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Earth, placed their feet on their chests and with great activity
cut off their heads. 85 Some combatant, O king, struck with
his feet some foe that was dead, and some, O king, struck off
with his sword, the head of a falling foe, 36 and some thrust
his weapon into the body of a living foe. A fierce battle took
place there, O Bhiirata, in which the combatants struck one
another with fists or seized one another's hair or wrestled
with one another with bare arms. 87 In many instances, com-
batants, using diverse kinds of weapons, took the lives of
combatants engaged with others and, therefore, unperceived
by them. 88 During the progress of that general engagement
when all the combatants were mangled in battle, hundreds and
thousands of headless trunks stood up on the field. 89 Weapons
and coats of mail, drenched with gore, looked resplendent, like
cloths dyed with gorgeous red.* Even thus occurred that fierce
battle marked by the awful clash of weapons. Like the mad
and roaring current of the Ganges it seemed to fill the whole
universe with its uproar. 41 Afflicted with shafts, the warriors
failed to distinguish friends from foes. Solicitous of victory,
the kings fought on because they thought that fight thoy
should. 43 The warriors slew both friends and foes, with whom
they came in contact. The combatants of both the armies were
deprived of reason by the heroes of both the armies assail-
ing them with fury. 48 With broken cars, O monarch, and fallen
elephants, and steeds lying on the ground, and men laid low, 4 *
the Earth, miry with gore and flesh, and covered with streams
of blood, soon became impassable. 4S Kama slaughtered the
Panchalas while Dhananjaya slaughtered the Trigartas. And
Bhimasena, king, slaughtered the Kurus and all the elephant
divisions of the latter. 45 Even thus occurred that destruction
of troops of both the Kurus and the Pandavas, both parties
having been actuated b;y the desire of winning great fame, at hour when the Sun had passed the meridian.' " 47

Section XXIX.

"Dhritarashtra said, — 'I have hoard from thee, Sanjaya,
of many poignant and unbearable griefs as also of the losses
sustained by my sons ! x From what thou hast said unto me,
from the manner in which the battle has been fought, it is my
certain conviction, Sata, that the Kauravas are no more ! 2
Duryodhana was made earless in that dreadful battle. How did
Dharma's son (then) fight, and how did the royal Duryodhana
also fight in return ? s How also occurred that battle which
was fought in the afternoon ! Tell me all this in detail, for
thou art skilled in narration, Sanjaya •'*

"Sanjaya said, — YVhcn the troops of both armies were en-
gaged in battle, according to their respective divisions, thy son
Duryodhana, king, riding on another car and filled with
rage like a snake of virulent poison, beholding king Yudhish-
thira the just, quickly addressed his own driver, O Bharata,
saying, — Proceed, Proceed ! S " G Quickly take me there, O dri-
ver, where the royal son of Pandu, clad in mail, shineth under
yon umbrella held over his head ! 7 — Thus urged by the king,
the driver, in that battle, quickly urged his royal master's
goodly car towards the face of Yudhishthira. 8 At this, Yu-
dhishthira also, filled with rage and looking like an infuriate
elephant, urged his own driver, saying, — Proceed to where
Suyodhana is ! 9 — Then those two heroes and brothers and fore-
most of car-warriors encountered each other. Both endued
with great energy, both filled with wrath, both difficult of de-
feat in battle, approaching each other, those two great bowmen
began to mangle each other with their arrows in that battle. 10
Then king Duryodhana, in that encounter, O sire, with a
broad-headed arrow whetted on stone, cut in twain the bow of
the virtuous monarch. 11 Filled with rage, Yudhishthira could
not brook that insult. Casting aside his broken bow, with eyes
red in wrath, 12 Dharma's son took up another bow at the head
of his forces, and then cut off Duryodhana's standard and
bow. 15 Duryodhana then, taking up another bow, pierced tho
son of Pandu. Filled with rage, they continued to shoot I
ers of shafts at each other. 14 Desirous of vanquishing each
other, they resembled a pau ut angry lion - , Tl $ truck


other in that battle like a couple of roaring bulls. 15 Those
mighty car-warriors continued to Career, expecting to find each
other's laches. Then, wounded with shafts sped from bows
drawn to their fullest stretch, 16 the two warriors, king,
looked resplendent like flowering Kincukas. They then, O
king, repeatedly uttered leonine roars. 17 Those two rulers of
men, in that dreadful battle, also made loud sounds with their
palms and caused their bows to twang loudly. And they blew
their conebs too with great force. 18 And they afflicted each
other very much. Then king Yudhishthira, filled with rage,
struck thy son in the chest with three irresistible shafts en-
dued with the force of thunder. Him, however, thy royal son
quickly pierced, in return, 19 " 20 with five keen shafts winged
with gold and whetted on stone. Then king Duryod'hana, O
Bharata, hurled a dart 21 capable of slaying everybody, ex-
ceedingly keen, and resembling a large blazing brand. As it;
advanced, king Yudhishthira the just, with sharp shafts, 22,
speedily cut it off into three fragments, and then pierced Duryo-
dhana also with five arrows. Equipt with a golden staff, and
producing a loud whizz, that dart then fell down," and while
falling, looked resplendent like a large brand with blazing-
flames. Beholding the dart baffled, thy son, monarch, 24
struck Yudhishthira with nine sharp and keen-pointed arrows.
Pierced deeply by his mighty foe, that scorcher of foes 25
quickly took up an arrow for aiming it at Duryodhana. The
mighty Yudhishthira then placed that arrow on his bow-
string. 26 Filled with rage and possessed of great valor, the
son of Pandu then shot it at his foe. That arrow, striking
thy son, — that mighty car-warrior, 27 — stupified him and then
(passing through his body) entered the Earth. Then Duryo-
dhana, filled with wrath, uplifting a mace of great impetu-
osity, 28 rushed at king Yudhishthira the just, for ending the
hostilities (that raged between the Kurus and the Pandus).
Beholding him armed with that uplifted mace and resembling
Yama himself with his bludgeon, 29 king Yudhishthira the just
hurled at thy son a mighty dart blazing with splendour, en-
dued with great impetuosity, and looking like a large blazing
brand. 30 Deeply pierced in the chest by that dart as he stood


on his car, the Kuru prince, deeply pained, fell down and
swooned away." Then Bhima, recollecting his own vow,
addressed Yudhishfchira, saying,— This one should not be slain
by thee, king !— at which Yudhishthira abstained (from
giving his foe the finishing blow). 32 At that time Kritavar-
man, quickly advancing, came upon thy royal son then sunk
in an ocean of calamity. 83 Bhima then, taking up a mace
adorned with gold and flaxen chords, rushed impetuously to-
wards Kritavarman in that battle. 9 * Thus occurred the battle
between thy troops and the foe on that afternoon, O monarch,
every one of the combatants being inspired with the desire of
victory." ' 3S *

Section XXX.

"Sanjaya said,— 'Placing Kama at their van, thy warriors,
difficult of defeat in fight, returned and fought (with the foe)
a battle that resembled that between the gods and the Asuras. 1
Excited by the loud uproar made by elephants and men and
cars and steeds and conchs, elephant-men and car-warriors and
foot-soldiers and horsemen, in large numbers, filled with wrath,
advanced against the foe and slew the latter with strokes of
diverse kinds of weapons. 8 Elephants and cars and steeds and
men, in that dreadful battle, were destroyed by brave warriors
with sharp battle-axes and swords and axes and shafts of di
verse kinds and by means also of their animals. 5 Strewn with
human heads that were adorned with white teeth and fair fac<
and beautiful eyes and goodly noses, and graced with beautiful
diadems and earrings, and every one of which resembled the
lotus, the Sun, or the Moon, the Earth looked exceedingly
resplendent. 4 Elephants and men and steeds, by thousands,
were slain with hundreds of spiked clubs and short bludgeons
and darts and lances and hooks and Bhugundis and maces.

* The numbering of the verses in this section is very unsatisfactory

in the Calcutta edition. I have made some correct ions, the resuU of
which, I fear, has been that the numbering mil not be found • ,_>•
with that of any of the printed text?.— T.


The blood that fell formed a river-like current on the field. 9
In consequence of those car-warriors and men and steeds and
elephants slain by the foe, and lying with ghastly features and
gaping wounds, the field of battle looked like the domains of
the king of the dead at the time of the universal dissolution. 6
Then, O god among men, thy troops, and those bulls amongst
the Kurus, viz., thy sons resembling the children of the
celestials, with a host of warriors of immeasurable might
at their van, all proceeded against Satyaki, that bull of
Cini's race. 7 Thereupon that host, teeming with many fore-
most of men and steeds and cars and elephants, producing
an uproar loud as that of the vasty deep,* and resembling
the army of the Asuras or that of the celestials, shone
with fierce beauty. 8 Then the son of Surya, resembling
the chief of the celestials himself in prowess and like unto
the younger brother of Iudra, struck that foremost one of
Cini's race with shafts whose splendour resembled the rays
of the Sun. 3 That bull of Cini's race also, in that battle,
then quickly shrouded that furemost of men, with his car and
steeds and driver, with diverse kinds of shafts terrible as the
poison of the snake. 10 Then many Atirathas belonging to
thy army, accompanied by elephants and cars and foot- soldiers,
quickly approached that bull among car-warriors, viz., Vasu-
sena, when they beheld the latter deeply afflicted with the
shafts of that foremost hero of Cini's race. 11 That force, how-
ever, vast as the ocean, assailed by foes possessed of great
quickness, viz., the Pandava warriors headed by the sons of
Drupada, fled away from the field. At that time a great
carnage occurred of men and cars and steeds and elephants. 12
Then those two foremost of men, viz., Arjuna and Kccava,
having said their daily prayers and duly worshipped the lord
Bhava, . quickly rushed against thy troops, resolved to slay
those foes of theirs. 1 * Their foes, (i. e., the Kurus) cast their
eyes cheerlessly on that car whose rattle resembled the roar
of the clouds and whose banners waved beautifully in the air
and which had white steeds yoked unto it and which was com-

* Literally— "of the salt waters."— T.


ing towards them. 1 * Them Arjuna, bending Gdndlva and aa
if dancing on his car, filled the welkin and all the points of
the compass, cardinal and subsidiary, with showers of shafts,
not leaving the smallest space empty. 15 Like the tempest
destroying the clouds, the son of Pandu destroyed, with his
arrows, many cars looking like celestial vehicles, that were
well-adorned, and equipt with weapons and standards, along
with their drivers. 16 Many elephants also, with the men that
guieled them, adorned with trimphal banners and weapons, and
many horsemen with horses, and many foot-soldiers also, Arjuna
despatched with his arrows to Yama's abode. 17 Then Duryo-
dhana singly proceeded against that mighty car-warrior who
was angry and irresistible and resembled a veritable Yama,
striking him with his straight shafts. 18 Arjuna, cutting off
his adversary's bow and driver and steeds and standard with
seven shafts, next cut off his umbrella with one arrow. 19 Ob-
taining then an opportunity, he sped at Duryodhana an ex-
cellent shaft capable of taking the life of the person struck.
Drona's son, however, cut off that shaft into seven fragments.*
Cutting off then the bow of Drona's son and slaying the four
steeds of the latter with his arrows, the son of Pandu next cut
off the formidable bow of Kripa too. 21 Then cutting off the
bow of Hridikii's son, he felled the latter's standard and steeds.
Then cutting off the bow of Duse;asana, he proceeded against
the son of Radha." At this, Kama, leaving Satyaki, quickly

j pierced Arjuna with three arrows and Krishna with twenty, and
Part ha again repeatedly. 23 Although many were the arrow's

j that he shoe while slaying his foes in that battle like Indra him-
self inspired with wrath, Kama yet felt no fatigue. 24 Meanwhile

j Satyaki, coming up, pierced Kama with nine and ninety fierce

: arrows, and once more with a hundred. 25 Then all the fore-

\ most heroes among the Parthas began to aftlict Kama. Yudha-
manyu and Cikhandin and the sons of Draupadi and the

'Prabhadrakas, 28 and Uttamaujas and Yuyutsu and the twins
and Dhrishtadyumna, and the divisions of the Chedis and the

: Karushas and the Matsyas and the Kaikcyas, 27 and the mighty
Chekitana, and king Yueihishthira of excellent vows, — all these,
|— accompanied by cars and steeds and elephants, and foot


soldiers of fierce prowess, 28 encompassed Kama on all sides in
that battle, and showered upon him diverse kinds of weapons,
addressing him in harsh words and resolved to compass his
destruction." Cutting off that shower of weapons with his
sharp shafts, Kama dispersed his assailants by the power of
his weapons like the wind breaking down the trees that stand
on its way. so Filled with wrath, Kama was seen to destroy
car-warriors, and elephants with their riders, and horses with
horse-men, and large bands of foot-soldiers. SI Slaughtered by
the energy of Kama's weapons, almost the whole of that force
of the Pandavas, deprived of weapons, and with limbs mangled
and torn, retired from the field. 88 Then Arjuna, smiling the
while, baffled with his own weapons the weapons of Kama, and
covered the welkin, the Earth, and all the points of the com-
pass with dense showers of arrows. 33 The shafts of Arjuna
fell like heavy clubs and spiked bludgeons. And some amongst
them fell like (pataghnis and some fell like fierce thunder-
bolts. 84 Slaughtered therewith, the Kaurava force consisting
of infantry and horse and cars and elephants, shutting its eyes,
uttered loud wails of woe and wandered senselessly.* 5 Many
were the steeds and men and elephants that perished on that
occasion. Many, again, struck with shafts and deeply afflicted,
fled away in fear. 88

" 'Whilst thy warriors were thus engaged in battle from
desire of victory, the Sun, approaching the setting mountain,
entered it. 87 In consequence of the darkness, O king, but
especially owing to the dust, we could not notice anything
favorable or unfavorable. 38 The mighty bowmen (amongst the
Kauravas), fearing a night-battle, O Bharata, then retired
from the field, accompanied by all their combatants. 39 Upon
the retirement of the Kauravas, O king, at the close of the
day, the Parthas, cheerful at having obtained the victory, also
retired to their own encampment, 40 jeering their enemies by
producing diverse kinds of sounds with their musical instru-
ments, and applauding Achyuta and Arjuna. 41 After those
heroes had thus withdrawn the army, all the troops and all
the kings uttered benedictions upon the Pandavas. 42 The with-
drawal having been made, those sinless men, viz., the Pan-


da a9, became very glad, and proceeding to their tents rested
there for the night. 43 Then lldkshasan, and Picachas, and
carnivorous beasts, in large numbers, came to that awful field
of battlo resembling the sporting ground of Kudra himself.' " 44

Section XXXI.

''Dhritarashtra said, — "It seems that Arjuna slew all of
you at his will ! Indeed, the Destroyer himself could not
escape him in battle, if Arjuna took up arms against him ! l
Single-handed, Partha ravished Bhadra, and single-handed, ho
gratified Agni ! Single-handed, he subjugated the whole Earth,
and made all the kings pay tribute ! 2 Single-handed, with his
celestial bow, he slew the Nivatakavachas ! Single-handed,
he contended in battle with Mahadeva who stood before him in
the guise of a hunter ! 3 Single-handed, he protected the Bhfi-
ratas, and single-headed, he gratified Bhava ! Single-handed,
were all the kings of the Earth vanquished by him endued
with fierce prowess ! 4 The Kurus cannot be blamed. On the
other hand, they deserve "praise (for their having fought with
such a warrior) ! Tell me now what they did. Tell me also,
Suta, what Duryodhana did after that !' 6

"Sanjaya said, — 'Struck and wounded ami overthrown from
j their vehicles and divested of armour and deprived of weapons
and their beasts slain, with plaintive voices and burning with
grief and vanquished by their foes, the vain Kauravas, entering
their tents, once more took counsel of one another. They then
looked like snakes deprived of fangs and poison trod upon by
others. 6 " 7 Unto them, Kama, sighing like an angry snake,
|| squeezing his hands, and eyeing thy son, sakl, 8 — Arjuna is
'always careful, firm, possessed of skill, and endued with in-
telligence. Again, when the time comes, Vasudeva awakes him
(to what should be done) ! 9 Today, by that sudden shower of
weapons we were deceived by him ! Tomorrow, however, O
lord of Earth, I will frustrate all his purposes ! 10 — Thus address-
ed by Kama, Duryodhana said, — So be it ! — and then granted
permission to those foremost of kings to retire. Bidden by the
king, all those rulers proceeded to their r*spcctive ten'


Having passed the night happily, they cheerfully went out for
battle (the next day).* 12 They then beheld an invincible array
formed by king Yudhishthira the just, that foremost one of
Kuru's race, with great care, and according to the sanction of
Vrihaspati and Ucanas.' 8 Then that slayer of foes, viz., Duryo-
dhana, called to mind the heroic Kama, that counteracter of
foes, that warrior with neck like that of a bull, equal to Puran-
dara himself in battle, the Maruts in might, Kfirtavirya in
energy. Indeed, the heart of the king turned towards Kama. 14 " 15
And the hearts of all the troops also turned to that hero, that
SiUas son, that mighty bowman, as one's heart turns to a
friend, in a situation of great danger.' 16

"Dhritarashtra said, — 'What did Duryodhana next do, \
Sitta, when the hearts of all of you turned towards Vikartana's
son Kama ? 17 Did my troops cast their eyes on Riidha'sson like j
persons afflicted with cold turning their gaze towards the Sun ?
Upon the recommencement of the battle after the withdrawal
of the troops, 18 how, Sanjaya, did Vikartana's son Kama
fight ? How also did all the Pandavas fight with the Suta'a ]
son ?° The mighty-armed Kama would, single-handed, slay I
the Parthas with the Srinjayas. The might of Kama's arms j
in battle equals that of Cakra or Vishnu. 20 His weapons are ]
fierce, and the prowess also of that high-souled one is fierce. :
Relying upon Kama, king Duryodhana had set his heart on j
battle. 21 Beholding that Duryodhana deeply afflicted by the
son of Pandu, and seeing also the sons of Pandu, displaying
great prowess, what did that mighty car-warrior, viz , Kama,
do ? 22 Alas, the foolish Duryodhana, relying on Kama, hop-
eth to vanquish the Parthas with their sons and Kecava in
battle ! 2S Alas, it is a matter of great grief that Kama could
not, with his strength, overcome the sons of Pandu in fight !
Without doubt, Destiny is supreme ! 24 Alas, the terrible end
of that gambling match hath now come ! Alas, these heart-
rending sorrows, due to Duryodhana's acts, many in number
and like unto terrible darts, are now being borne by me, San-

* This is a verae in one line. — T.
t A triplet.— T.


jaya!" sire, Suvala'a son used to be then regarded as a
politic person. Kama also is always exceedingly attached to
king Duryodhana."' Alas, when such is the case, O Sanjaya,
why have I then to hear of the frequent defeats and deaths of
my sons ? 27 There is no one that can resist the Panda vaa In
battle ! They penetrate into my army like a man into the
midst of helpless women ! Destiny, indeed, is supreme !' 28

'Sanjaya said, — 'O king, think now of all those righteous
acts of thine like that, match at dice and the others ! Acta
that have passed away form the subjects of thought with
man !" Ono should not, however, rellect on by ego no acts.
One may be ruined by such reflection. That result (which
thou hadst expected) is now much removed from the point of
fruition, since, although possessed of knowledge, thou didst
not reflect on the propriety or impropriety of thy acts then !
Many a time wert thou, O king, counselled against warring
with the Pandavas ! 30 ~ 31 Thou didst not, however, monarch,
accept those counsels, from folly ! Diverse sinful acts of a
grave nature were perpetrated by thee against the sons of
Pandu ! 3 * For those acts this awful slaughter of kings hath
now come ! All that, however, is now past. Do not grieve,
bull of Bharata's race ! 33 thou of unfading glory, listen
now to the details of the awful carnage that has occurred !

" 'When the night dawned, Kama repaired to king Duryo-
dhana. 5 * Approaching the king, the mighty-armed hero said,
— I shall, king, engage in battle today with the illustrious
son of Pandu ! 3S Either I will slay that hero today, or he will
slay me! Inconsequence of the diverse things both myself
and Partha had to do, O Bharata, 3 ' an encounter, O king, could
not hitherto take place between myself and Arjuna ! Listen
now, monarch, to these words of mine, spoken according to
my wisdom ! M Without slaying Partha in battle I will not
come back, Bharata! .Since this army of ours hath been de-
prived of its foremost warriors, and since I will stand in battle, 58
Partha will advance against mo, especially because I am des-
titute of the dart that Cakra gave me ! Therefore, <) ruler of
men, listen now to what is beneficial ! SD The energy of my
celestial weapons is equal to the energy of Arjun a's weapi


In eounteracting the feats of powerful foes, in lightness of
hands, in the range of the arrows shot, 40 in skill, and in
hitting the mark, Savyasachin is never ray equal. In physical
strength, in courage, in knowledge (of weapons), in prowess,
O Bharata, 41 in aiming, Savyasachin is never my equal. My
bow, called Vijaya, is the foremost of all weapons (of its
kind). 42 Desirous of doing what was agreeable (to Indra), it
was made by Vicwakarman (the celestial artificer) for Indra.
With that bow, king, Indra had vanquished the Daityas.**
At its twang the Daityas had beheld the ten points to be
empty.* That bow, respected by all, Cakra gave to Bhrigu's
son (Rama). 44 That celestial and foremost of bows Bhrigu's
son gave to me. With that bow I will contend in battle with
the mighty-armed Arjuna, that foremost of victorious war-
riors, 45 like Indra fighting with the assembled Daityas ! That
formidable bow, the gift of Rama, is superior to Gcindiva.**
Tt was with that bow that the Earth was subjugated thrice
seven times (by Bhrigu's son). 47 With that bow given to me
\>v Rama I will contend in battle with the son of Pandu ! I
will, O Duryodhana, gladden thee today with thy friends, 45 by
slaying in battle that hero, viz., Arjuna, that foremost of
conquerors ! The whole Earth with her mountains and forests
and islands, without a heroic warrior (to oppose thy wish) 43
will, king, become thine today, over which thyself with thy
sons and grandsons will reign supreme ! Today there is nothing
that is incapable of being achieved by me, especially when
the object is to do what is agreeable to thee, 50 even as ascetic
success is incapable of being missed by one zealously devoted
to virtue and having his soul under control ! Arjuna will not
be able to bear me in battle even as a tree in contaet with fire
is incapable of bearing that element. 51 I must, however, de- '
dare in what respect I am inferior to Arjuna. The string of
his bow is celestial, and the two large quivers of his are in-
exhaustible. His driver is Govinda." I have none like him.
His is that eelestial and foremost of bows, called Gdndiva,
which is irrefragible in battle. 83 I also have that excellent,

* The sense of the origmal is that the Dmtyps were stupirled.— T.


celestial, and formidable bow called Vijaya. In respect of

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