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Through the grace of Hari who never abandons those that
humbly invoke his aid, I have at last completed the Anu-
casana Parvan. Of the eighteen Parvans of the Mahabharata,
the Anu^asana forms the thirteenth, and is the third in extent,
being slightly less than the Vana, From beginning to end, the
Anu(jasana is didactic in its character. The duties of men in
various stations of life have been declared by Bhishma in answer
to the successive questions of Yudhishthira. Of those duties,
gift has been declared to be one of the foremost. Accordingly,
the merits, as understood in ancient India, of the diverse
kinds of gift have been laid down most elaborately. Many
things occurring in this Parvan may appear as quaint to
Western readers. But it should always be remembered that
those ideas, however quaint, are still cherished by a very large
section of the people of India. The very gifts are regarded
by them to be meritorious, and are, accordingly, made under
nearly the very same formalities.

The literary difficulties which the Anu^asana presents,
though slightly less than those presented by the Canti, are
still very great. Both the Bengali versions have been executed
carelessly. The gloss of Nilakantha, as usual, is clear. There
are verses in the Anu^asana which, if not exactly cruces, are
at least very nearly so, considerable labour and reflection
being necessary to get at their meaning. The aid offorded by
Nilakantha in such places is simply invaluable. The English
version of the Anugasana has been, for the most part based
upon Nilakantha's gloss. In only a few instances has the
translator differed from that Commentator.

The completion of the Anugasana has brought my task to
a point such that six or seven more fascicules are necessary for
bringing my labours to their termination. Those seven fasci-
cules will cost, including all contingent charges, about Rs.
10,000 in all. How to provide for this amount has made me
exceedingly anxious. If I had health and strength as before,
I would not have been at all anxious. Unfortunately for myself,
for about two years I have been ill, very ill. For more than
six months I have been entirely prostrated. I am so reduced

( 2 >

that my nearest friends are unable to readily recognise me.
I have tried every sort of treatment without any benefit. The
presentiment that I would be spared till at least the comple-
tion of my task has disappeared. I cannot expect to see the
end, although that end is so near. For all that, I resign my-
self to the will of Hari most cheerfully, fully convinced that
whatever He does is always for the best. Others may call it
superstition, but there is a belief in this country that amongst
those who labour on the Mahabharata very few succeed in
attaining to the termination of their labours. This belief has
sometimes forced itself upon me. The consolation, however,
that is attached to it is, that the ceaseless contemplation of
Hari's glory dispels the effect of all transgressions and calls
away the person from a world of woe to one of uninterrupted

The difficulties of the A(;wamedha Parvan are very great.
They are scarcely less than those of the Canti. The A^wa-
medha contains the Anugita. Arjuna, unto whom on the
eve of battle, Krishna had in kindness communicated the
soul-ennobling instructions contained in the Gita, had, in
course of the battle, forgotten those truths. He asked
Krishna to repeat them in his hearing. Krishna, however,
•without repeating the words he had used on that occasion, for
he had uttered them under Toga or inspiration, communicated
to him the same truths in different language. He recited to
Arjuna the discourse of a Brahmana he had heard while at
Dwarika. These sections of the A^wamedha, therefore, are
called Anugita or Brahmanagita. That able scholar whose
death we all lament, viz., Kaginafch Tryambak Telang, trans-
lated these sections of the Agwamedlia for Professor Max
Muller's Sacred Books of the East. That version occurs in
the eighth volume of the series. Like the other works of
that eminent scholar, the English version of the Anugita is
characterised by many excellencies. Besides being closely
literal, the notes with which it has been enriched, has enhanc-
ed its value. The text from which Telang's version has been
made is that of Arjuna Misra. He has generally discarded
the authority of Nilakantha. To this one objection can be

( s )

taken. Arjuna Misra, in many instances, has corrected the
text at his own will. It is in this way that many difficulties
have been got rid of by him. The readings of Arjuna Misra
are unsupported by extant manuscripts. Without at all pre-
tending to pronounce an opinion on the relative superiority of
the two commentators in point of learning and penetration,
it may be fairly observed that Nilakantha always prefers to
take the text as it is, without seeking to correct it.

As this is, in all probability, my last word to the public,
for I have no hope of appearing again after the completion
of the A(jwamedha, I beg, in this place, to express my
gratitude to my numerous friends and patrons who have, from
the beginning, favoured me with their support. I have named
them in the notice which was issued with the Eighty-third
fascicule. As I have very little to add to what I said on that
occasion, I wish to reproduce these words of mine with slight
verbal alterations.

'I must take this opportunity for expressing my deep grati-
tude to those eminent personages through whose aid, counsel,
and sympathy I have been able to prosecute so much of my task.
Foremost among all, my gratitude is due to my Gracious and
August Sovereign, the Queen-Empress of India, the success of
every righteous enterprise being directly due to the virtues of the
Sovereign, under Providence. * * *

Some years ago I received permission to lay before Her
Majesty, for her gracious acceptance, a copy of the English
translation. I have always considered that acceptance as
at once a reward and an auspicious omen. Next to my
Sovereign, among Oriental scholars and savants I must say
that to Professor Max Muller I stand very much indebted for
the preliminary arrangements I was able to make for bring-
ing out the translation. He favored me with a specimen
translation which he had copied with his own hand many
years ago and had kept by him for future use. That specimen
proved to be of great use to me. It served to point out the
way in which a literal translation might be made without for-
getting the claims of ease and elegance. Next to Professor
Max Muller, my obligations are due to Dr. Host, the learned

( 4 )

Librarian of the India Office. His letter to me written under
the direction of the then Secretary of State for India, viz., the
Marquis of Hartington, had first suggested to me the idea of
an English translation of the Mahabharata. From the very
beginning, Dr. Rost has been my kindest of friends. His
sympathy and advice have been, at important junctures during
the last ten years, simply invaluable. When depressed by dis-
couraging circumstances, a letter from Dr. Rost, breathing words
of hearty encouragement and kindness, has instantly filled me
with hope, dispersing the mists of doubt and the darkness of
despair from before my eyes. To Monsrs. A. Barth and St.
Hilaire of Paris and Professor Jacobi of Germany, my obliga-
tions have been very great. They too have supported me with
their sympathy and done all in their power for bringing the
work to the notice of European scholars. I owe it to the exer-
tions of Monsrs. Barth and St. Hilaire that the French Govern-
ment went out of its way and ordered a grant to me of 900
Francs, for that Government does not make grants to foreign
publications, especially to publications before completion. In
America my obligations are due to a host of friends foremost
among whom are Mr. William E. Coleman of San-Francisco.
California, Professor Lanman, the Vice-President of the Ame-
rican Oriental Society, Professor J. W. Reese of Maryland,
America, Professor Maurice Bloomfield of Hopkins' University,.
and Mr. B. Witton of Hamilton, Canada. That the work has
been known in America has been entirely due to the exertions
of these gentlemen. Their sympathy has been of the highest
value to me. Speaking of India, my obligations are due to
Sir Stuart Bayley, Sir A. Colvin, General Stewart, Lord Roberts,
Sir Charles Aitichison, Sir Mortimer Durand, Dr. W. W.
Hunter, Mr. C. P. Hbert, Sir A. Scoble, Sir Lepel Griffin, Sir
Charles Elliott, Sir John Ware Edgar, the Marquis of Ripon,
the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, Sir Donald Mackenzie Wal-
lace, and Sir Alfred Croft. With the single exception of Sir
Charles Elliott and Sir Alfred Croft, all the others have left
India for good. * * Without the assistance, freely
rendered, of all these eminent officials, I could never have
done even a fourth of what I have been able to accomplish.

( 5 )

The officials I have named have been the soul of the enterprise.
Whatever aid the work has received from the Government, has
been due to the kind efforts of Sir Steuart Bayley, Sir A,
Colvin, Sir Charles Aitichison, Sir A. Scoble, and the Mar-
quis of Dufferin and Ava.

Besides these eminent officials I have derived considerable
help from many of the princes and chiefs of India. My greatful
acknowledgments are due to His Highness the Nizam and His
Highness the ruler of Mysore for their princely donations. The
Nizam is a Mahomedan prince. Any contribution coming from
him in aid of a work like the Mahabharata could not but
indicate His Highness's enlightened sympathy for literature in
general, irrespective of the nation or the creed which that
literature represents. No native State possesses Ministers more
enlightened than that ruled over by His Highness the Nizam.
So jlong also as an officer like Nawab Sayyed Ali Bilgrami
is about the person of His Highness, ready to offer advice
when advice is sought, the reputation of His Highness must
go on continually increasing.

To the Editors of the Indian Newspapers my thanks are
due for the encouragement they have uniformly afforded me in
the prosecution of the work. Amongst my own countrymen
I have obtained the greatest measure of sympathy from Dr.
Sambhu C. Mookerjee, the brilliant Editor of "Reis & Rayyet,"
Babu Narendra Nath Sen, the Editor of the "Indian Mirror,"
and Babu Krishtodass Pal and, after him, Babu Rajkumar
Sarvadhikari, of the "Hindoo Patriot." Babu Sishir Kumar
Ghose also, of the "Amrita Bazar Patrika," has done much to
encourage me. Amongst the organs of the European com-
munity in India, I have derived the greatest support from the
"Englishman," the "Indian Daily News," and the "Satesman
and Friend of India." The late Mr. Robert Knight (of the
"Statesman") always used to take an interest in the work and
favored me with numerous introductions to eminent men all
over India. He spared no opportunity to bring the work to
the notice of persons likely to help it pecuniarily. It is en tire-
ly owing to Mr. J. O. B. Saunders, again, of the "English-
man" that the work first succeeded in receiving the attention

( 6 )

of the Government of Bengal, which was followed by that
substantial patronage with which Sir Rivers Thompson favor-
ed it. The Pioneer and the Civil <& Military Gazette also
have helped greatly.'

Since uttering the above words, death has taken away Dr.
Sambhu C. Mookerjee. The loss has been a public calamity.
The sterling merits of the great Brahmana publicist require
no words of mine to bring them out. I wish, on the present
occasion, to add that, during the last year, my obligations to
Sir Charles Elliott have been very much enhanced by his
graceful act of allowing me to draw the additional grant of
Rs. 1,000 which had been made by the Bengal Government
sometime ago but which, at the time it was sanctioned, was
directed to be drawn upon completion of my enterprise. See-
ing my difficulties, Sir Charles Elliott was pleased to place
that amount under my immediate disposal.

With these words I make my respectful bow to the public,
convinced that if it pleases my Maker to take me away before
the 6 or 7 fascicules that would complete the work are out, my
countrymen, among whom I count many sincere friends and
patrons, will not permit the publication to be suspended at a
stage so near termination. In my will I have directed that
whatever I may leave behind shall be devoted to the work.
That, however, is very little. Would it were sufficient for the
purpose !

At the request of my friends and patrons and of many
readers of the Mahabharata in foreign countries, I append to
this fascicule a likeness of mine. I Avould not have complied
with the request, prompted though it has been by kindness
alone, but for the belief that this is my last appearance before


1, Rajah^Gooroo Dass' Street,

Calcutta, y PEATAP CHANDRA ROY, c. i. i.

December 31st, 1894.

!«>•■•> • -m$mmfm'




Section I.

(Agivamedhika Parva.)

Having bowed down unto Ndrayana, and Nara the fore-
most of male beings, and unto the goddess Saraswati, must
the word Jaya be uttered.

Vai9ampayana said, — "After the king Dhritarashtra had
offered libations of water (unto the manes of Bhishma), the
mighty-armed* Yudhishthira, with his senses bewildered, plac-
ing the former in his front, ascended the banks (of the river),
his eyes suffused with tears, and dropt down on the bank of the
Ganga like an elephant pierced by the hunter.^"- Then, incited
by Krishna, Bhiraa took him up sinking. 'This must not be so,*
said Krishna, the grinder of hostile hosts.^ The Pandavas, king,
saw Yudhishthira, the son of Dharma, troubled and lying on the
ground, and also sighing again and again.* And seeing the king
despondent and feeble, the Pandavas, overwhelmed with grief, sat
down, surrounding him,® And endowed with high intelligence,
and having the sight of wisdom, king Dhritarashtra, exceed-
ingly afflicted with grief for his sons, addressed the monarch,
sayihg, — 'Rise up, thou tiger among the Kurus.® Do thou
now attend to thy duties. O Kunti's son, thou hast conquered
this Earth according to the usage of the Kshatriyas.^ Do
thou now, lord of men, enjoy her with thy brothers and
friends. O foremost of the righteous, I do not see why thou
shouldst grieve. lord of the Earth, having lost a hundred
sons like unto riches obtained in a dream, it is Gandhari and

* 'Mahavahu' occurs twice in this passage. One of the epithets is
left out ou the score of redundancy. — T.

"2 MAHABHARATAi lAgwamedUJca

I, who should mourn.® Not having listened to the pregnant
•words of the high-souled Vidura, who sought our welfare, I, of
perverse senses, (now) repent,^ The virtuous Vidura, endowed
with divine insight, had told me, — 'Thy race will meet with
■ annihilation owing to the transgressions of Duryodhana.^** O
king, if thou wish for the weal of thy line, act up to my advice.
Cast off this wicked-minded monarch, Suyodhana," and let not
either Kama or Cakuni by any means see him. Their gambling
too do thou, without making any fuss, suppress,^^ and anoint
the righteous king Yudhishthira. That one of subdued senses
will righteously govern the Earth.-'^ If thou wouldst not have
king Yudhishthira, son of Kunti, then, monarch, do thou,
performing a sacrifice, thyself take charge of the kingdom,^*
and regarding all creatures with an even eye, lord of men,
do thou let thy kinsmen, thou advancer of thy kindred, subsist
on thy bount}^^'.^^ — When, Kunti's son, the far-sighted Vidura
said this, fool that I was, I followed the wicked Duryodhana.^®
Having turned a deaf ear to the sweet speech of that sedate
one, I have obtained this mighty sorrow as a consequence, and
have been plunged in an ocean of woe.^^ Behold thy old father
and mother, O king, plunged in misery. But, master of
men, I find no occasion for thy grief.' "^^

Section II.

Vai^ampayana said, — "Thus addressed by the intelligent
king Dhritarashtra, Yudhishthira, possessed of understanding,
became calm. And then Ke9ava (Krishna) accosted him :^ —
'If a person indulges excessively in sorrow for his departed fore-
fathers, he grieves them.^ (Therefore, banishing grief ), do thou
(now) celebrate many a sacrifice with suitable presents to
the priests ; and do thou gratify the gods with Soma liquor, and
the manes of thy fore-fathers, with their due food and drink.^
Do thou also gratify thy guests with meat and drink and the
destitute with gifts commensurate with their desires. A person
of thy high intelligence should not bear himself thus.* What
ought to be known, hath been known by thee ; what ought to
be done, hath also been performed. And thou hast heard the

Farva.] acwamedha parva." 3;t

duties of the Kshatriyas, recited by Bhishma, the son of Bhagi-
rathi, by Krishna Dvvaipayana, Narada and Vidura.^ There-
fore thou shouldst not walk the way of the stupid ; but pursu-
ing the course of thy forefathers, sustain the burthen (of the
empire).^ It is meet that a Kshatriya should attain heaven
for certain by his (own) renown. Of heroes, those that came
to be slain never shall have to turn away (from the celestial
regions)/ Renounce thy grief, mighty sovereign. Verily,
what hath happened was destined to happen so. Thou canst
in no wise see those that have been slain in this war.^ — Having
said this unto Yudhishthira, prince of the pious, the high-
spirited Govinda paused ; and Yudhishthira answered him thus.®
'0 Govinda, full well do I know thy fondness for me. Thou
hast ever favoured me with thy love and thy friendship.^^
And, holder of the mace and the discus, O scion of Yadu's
race, glorious one, if (now) with a pleased mind thou dost
permit me to go to the ascetic's retreat in the woods, then thou
wouldst compass what is highly desired by me.^^ Peace find I
none after having slain my grand-father, and that foremost of
men, Kama, who never fled from the field of battle.^^ Do thou,
Janarddana, so order that I may be freed from this} heinous
sin and that my mind may be purified.^^ As Pritha's son was
speaking thus, the highly-energetic Vyasa, cognisant of the
duties of life, soothing him, spoke these excellent words.^* My
child, thy mind is not yet calmed ; and therefore thou art again
stupefied by a childish sentiment. And wherefore, child, do
we over and over again scatter our speech to the winds ?^^
Thou knowest the duties of the Kshatriyas, who live by warfare.
A king that hath performed his proper part should not suffer
himself to be overwhelmed by sorrow.^^ Thou hast faithfully
listened to the entire doctrine of salvation ; and I have re-
peatedly removed thy misgivings arising out of desire.^^ But
not paying due heed to what I have unfolded, thou of perverse
understaiiding hast doubtless forgotten it clean. Be it not so.
Such ignorance is not worthy of thee.-^^ sinless one, thou
knowest all kinds of expiation ; and thou hast also heard of the
virtues of kings, as well as the merits of gifts.^^ Wherefore
then, Bharata, acquainted with every morality and versed

4 MAHABiiARATA. [A gimmedhilco,

in all the Igamas, art thou overwhelmed (with grief ) as if
from ignorance V ""*'

Section III.

"Vyasa said, — '0 Yudhishthira, thy wisdom, I conceive, is
not adequate. None doth any act by virtue of his own
power.* It is God who engageth him in acts good or bad,
O bestower of honor. Where then is the room for repen-
tance ?^ Thou deemest thyself as having perpetrated impious
acts. Do thou, therefore, Bharata, hearken as to the way in
which sin may be removed.^ Yudhishthira, those that com-
mit sins, can always free themselves from them through pen-
ance, sacrifice and gifts.* O king, foremost of men, sinful
people are purified by sacrifice, austerities and charity.^ The
high-souled celestials and Asuras perform sacrifices for securing
religious merit ; and therefore sacrifices are of supreme im-
portance.'' It is through sacrifices that the high-souled celes-
tials had waxed so wondrously powerful ; and having celebrated
rites did they vanquish the Danavas.^ Do thou, O Yudhish-
thira, prepare for the Rajasuya, and the horse-sacrifice, as well
as, Bharata, for the Sarvamedha and the Naramedha.*^ And
even as Da^aratha's son, Rama, or as Dushmanta's and Cakun-
tala's son, thy ancestor, the lord of the Earth, the exceedingly
puissant king Bharata, had done, do thou agreeably to the
ordinance celebrate the Horse-sacrifice with Dakshinas.^"-^**
Yudhishthira replied : — 'Beyond a doubt, the Horse-sacrifice
purifieth princes. But I have a purpose of which it behooveth
thee to hear.** Having caused this huge carnage of kindred,
I cannot, best of the regenerate ones, dispense gifts even on
a small scale; I have no wealth to give.*- Nor can I for wealth
solicit these juvenile sons of kings, staying in sorry plight,
with their wounds yet green, and undergoing suffering.*^ How,
O foremost of twice-born ones, having myself destroyed the
Earth, can I, overcome by sorrow, levy dues for celebrating a

* /. e., human sacrifice. From this it appears that the sacrifice of
human beings was in vogue at the time. — T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 6

sacrifice ?^* Through Duryodhana's fault, best of ascetics,
the kings of the Earth have met with destruction, and we have
reaped ignominy.^^ For wealth Duryodhana hath wasted the
Earth ; and the treasury of that wicked-minded son of Dhrita-
rashtra is empty.^^ (In this sacrifice), the Earth is the Dak-
shina ; this is the rule that is prescribed in the first instance.
The usual reversal of this rule, though sanctioned, is observed
by the learned as such.^'^ Nor, ascetic, do I like to have a
substitute (for this process). In this matter, reverend sir, it
behooveth thee to favor me with thy counsel'.^*^ Thus address-
ed by Pritha's son, Krishna Dwaipayana, reflecting for a while,
spoke unto the righteous king,^^ 'This treasury, (now) exhaust-
ed, shall be full. son of Pritha, in the mountain Himavan
(Himalaya) there is gold which had been left behind by Brah-
manas at the sacrifice of the high-souled Marutta'.*"""^^ Yu-
dhishthira asked : 'How in that sacrifice celebrated by Marutta
was so much gold amassed ? And, foremost of speakers, when
did he reign P^ Vyasa said : — 'If, O Pritha's son, thou art
anxious to hear concerning that king sprung fi-om the Karan-
dhama race, then listen to me as I tell thee when that highly
powerful monarch possessed of immense wealth reigned.' ""^

Section IV.

'•Yudhishthira said, — '0 righteous one, I am desirous of
hearing the history of that royal sage Marutta. Do thou, O
Dwaipayana, relate this unto me, sinless one*'^

"Vyasa said, — 'O child, in the Krita age Manu was lord (of
the Earth) wielding the sceptre. His son was known under
the name of Prasandhi.'^ Prasandhi had a son named Kshupa,
Kshupa's son was that lord (of men), king Ikshwaku.' He,
O king, had a hundred sons endowed with pre-eminent piety.
And all of them were made monarchs by king Ikshwaku.*
The eldest of them, Vin^a, became the model of bowmen.
Vinga's son, Bharata, was the auspicious Vivin9a.^ Vivincja,

* King Marutta celebrated a sacrifice in the Himalaya, bestowing
gold on Brahraanas. Not being able to carry the entire quantity, they
bad carried as much as they could, throwiug away the remainder. — T._,

6 MAHABMARATA. [AgwamedhUca

O kmf^, liad five and ten sons ; all of them powerful archers,
revering Brahmanas and speaking the truth,® gentle and ever
•speaking fair. The eldest brother, Khaninetra, oppressed all
his brothers/ And having conquered the entire kingdom rid of
•all troubles, Khaninetra could not retain his supremacy ; nor
were the people pleased with him.^ And dethroning him,
they, O foremost of monarchs, invested his son Suvarcha with
the rights of sovereignty, and (having effected this) experience-
ed joy (in their hearts).^ Seeing the reverses sustained by
his sire as well as his expulsion from the empire, he was ever
intent on bringing about the welfare of the people, being
devoted to Brahman, speaking the truth, practising purity

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