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policy, heedlessness, contumely, possessions,^ and diverse de-
corations that prevail in the world among men, women, ani-
mals, inanimate things, houses,^ grief, incredulousness, vows
and regulations, actions with expectation (of good results),
diverse acts of public charity,^ the rites in respect of Swaha,
salutations, rites of Swadha and Vashat, officiating at the
sacrifices of others, imparting of instruction, performance of
sacrifices, study ,**^ making of gifts, acceptance of gifts, rites
of expiation, auspicious acts, the wish to have this and that,
affection generated by the merits of the object for which or
whom it is felt,** treachery, deception, disrespect and respect,
theft, killing, desire of concealment, vexation, wakefulness,**
ostentation, haughtiness, attachment, devotion, contentment,,
exultation, gambling, indulgence in scandal, all relations aris-
ing out of women, attachment to dancing, instrumental mu-
sic, and songs, — all these qualities, ye learned Brahmanas,
have been said to belong to Passion.*^"** Those men on Earth
who meditate on the past, present, and the future, who are
devoted to the aggreegate of three, viz., Religion, Wealth, and

* Some texts read 'Santapah' and not 'Sanghatah,' The meaning
then will be grief or sorrow — T.

t This may refer to the exposure of other people's weaknesses Vy
tearing open their veils or covers. — T.

94! MAHAiBnAiiATA. [Anugitti

Pleasure,^^ who, acting from the impulse of desire, exult on
attaining to affluence in respect of every desire, are said to
be enveloped by Passion. These men have downward courses."
Repeatedly reborn in this world, they give themselves up to
pleasure. They covet what belongs to this world as also all
those fruits that belong to the world hereafter. They make
gifts, accept gifts, offer oblations to the Pitris, and pour liht>-
tions on the sacrificial fire.-^'^ The qualities of Passion have
(thus) been declared to you in their variety. The course of
conduct also to which it leads has been properly described to
you. The man who always understands these qualities, suc-
ceeds in always freeing himself from all of them which apper-
tain to Passion. — ' "^^

Section XXXVIII.

«< ' — Brahman said, — I shall, after this, discourse to you on
that excellent quality which is the third (in the order of our
enumeration). It is beneficial to all creatures in the world,
and unblamable, and constitutes the conduct of those that are
good.^ Joy, satisfaction, nobility, enlightenment, and happi-
ness, absence of stinginess (or liberality), absence of fear, con-
tentment, disposition for faith,^ forgiveness, courage, absten-
tion from injuring any creature, equability, truth, straightfor-
wardness, absence of wrath, absence of malice, purity, clever-
ness, prowess, (these appertain to the quality of Goodness).*
He who is devoted to the duty of Yoga, regarding knowledge
to be vain, conduct to be vain, service to be vain, and mode
of life to be vain, attains to what is highest in the world
hereafter.* Freedom from the idea of meum, freedom from
egoism, freedom from expectations, looking on all with an
equal eye, and freedom from desire, — these constitute the
eternal religion of the good.^ Confidence, modesty, forgive-
ness, renunciation, purity, absence of laziness, absence of
cruelty, absence of delusion, compassion to all creatures, ab-
sence of the disposition to calumniate,^ exultation, satisfac-
tion, rapture, humility, good behaviour, purit_; in all acts
having for their object the attainment of tranquillity, right-

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 9.:

eous understanding, emancipation (from attachments)/ in-
difference, Brahmacharyya, complete renunciation, freedom
from the idea of meum, freedom from expectation?, unbroken
observance of righteousness,^ belief that gifts are vain, sacri-
fices are vain, study is vain, vows are vain, acceptance of
gifts is vain, observance of duties is vain, and penances are
vain.^ Those Brahmanas in this world, whose conduct is
marked by these virtues, who adhere to righteousness, who
abide in the Vedas, are said to be wise and possessed of cor-
rectness of vision.*® Casting off all sins and freed from grief,
those men possessed of wisdom attain to Heaven and create
diverse bodies (for themselves)." The power of governing
everything, self-restraint, minuteness, these high-souled ones
make by operations of their own mind, like the gods them-
selves dwelling in Heaven.*^ Such men are said to have their
courses directed upwards. They are veritable gods capable of
modifying all things. Attaining to Heaven, they modify all
things by their very nature.*^ They get whatever objects
they desire and enjoy them.* Thus have I, ye foremost of
regenerate ones, described to you what that conduct is which
appertains to the quality of goodness. Understanding these
duly, one acquires whatever objects one desires.** The quali-
ties that appertain to goodness have been declared particu-
larly. The conduct which those qualities constitute has also
been properly set forth. That man who always understands
these qualities, succeeds in enjoying the qualities without
being attached to them ! — ' "*^

Section XXXIX.

'" — Brahman said, — 'The qualities are incapable of being
declared as completely separate from one another. Passion
and Goodness and Darkness are seen existing in a state of
union.* They are attached to one another. They depend on
one another. They have one another for their refuge. They

* 'Vibhaianti implies enjoyments in thia connection. Telang starts
a needless objectiou to tliis word. — T.

% M.irABnARA.TA; [Anugita

likevvi^^e follow one T.nothcr.^ As long as goodness exists, so
lonf^ does Passion exist. There is no doubt in this. As long
as Darkness and Goodness exist, so long does Passion exist.*
They make their journey together, in union, and moving
coUcotivcly. They, verily, move in a body, when they act
with cause or without cause.* Of all these which act with
one another however much they may differ in their develope-
ment, the manner in which their increase and diminution
take place will now be declared.^ There where Darkness exists
in an increased measure, in the lower creatures (for example).
Passion exists in a smaller measure and Goodness in a measure
that is still less.* There where Passion exists in a copious
measure, in creatures of middle course, Darkness exists in a
smaller measure and Goodness in a measure that is still less.'^
There where Goodness exists in a copious measure, in crea-
tures of upward courses, Darkness should be known to exist
in a small measure and Passion in a measure that is still less.^
Goodness is the spring that causes the modifications of the
senses. It is, again, the great enlightener. No duty has
been laid down that is higher than Goodness.* They who
abide in Goodness proceed upwards. They who abide in Pas-
sion remain in the middle. They who abide in Darkness,
being characterised by qualities that are low, sink downwards.^"
Darkness occurs in the Cudra ; Passion in the Kshatriya ; and
Goodness, which is the highest, in the Brahmana. The three
qualities exist even thus in the three orders.^^ Even from a
distance, the three qualities of Darkness and Goodness and
Passion, are seen to exist in a state of union and more collec-
tively. They are never seen in a state of separation .*^^ Be-
holding the sun rising, men of evil deeds become inspired
with fear. Travellers on their way become afflicted with heat,
and suffer distress.^^ The Sun is Goodness developed ; men of
ovil deeds represent Darkness ; the heat which travellers on
their way feel is said to be a quality of Passion.^* The sun
representing light is Goodness; the heat is the quality of

■"• 'From even a ilistance' implies that upon cvou a cursory view ;
without even beins^ examine. 1 minuti'lv. — T,


Farva.] acwamedHA parva. 97

Passion ; the shading (or eclipse) of the sun on Parvan days
should be known to represent Darkness.^^ Even thus, the
three qualities exist in all luminous bodies. They act by
iiurns in diverse places in diverse ways.-^® Among immobile
objects, the quality of Darkness exists in a very large measure.
The qualities appertaining to Passion are those properties of
theirs which undergo constant changes. Their oleaginous
attributes appertain to Goodness.*^'^ The Day should be un-
derstood as threefold. The Night has been ordained to be
threefold. So also are fortnights, months, years, seasons, and
conjunctions.f^^ The gifts that are made are threefold. Three-
fold is sacrifice that flows. Threefold are the worlds ; three-
fold the deities ; threefold is knowledge ; and threefold the
path or end.^^ The Past, the Present, and the Future, Reli-
gion, Wealth, and Pleasure, Prana, Apana, and Udana, these
also are fraught with the three qualities."" Whatever object
exists in this world, everything in it, is fraught with the three
qualities. The three qualities act by turns in all things and
in all circumstances.^^ Verily, the three qualities ahvays act
in an un manifest form. The creation of those three, viz.,
Goodness, Passion, and Darkness, is eternal.^'' The unmani-
fest, consisting of the three qualities, is said to be darkness,
unperceived, holy, constant, unborn, womb, eternal, Nature,
change or modification, destruction, Pradhana, production,
and absorption, undeveloped, not small (i. e., vast), unshaking,

* What ia said here is this : the three qualities exist in even the
immobile objects of the universe. As regards Darkness, it predomi-
nates in them. As regards Passion, it dwells in such properties of theirs
as pungency, sourness, sweetness, &c., which cLangre with time or in
conseqnence of cooking or through admixture. Their oily properties
are said to appertain to Goodness. 'Tiryagbhavagatam' is explained by
Nilakantha as 'adhikyam gatam.' Telang thinks this is unwarrantable.
His own version, however, of the first line is untenable. What can be
the 'tiryagbhava' or 'form of lower species' of immobile objects ? Telang
frequently forgets that Nilakantha represents a school of interpretation
not founded by him but which existed from a time long anterior to
him.— T.

t 'Conjunctions' are evidently the periods joining the seasons; i. e,
the close of one season and the beginning of another.— T.

[ 13 ]

99 MAHABnARATA [Anugiid

imraovable, fixed, existent, and non-exiatent."'"" All these
uaraes should be known by those who meditate on matters
connected with the soul.'^'' That person who accurately knows
all the names of the unmanifest, and the qualities, as also the
pure operations (of the qualities), well conversant with the
truth about all distinctions and freed from the body, becomes
liberated from all the qualities and enjoys absolute happi-

' "2«

Section XL.

" ' — Brahman said, — From the unmanifest first sprang the
Great Soul, endued with great intelligence, the source of all
the qualities. That is said to be the first creation.^ The
Great Soul is signified by these synonymous words, — the Great
Soul, Intelligence, Vishnu, Jishnu, Cambhu of great valour,
the Understanding, the means of acquiring knowledge, the
means of perception, as also fame, courage, and memory.
Knowing this, a learned Brahmana has never to encounter
delusion.^"^ It has hands and feet on every side. It has ears
on every side. It stands, pervading everything in the universe.*
Of great power, that Being is stationed in the heart of all.
Minuteness, Lightness, and Affluence, are his. He is the
lord of all, and identical with effulgence, and knows not
decay.^ In Him are all those who comprehend the nature of
the understanding, all those who are devoted to goodness of
disposition, all those who practise meditation, who are always
devoted to Yoga, who are firm in truth, who have subdued
their senses,^ who are possessed of knowledge, who are freed
from cupidity, who have conquered wrath, who are of cheer-
ful hearts, who are endued with wisdom, who are liberated
from ideas of meum (and teum), and who are devoid of
egoism.^ All these, freed from every kind of attachment,
attain to the status of Greatness. That person who under-
stands that holy and high goal, viz., the Great Soul, becomes
freed from delusion .'^ The self-born Vishnu becomes the Lord
in the primary creations. He who thus knows the Lord lying
in the cave, the Supreme, Ancient Being, of universal form.

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 99

the golden one, the highest goal of all persons endued with
understanding, — that intelligent man lives, transcending the
understanding. — ' "'

Section XLI.

" ' — Brahman said, — That Mahat who was first produced is
called Egoism. When it sprang up as I, it came to be called
as the second creation.* That Egoism is said to be the source
of all creatures, for these have sprung from its modifications*
It is pure effulgence and is the supporter of consciousness.
It is Prajapati.^ It is a diety, the creator of deities, and of
mind. It is that which creates the three worlds- It is said
to be that which feels — / am all thisj^ — That is the eternat
world existing for those sages who are contented with know-
ledge relating to the soul, who have meditated on the soul,
and who have won success by Vedic study and sacrifices.*
By consciousness of soul one enjoys the qualities. That source
of all creatures, that creator of all creatures, creates (all crea-
tures) even in this way. It is that which causes all changes*
It is that which causes all beings to move. By its own light
it illuminates the universe likewise. — ' "^

Section XLII.

" * — Brahman said,— From Egoism were verily born the five
great elements. They are earth, air, ether, water, and light
numbering the fifth.* In these five great elements, in the
matter of the operations of sound, touch, color, taste, and
smell, all creatures become deluded.^ When at the close
of the destruction of the great elements, the dissolution of
the universe approaches, ye that are possessed of wisdom, a
great fear comes upon all living creatures.^ Every existent
object is dissolved into that from which it is produced. The
dissolution takes place in an order that is the reverse of
that in which creation takes place. Indeed, as regards birth,
they are born from one another.* Then, when all existent
objects, mobile and immobile, become dissolved, wise men-

100! MAHABHARATA. • [AllUgitA

endued with poAverful memory never dissolve.^ Sound, touch,
colour, taste, and smell numbering the fifth, are effects. They
are, however, inconstant, and called by the name of delusion.®
Caused by the production of cupidity, not different from one
another, without reality, connected with flesh and blood, and
depending upon one another,'^ existing outside the soul, these
are all helpless and powerless. Prana and Apana, and Udana
and Samana and Vyana,^ — these five winds are always closely
attached to the soul. Together with speech, mind, and un-
derstanding, they constitute the universe of eight ingredients.'
He whose skin, nose, ear, eyes, tongue, and speech are res-
trained, whose mind is pure, and whose understanding de-
viates not (from the right path),-^'* and whose mind is never
burnt by those eight fires, succeeds in attaining to that aus-
picious Brahma than which nothing superior exists.^^ Those
which have been called the eleven organs and which have
sprung from Egoism, I shall now, ye regenerate ones, mention
particularly.^- They are the ear, the skin, the two eyes, the
tongue, the nose numbering the fifth, the two feet, the lower
duct, the organ of generation, the two hands, and speech
forming the tenth.^^ These constitute the group of organs,
with mind numbering as the eleventh. One should first sub->
due this group. Then will Brahma shine forth (in him).-^*
Five amongst these are called organs of knowledge, and five,
organs of action. The five beginning with the ear are truly
said to be connected with knowledge.'^ The rest, however,
that are connected with action, are without distinction. The
mind should be regarded as belonging to both. The under-
standing is the twelfth in the top.^* Thus have been enu-
merated the eleven organs in due order. Learned men, having
understood these, think they have accomplished everything.*'
I shall, after this, enumerate all the various organs. Space
(or Ether) is the first entity. As connected with the soul, it
is called the ear.*^ As connected with objects, that is sound.
The presiding deity (of this) is the quarters. The Wind is the
second entity. As connected with the soul, it is known as
the skin.*^ As connected with objects, it is known as objects
of touch ; and the presiding deity there is touch. The third

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 101

is said to be Light. As connected with the soul, it is known
as the eye."° As connected with objects, it is color ; and the
sun is its deity. The fourth (entity) should be known as
Water. As connected with the soul, it is said to be the
tongue.^^ As connected with objects, it is taste, and the pre-
siding deity there is Soma. The fifth entity is Earth. As con-
nected with the soul, it is said to be the nose. - As connect-
ed with objects, it is scent ; and the presiding deity there is
the wind. Thus has the manner been declared of how the five
entities are divided into sets of three.^^ After this I shall
declare everything about the diverse (other) organs. Brah-
manas conversant with the truth say that the two feet are
mentioned as connected with the soul.-* As connected with
objects, it is motion ; and Vishnu is there the presiding deity.
The Apana wind, whose motion is downward, as connected
with the soul, is called the lower duct.-^ As connected with
objects, it is the excreta that is ejected ; and the presiding
deity there is Mitra. As connected with the soul, the organ
of generation is mentioned, the producer of all beings.^^ As
connected with objects, it is the vital seed ; and the presiding
deity is Prajapati. The two hands are mentioned as connect-
ed with the soul by persons conversant with the relations of
the soul.^'' As connected with objects, it is actions ; and the
presiding deity there is Indra. Next, connected with the
soul is speech which relates to all the gods.^^ As connected
with objects, it is what is spoken. The presiding deity there
is Agni. As connected with the soul, the mind is mentioned,
which moves within the soul of the five elements.*^" As con-
nected with objects, it is the mental operation ; and the pre-
siding deity is Chandramas (moon). As connected with the
soul is Egoism, which is the cause of the whole course of
worldly life.^" As connected with objects, it is consciousness
of self ; and the presiding deity there is Rudra. As connect-
ed with the soul is the understanding, which impels the six
senses.^^ As connected with objects, it is that which is to be

* This probably implies that the mind, through the aid of the senses,
enters into all things or fe^viccecds in knowing them.^-T,

102 MaH4.bha.r\ta [Anugitd

understood, and the presiding deity there is Brahman. Three
are the seats of all existent objects. A fourth is not possible.'*
These are land, water, and ether. The mode of birth is fourfold.
Some are born of eggs ; some are born of germs which spring
upwards, penetrating through the earth ; some are born of filth ;
and some are born of fleshy balls in wombs.^^ Thus is the
mode of birth seen to be of four kinds, of all living creaturcr.
Now, there are other inferior beings and likewise those that
range the sky.'* These should be known to be born of egg3
as also those which crawl on their breasts. Insects are said
to be born of filth, as also other creatures of a like des-
cription.'^ This is said to be the second mode of birth and
is inferior. Those living creatures that take birth after the
lapse of sometime, bursting through the earth,'' are said
to be germ-born beings, ye foremost of regenerate persons I
Creatures of two feet or of many feet, and those which move
crookedly,"' are the beings born of wombs. Among them are
some that are deformed, ye best of men ! The eternal womb
of Brahma should be known to be of two kinds,'® viz., penance
and meritorious acts. Such is the doctrine of the learned.*
Action should be understood to be of various kinds, such as
sacrifice, gifts made at sacrifices,'^ and the meritorious duty
of study for every one that is born ; such is the teaching of
the ancients. He who duly understands this, comes to be
regarded as possessed of Yoga, ye chief of regenerate persons !*®
Know also that such a man becomes freed too from all his sins.
I have thus declared to you duly the doctrine of Adhyatma.f**
Ye Rishis conversant with all duties, a knowledge of this is
acquired by those who are regarded as persons of knowledge.
Uniting all these together, viz., the senses, the objects of the
senses, and the five great entities, one should hold them in the
mind.:}:*^ When everything is attenuated (by absorption) in

* The sense seems to be that through these one succeeds in taking
birth as a Brahmana. — T.

+ A repetition occurs here of about 5 Verses. The passage is
evidently an interpolation originally caused by carelessness. — T.

I Nilakantha explains that this implies that one should regard these
as really undistinguishgd from the mind. Indeed, created by the mind

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 103

the mind, one no longer esteems the pleasures of life. Learned
men, whose understandings are furnished with knowledge,
regard that as true happiness.*** I shall, after this, tell thee
of renunciation with respect to all entities by means gentle
and hard, which produces attachment to subtle topics and
which is fraught with auspiciousness.** That conduct which
consists in treating the qualities as not qualities, which is free
from attachment, which is living alone, which does not re-
cognise distinctions, and which is full of Brahma, is the
source of all happiness.f*^ The learned man who absorbs all
desires into himself from all sides like the tortoise withdraw-
ing all its limbs, who is devoid of passion, and who is released
from everything, becomes always happy.*^ Restraining all
desires within the soul, destroying his thirst, concentrated in
meditation, and becoming the friend of good heart towards
all creatures, he succeeds in becoming fit for assimilation with
Brahma.*'^ Through repression of all the senses which always
hanker after their objects, and abandonment of inhabited
places, the Adhyatma-fire blazes forth in the man of contem-
plation.*^ As a fire, fed with fuel, becomes bright in conse-
quence of the blazing flames it puts forth, even so, in conse-
quence of the repression of the senses, the great soul puts
forth its efi'ulgence.*® When one with a tranquil soul beholds
all entities in one's own heart, then, lighted by one's own
effulgence, one attains to that which is subtler than the subtle
and which is unrivalled in excellence.^" It is settled that the
body has fire for color, water for blood and other liquids, wind
for sense of touch, earth for the hideous holder of mind {viz.,

itself, these should always be taken as having no real existence beyond
the mind. — T.

* 'That' here refers to the attenuation of all things by absorption
into the mind. — T.

t 'Gunagunam' is treating the qualities as not-qualities ; {. e., re-
garding bravery, magnanimity, &c., as really not merits, for these lead
to pride. 'Ekacharyyara' is 'ekantavasam,' i. e., life in seclusion, or
living without depending upon others. 'Anantaram' is 'nirastasamasta-
bheda' or non-recognition of all distinctions. Some texts read 'Brah-
manatah' meaning 'existing among Brahmanas.' 'Ekapadam sukham' is
^bamastasukbagarbham,' *. e,, the source or fountain of all happiness.— T.

104< MAHABHARATA. [AnugUii

tlesh and bones &c.), space (or ether) for sound : that it is per-
vaded by disease and sorrow ; that it is overwhelmed by five
currents ; that it is made up of the five elements ; that it has
nine doors and two deities ;* that it is full of passion ; that it
is unfit to be seen (owing to its unholy character) ; that it is
made up of three qualities ; that it has three constituent ele-
ments, {viz., wind, bile, and phlegm) ; that it is delighted with
attachments of every kind ; that it is full of delusion.f""^*
It is difficult of being moved in this mortal world, and it rests
on the understanding as its support. That body is, in this
world, the wheel of Time that is continually revolving4^*

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