two that men are
seen to act as also to abstain.*f What result is produced
by the clouds pouring upon a mountain ? What results are
not produced by them pouring upon a cultivated field ?* Exer-
tion, where destiny is not auspicious, and absence of exertion
where destiny is auspicious, both these are fruitless ! What I
have said before (about the union of the two) is the truth.':}: If
the rains properly moisten a well-tilled soil, the seed produces
great results. Human success is of this nature. 7 Sometimes,
destiny, having settled a course of events, acts of itself (without
waiting for exertion). For all that, the wise, aided by skill;
have recourse to exertion. 8 All the purposes of human acts,
O bull among men, are accomplished by the aid of those two
together. Influenced by these two, men are seen to strive or
obstain. 9 Recourse may be had to exertion. But exertion
succeeds through destiny. It is in consequence also of destiny
that one who sets himself to work, depending on exertion,
attains to success. 10 The exertion, however, of even a com.-

* Nilakantha Beems to suppose that there is adistinctoin between th6
d and ni in the words dbctdhd* and nibadhds. The distinction, however,
that he makes, is more fanciful than real. — T.

+ I do not accept Nilakantha'a gloss of the second line of verse. 4'.
"What Kripa wishes to inculcate is that both action and inaction (success
and failure) spring from these two, viz., destiny and exertion. Jf there
is exertion, and destiny be auspicious, there is success. If there is no
exertion, even though destiny be auspicious, or if there is exertion but
inauspicious Destiny to contend with, success cannot be achieved. — T.

% I prefer the reading Utthdnanchdpi/adaivaf^a, I, therefore, reject
Nilakantha'a gloss,— X,



SAUPTIKA PARVA. 7

petent man, even when well-directed, is, without the concur-
rence of destiny, seen in the world to be unproductive of
fruit.' 1 Those, therefore, among men, that are idle and
without intelligence, disapprove of exertion. This, however,
is not the opinion of the wise. 11 Generally, an act per-
formed is not seen to be unproductive of fruit in the world.
The absence of action, again, is seen to be productive of
grave misery. 1 * A person obtaining something of itself
without having made any efforts, as also one not obtaining
anything even after exertion, is not be seen. 1 * One who is
busy in action is capable of supporting life. He, on the other
hand, that is idle, never obtains happiness. In this world of
men it is generally seen that they that are addicted to action
are always inspired by the desire of earning good."* If one
devotod to action succeeds in gaining his object or fails to
obtain the fruit of his acts, he does not become censurable in
any respect." If any one in the world is seen to luxuriously
enjoy the fruits of action without doing any action, he is
generally seen to incur ridicule and become an object of
hatred. 17 He who, disregarding this rule about action, liveth
otherwise.f is said to do an injury to himself. This is the
opinion of those that are endued with intelligence." Efforts
ijbecome unproductive of fruits in consequence of these two
treasons, viz., destiny without exertion and exertion without
■destiny." Without exertion, no act in this world becomes
itauccessful. Devoted to action and endued with skill, that
person, however, who, having bowed down to the gods, seeks,
the accomplishment of his objects, is never lost. 10 The same
las the case with one who, desirous of success, properly waits
lapon the aged, asks of them what is for his good, and obeys
their beneficial counsels. 41 Men approved by the old should
falways be solicited for counsel while one has recourse to
pxertion. These men are the infalliable root of means and
success is dependent on means. 3 ' He who applies his efforts

* I. e., such a persou is never overcome with despair aud niisau*
I ,hropy. — T.

t I, e, enjoys the fruits of action without himself acting. -T.



MaHaF.TIARATA,

after listening to the words of the old, soon reaps abundant;
fruits from those efforts.* 8 That man who, without reverence
and respect for others (capable of giving him good counsel),
seeks the accomplishment of his purposes, moved by passion,
anger, fear, and avarice, soon loses his prosperity. 84 This
Duryodhana, stained by covetousness and bereft of foresight,
had, without taking counsel, foolishly commenced to seek
the accomplishment of an undigested project. 8 * Disregard
ing all his well-wishers and taking counsel with only the
wicked, he had, though dissuaded, waged hostilities with
the Pandavas who are his superiors in all good qualities. 88
He had, from the beginning, been very wicked. He could not
restrain himself. He did not do the bidding of friends. For
all that, he is now burning in grief amid calamity.* 7 As re-
gards ourselves, since we have followed that sinful wretch,
this great calamity hath, therefore, overtaken us! 28 This
great calamity has scorched my understanding. Plunged in
reflection, I fail to see what is for our good ! !9 A man that is
stupified himself should ask counsel of his friends. In such
friends he hath his understanding, his humility, and his
prosperity. 30 One's actions should have their root in them
That should be done which intelligent friends, having settle
by their understanding, should counsel. 31 Let us, therefor*
^f. repair to Dhritarashtra and Gandhari and the high-soulec
v v'Vidura and ask them as what we should do. 82 Asked by us
they will say what, after all this, is for our good. We shoulc
do what they say. Even this is my certain resolution. 83 Those
men whose acts do not succeed even after the application of
exertion, should, without doubt, be regarded as afflicted by
destiny.—' " 84



Section III.

"Sanjaya said, — Hearing these words of Kripa that were
auspicious and fraught with morality and profit, Acwattha-
man, monarch, became overwhelmed with sorrow and grief. 1 '

* /. c, one should act La die way directed by them.— T,



SaUPTIKA PA II V A. ]

Burning with grief as if with a blazing fire, he formed a
wicked resolution and then addressed them both, saying, 3 —
The faculty of understanding is different in different men.
Each man, however, is pleased with his own understanding.*
Every man regards himself more intelligent than others,
Every one respects his own understanding and accords it great
praise.* Every one's own wisdom is with every one a subject
of praise. Every one speaks ill of the wisdom of others, and
well of his own, in all instances.* Men whose judgments
agree with respect to any unattained object even though there
be a variety of considerations, become gratified with and
applaud one another. 6 The judgments, again, of the same
men, overwhelmed with reverses through the influence of time,
become opposed to one another. 7 .More particularly, in conse-
quence of the diversity of human intellects, judgments neces-
sarily difif.T when intellects are clouded. 8 As a skilful physi-
cian, hiving d i'v diagnose I a disease, prescribes a medicine by
th-3 applicitim of his intelligence for effecting a cure, 9 even so
men, for the accomplishment of their acts, use their intelligence,
aided by their own wisdom. What they do is again disap-
proved by others. 10 A man, in youth, is affected by one kind
of understanding. In middle age, the same dues not prevail
with him, and in the period of decay, a different kind of
understanding beomes agreeable to him." When fallen into
terrible distress or when visited by great prosperity, the under-
standing of a person, chief of the Bhujas, is seen to be
much afflicted. 1 ' In one and the same person, through want



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