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That (body), indeed, is a terrible and unfathomable ocean and
is called delusion. It is this body which stretches forth, con-
tracts, and awakens the (whole) universe with the (very) im-
mortals-S*^^ By restraining the senses, one casts off lust,
wrath, fear, cupidity, enmity, and falsehood, which are eter-
nal and, therefore, exceedingly, difficult to cast off.H^^ He
who has subjugated these in this world, viz., the three quali-
ties and the five constituent elements of the body, has the
Highest for his seat in Heaven. By him is Infinity attained."
Crossing the river that has the five senses for its steep banks,
the mental inclinations for its mighty waters, and delusion for
its lake, one should subjugate both lust and wrath.^^ Such a

* The two deities are Jiva and Icwara.^T.

t The correct reading, in 53 seems to be 'samsargabhiratam' and not
•samcayabhiratam.' — T.

I In the second line, the correct words are 'martya' and 'sarva ' The
sense of the second line seems to be that this body is ceasele-^sly
revolving, for Emancipation is difficult to achieve. Hence this borly is,
as it were, the wheel of Time. Nilakantha's explanation does not seem
to be satisfactory. — T.

$ I do not think that Telang is correct in his version of this Verse.
What is said here seems to be this. The body is, as it were, the wheel
of Time ; the body is the ocean of delusion ; the body is the creator,
destroyer, and re-awakener of the universe. Through the body crea»
tures act, and hence creation, destruction, and re-creation are due to
the body. This accords with what is said elsewhere regarding the
body.— T.

H It would be wrong to take 'satah' as implying 'the good,' the final
verb in every text being singular.— T. ."

Parva.] acwamedha parva^ 105

man, freed from all faults, then beholds the Highest, con-
centrating the mind within the mind and seeing self in self.^'
Understanding all things, he sees his self, with self, in all
creatures, sometimes as one and sometimes as diverse, chang-
ing form from time to tirne.*^® Without doubt, he can per-
ceive numerous bodies like a hundred lights from one light.
Verily, he is Vishnu, and Mitra, and Varuna, and Agni, and
Prajapati." He is the Creator and the ordainer ; he is the
Lord possessed of puissance, with faces turned in all directions.
In him, the heart of all creatures, the great soul, becomes
resplendent.^^ Him all conclaves of learned Brahmanas,
deities and Asuras, and Yakshas, and Pi^achas, the Pitris,
and birds, and bands of Rakshasas, and bauds of ghostly
beings, and all the great Rishis, praise. — * "^*

Section XLIII.

" ' — Brahman said, — Among men, the royal Kshatriya is
(endued with") the middle quality. Among vehicles, the ele-
phant (is so) ; and among denizens of the forest the lion ;*
among all (sacrificial) animals, the sheep ; among all those
that live in holes, is the snake ; among cattle, the bovine bull ;
among females, the male.f^ There is no doubt in this that
in this world, the Nyagrodha, the Jamvu, the Pippala, the
Calmali, the Cin^apa, the Mesha^ringa, and the Kichaka,
are the foremost ones among trees.^^ Himavat, Paripatra,
Sahya, Vindhya, Trikutavat, Cweta, Nila, Bhasa, Koshtha-
vat,* Guruskandha, Mahendra, and Malyavat,— these are

* The correct reading seems to be 'atmana' as the last word of the
first line, and not 'atmam.' — T.

t "What is said here is that the quality of passion predominates in
these.— T.

I Nyagrodha is the Ficws Bengalensis, Linn. Jamvu is Eugenia Jam-
bolana, Lamlc. Pippala is Ficus religiosa, Linn. Calmali is Bomhax
MaLaharicum. Cingapa is Dalhergia Sizsoo, Roxh. Meshagringa is
Asdepia geminata, Roxh. Kichaka is a variety of mountain bamboo.
Here, however, it evidently implies the Nimba or Melia Azadirachta^
Lmn. — T.

[ H ]

lOG MaHABHftRATA. " [AniUfiLt

the foremost of rr.ountains. Likewise the Maruts are the
foremost of the Gaiias.^ Surya is the lord of all the planets,
and Chandramas of all the constellations. Yama is the lord
of the Pitris ; Ocean is the lord of all rivers.^ Varuna is the
king of the waters. Indra is said to be the king of the
Maruts. Arka is the king of all hot bodies, and Indra of all
luminous bodies.'^ Agni is the eternal lord of the elements,
and Vrihaspati of the Brahmanas. Soma is the lord of (deci-
duous) herbs, and Vishnu is the foremost of all that are en-
dued with might.^ Tashtri is the king of Rudras, and Civa of
all creatures. Sacrifice is the foremost of all initiatory rites,
and Maghavat of the deities.^ The North is the lord of all
the points of the compass ; Soma of great energy is the lord of
all learned Brahmanas. Kuvera is the lord of all precious
gems, and Purandara of all the deities.^" Such is the highest
■creation among all entities. Prajapati is the lord of all crea-
tures. Of all entities whatever, I, who am full of Brahma,
am the foremost.^* There is no entity that is higher than,
myself or Vishnu. The great Vishnu, who is full of Brahma,
is the king of kings over all. Know him to be the ruler, the
creator, the uncreated Hari.^" He is the ruler of men and
Kinnaras and Yakshas and Gandharvas, and snakes and
Rakshasas, and deities and Danavas and Nagas.'^ Among
those that are followed by persons full of desire is the great
goddess Maheswari of beautiful eyes.^* She is otherwise
called by the name of Parvati. Know that the goddess Uma
is the foremost and the most auspicious of women. Among
women that arc a source of pleasure, the foremost are the
Apsaras who are possessed of great splendour.*^^ Kings are
desirous of acquiring piety, and Brahmanas are causeways of
piety. Therefore, the king should always strive to protect
tbe twice-born ones.^^ Those kings in whose dominions good
men languish are regarded as bereft of the virtues of their
order. Hereafter they have to go into wrong paths." Those

* Nilakantha is for taking the second line as consisting of two
propositionis. It would be better to take 'satinilm' as refering to 'stri-
nam,' and 'vasuraatyah' as an adjective of 'Apiararah.' — T.

Farva.] acwamedha parva. 107

kinc's in whose dominious good men are protected, rejoice in
this world and enjoy happiness hereafter.^^ Verily, those
high-souled ones attain to the highest seat. Understand this,
ye foremost of regenerate ones ! I shall after this state the
everlasting indications of duties.^^ Abstention from injury
is the highest duty. Injury is an indication of unrighteous-
ness. Splendour is the indication of the deities. Men have
acts for their indications.-" Ether (or space) has sound for its
characteristic. Wind has touch for its characteristic. The
characteristic of lighted bodies is color, and water has taste
for its characteristic.^^ Earth, which holds all entities, has
smell for its characteristic. Speech has words for its charac-
teristic, refined into vowels and consonants.^^ Mind has
thought for its characteristic. Thought has, again, been said
to be the characteristic of the understanding. The things
thought of by the mind are ascertained with accuracy by the
understanding.-^ There is no doubt in this, viz., that the
understanding, by perseverance, perceives all things. The
characteristic of mind is meditation. The characteristic of
the good man is (living) unperceived.*-* Devotion has acts
for its characteristic. Knowledge is the characteristic of re-
nunciation. Therefore, keeping knowledge before his view,
the man of understanding should practise renunciation.^^ The
man who has betaken himself to renunciation and who is
possessed of knowledge, who transcends all pairs of opposites,
as also darkness, death, and decrepitude, attains to the high-
est goat.^® I have thus declared to you duly what the in-
dications are of duty. I shall, after this, tell you of the
seizuse (comprehension) of qualities.^'' Smell, which apper-
tains to earth, is seized by the nose. The wind, that dwells
in the nose is likewise appointed (as an agent) in the percep-
tion of smell.^^ Taste is the essence of water. That is seized
by the tongue. Soma, who resides in the tongue, is appointed
likewise in the perception of taste.^^ The quality of a lighted
body is color. That is seized by the eye. Aditya who always

* The sense seems to be that good men never allow othei^ to know
what their acts are. They are stranger?! to ostentation, — T.

108 MAJlA.BnAKA.TA. [A7iugitil

resides in the eye has been appointed in the perception of
color.^'' Touch always appertains to the wind (as its quality).
That is perceived by the skin. The wind that always resides
in the skin has been appointed in apprehending touch.^^ The
quality of a ether is sound. That is seized by the ear. All
the quarters, which reside in the ear, have been appointed in
apprehending sound.^" The quality of the mind is thought.
That is seized by the understanding. The upholder of con-
sciousness, residing in the heart, has been appointed in appre-
hending the mind.^^ The understanding is apprehended in
the form of determination or certitude, and Mahat in the
form of knowledge. The unperceived (Prakriti) has been, it
is evident, appointed for the seizure of all things after certi-
tude. There is no doubt in this.*^* The Kshetrajna which is
eternal and is destitute of qualities as regards its essence, is
incapable of being seized by symbols. Hence, the character-
istic of the Kshetrajna, which is without symbols, is purely
knowledge.^^ The unmanifest resides in the symbol called
Kshetra, and is that in which the qualities are produced and
absorbed. I always see, know, and hear it (though) it is
hidden.2^ Purusha knows it ; therefore is he called Kshetrajna.
The Kshetrajna perceives also the operations of the qualities
and absence of their operations.^^ The qualities, which are
created repeatedly, do not know themselves, being unintelli-
gent, as entities to be created and endued with a beginning,
middle, and end.^^ No one else attains, only the Kshetrajna
attains, to that which is the highest and great and which
transcends the qualities and tho^e entities which are born of
the qualities.^^ Hence, one who understands duties, casting
off qualities and the understanding, and having his sins des-
troyed, and transcending the qualities, enters the Kshetrajna.*®
One that is free from all pairs of opposites, that never bends

* The sense seems to be that the knowledge of one's own identity
and of things as discriminated from one another is presided over by
Prakriti. If the question is asked whence is the knowledge— 'I am
so,' and that 'this is so,' the answer is that it comes from Prakriti or
Nature.— T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva, 109

his head to any one, that is divested of Swaha.. that is im-
movable, and homeless, is the Kshetrajna. He is the Supreme
Lord.—' ""

Section XLIV.

" ' — Brahman said, — I shall now tell you tru'y about all
that which has a beginning, middle, and end, and which is en-
dued with name and characteristics, together, with the means
of apprehension.^ It has been said that the Day was first.
Then arose Night. The Months are said to have the lighted
fortnights first. The constellations have Cravana for their
first ; the Seasons have that of dews {viz., Winter) for their
first.^ Earth is the source of all smells ; and Water of all
tastes. The solar light is the source of all colours ; the Wind
of all sensations of touch.^ Likewise of sound the source is
space (or Ether). These are the qualities of elements. I
shall, after this, declare that which is the first and the highest
of all entities.* The sun is the first of all lighted bodies.
Eire is said to be the first of all the elements. Savitri is the
first of all branches of learning. Prajapati is the first of all
the deities.^ The syllable Om is the first of all the Vedas,
and the life-wind Prana is the first of all winds. All that is
called Savitri which is prescribed in this world.** The Gaya-
tri is the first of all metres ; of all (sacrificial) animals, the
first is the goat. Kine are the first of all quadrupeds. The
twice-born ones are the first of all human beings.^ The hawk
is the first of all birds. Of sacrifices the first is the pouring
of clarified butter on the fire. Of all reptiles the first, O
foremost of regenerate ones, is the snake.^ The Krita is the
first of all the Yugas ; there is no doubt in this. Gold is the
first of all precious things.^ Barley is the first of all plants.
Food is the first of all things to be eaten or swallowed. Of

* As explained by Nilakantha, the word 'Savitri' is used here to
imply all forma of worship observed by Brahmanas &c., and the
Mlpcchas as well. This tui-ning back to explain a word tised before is
said to be an instance of "looking back like the lion."— T.

110 MAHABHARATA» [AtlUgitci

all liquid substances to be drunk, water is the foremost.*"* Of
all immobile entities without distinction, Plaksha is said to
be the first, that ever holv field of Brahman." Of all the
Prajapatis I am the first. There is no doubt in this. Of in-
conceivable soul, the self-existent Vishnu is said to be my
superior.*" Of all the mountains the great Meru is said to
be the first-born. Of all the cardinal and subsidiary points
of the horizon, the eastern is said to be the foremost and
first-born.** Ganga of three courses is said to be the first-born
of all rivers. Likewise, of all wells and reservoirs of waters,
the ocean is said to be the first-born.** I^.wara is the supreme
Lord of all the deities and Danavas and ghostly beings and
Picjachas, and snakes and Rakshasas, and human beings and
Kinnaras and Yakshas.*^ The great Vishnu, who is full of
Brahma, than whom there is no higher being in the three
worlds, is the first of all the universe.*^ Of all the modes of
life, that of the householder is the first. Of this there is no
doubt. The Unmanifest is the source of all the worlds as,
indeed, that is the end of every thing.*' Days end with the
sun's setting and Nights with the sun's rising. The end of
pleasure is always sorrow, and the end of sorrow is always
jjleasure.*® All accumolations have exhaustion for their end,
and all ascents have falls for their end. All associations have
dissociations for their end, and life has death for its end.*^
All action ends in destruction, and all that is born is certain
to meet with death. Every mobile and immobile thing in
this world is transient."" Sacrifice, gift, penances, study,
vows, observances, — all these have destruction for their end.
Of Knowledge, there is no end."* Hence, one that is pos-
sessed of a tranquil soul, that has subjugated his senses, that
is freed from the sense of meutn, that is devoid of egoism, is
released from all sins by pure knowledge. — ' """

* Telang, I think, renders this Verse wrongly. In t.he first line it
is said that Brahman is superior to the Prajapatis. In the second it is
pointed out that Vishnu is superior to Brahman,— T.


Section XLV.

" 'Brahman said, — The wheel of life moves on. It has the
understanding for its strength ; the mind for the pole (on
which it rests) ; the group of senses for its bonds, the (five)
great elements for its nave, and home for its circumference.**
It is overwhelmed by decrepitude and grief, and it has diseases
and calamities for its progeny. That wheel relates in time
and place. It has toil and exercise for its noise.^ Day and
Night are the rotations of that wheel. It is encircled by
beat and cold. Pleasure and pain are its joints, and hunger
and thirst are the nails fixed into it.^ Sun-shine and shade
are the ruts (it causes). It is capable of being agitated during
even such a short space of time as is taken up by the opening
and the closing of the eyelid. It is enveloped in the terrible
waters of delusion. It is ever revolving and void of con-
sciousness.* It is measured by months and half-months. It
is not uniform vbeing everchanging), and moves through all
the worlds. Penance and vows are its mud. Passion's force
is its mover.^ It is illuminated by the great egoism, and is
sustained by the qualities. Vexations (caused by the non-
acquisition of what is desired) are the fastenings that bind it
around. It revolves in the midst of grief and destruction.®
It is endued with actions and the instruments of action. It
is large and is extended by attachments. It is rendered un-
steady by cupidity and desire. It is produced by variegated
Ignorance.^ It is attended upon by fear and delusion, and is
the cause of the delusion of all beings. It moves towards joy
and pleasure, and has desire and wrath for its possession.^ It
is made up of entities beginning with Mahat and ending
with the gross elements. It is characterised by production

* It is difficult to Understand which part of the wheel is intended to
be expressedly 'bandhanarn' or the bond ; I take it for the spokes. 'Pari-
skandha' is 'samuha' or the materials that together compose an object.
Here it may be taken for the nave or centre. Home is called the cir-
- cumference, because, as the circumference limits the wheel, even so
home (wife and children) limits the afTections and acts of life. — T.

112 mahabharata. [AnugltS

and destruction going on ceaselessly. Its speed is like that of
the mind, and it has the mind for its boundary.*^ This
wheel of life that is associated with pairs of opposites and de-
void of consciousness, the universe with the very immortals
should cast away, abridge, and check.^** That man who al-
ways understands accurately the motion and stoppage of this
wheel of life, is never seen to be deluded, among all crea-
tures.^* Freed from all impressions, divested of all pairs of
opposites, released from all sins, he attains to the highest
goal.*^ The householder, the Brahmacharin, the forest re-
cluse and the mendicant, — these four modes of life have all
been said to have the householder's mode for their foundation.*®
Whatever system ©f rules is prescribed in this world, their
observance is beneficial. Such observance has always been
highly spoken of.** He who has been first cleansed by cere-
monies, who has duly observed vows, who belongs in respect
of birth to a race possessed of high qualifications, and who
■understands the Vedas, should return (from his preceptor's
house).+*^ Always devoted to his wedded spouse, conducting
himself after the manner of the good, with his senses under
subjugation, and full of faith, one should in this world per-
form the five sacrifices.*^ He who eats what remains after
feeding deities and guests, who is devoted to the observance
of Vedic rites, who duly performs according to his means
sacrifices and gifts,*^ who is unduly active with his hands and
feet, who is unduly active with his eye, who is devoted to
penances, who is not unduly active with his speech and limits,
comes under the category of Cishta or the good.*^ One should
always bear the sacred thread, wear white (clean) clothes,
observe pure vows, and should always associate with good

■* The words 'Kalachakram pravartate' have been rendered in the
first verse of this lesson. In verse 9, the words 'asaktaprabhavapa-
vyam' are explained by Nilakantha differently. 'Manas-krantam,' I
take, is equivalent to 'bounded by the mind.' I do not know whence
Telang gets 'never fatigued' as the substitute of this word. — T.

t Implying that he shovild go to the house of his preceptor, study
and serve there, and after completing his course, return for leading a
life of domesticity. — T.

Parva.] acwamedha p.vrva. 113

men, making gifts and practising self-restraint.^® One should
subjugate one's lust and stomach, practise universal com-
passion, and be characterised by behaviour that befits the
good. One should bear a bamboo-stick, and a water-pot filled
with water.-'' Havinor studied, one should teach ; likewise
should make sacrifices himself and officiate at the sacrifices of
others. One should also make gifts made to oneself. Yerily,
one's conduct should be characterised by these six acts."*
Know that three of these acts should constitute the liveli-
hood of the Brahmanas, viz., teaching (pupils), officiating at
the sacrifices of others, and the acceptance of gifts from a
person that is pure.^^ As to the other duties that remain,
numbering three, viz., making of gifts, study, and sacrifice,
these are accompanied by merit.*^* Observant of penances,
self-restrained, practising universal compassion and forgive-
ness, and looking upon all creatures with an equal eye, the
man that is conversant with duties should never be heedless
with regard to those three acts.^* The learned Brahmana of
pure heart, who observes the domestic mode of life and prac-
tises rigid vows, thus devoted and thus discharging all duties
to the best of his power, succeeds in conquering Heaven. — ' "^^

Section XLVI.

" 'Brahman said, — Duly studying thus to the best of his
power, in the way described above, and likewise living as a
Brahmacharin, one that is devoted to the duties of one's own
order, possessed of learning, observant of penances, and with
all the senses under restraint, devoted to what is agreeable
and beneficial to the preceptor, steady in practising the duty
of truth, and aljvays pure,^"^ should, with the permission of
the preceptor, eat one's food without decrying it. He should
eat Haviskya made from what is obtained in alms, and should
stand, sit, and take exercise (as directed).f ^ He should pour

* The sense seems to be that these last thrpe duties are productive of
merit and should, therefore, be . performed. The first three, however,
are sources of living. — T. •, ■

t 'Havishya' is food cocked in a particular wav and offered to' the

■ - -•'■ ' C-'" ' "■

[ 1-5 ]


libation? on the fire twice a day, having purified himself and
with concentrated mind. He should always bear a staff made
of Vilwa or Pala(;a.** The robes of the regenerate man
should be linen, or of cotton, or deer-skin, or a cloth that is
entirely brown-red.® There should also be a girdle made of
Munja- grass. He should bear matted locks on head, and
should perform his ablutions every day. He should bear the
sacred thread, study the scriptures, divest himself of cupidity,
and be steady in the observance of vows.* He should also
gratify the deities with oblations of pure water, his mind
being restrained the while. Such a Brahmacharin is worthy
of applause.^ With vital seed drawn up and mind con-
centrated, one that is thus devoted succeeds in conquering
Heaven. Having attained to the highest seat, he has not to
return to birth.^ Cleansed by all purificatory rites and having
lived as a Brahmacharin, one should next go out of one's
village and next live as an ascetic in the woods, having re-
nounced (all attachments).® Clad in animal skins or barks of
trees, he should perform his ablutions morning and evening.
Always living within the forest, he should never return to an
inhabited place.^° Honoring guests when they come, he
should give them shelter, and himself subsist upon fruits and
leaves and common roots, and Cyamaka.^^ He should, with-
out being slothful, subsist on such water as he gets, and air,
and all forest products. He should live upon these, in due
order, according to the regulations of his initiation.f^- He
should honor the guest that comes to him with alms of fruits
amd roots. He should then, without sloth, always give what-
ever oth^r food he may have.^^ Restraining speech the while,
he should eat after gratifying deities and guests. His mind

deities. It must be free from meat. There may be milk or ghee in it,
but the cooking must be done in a single pot or vessel continuously ;
no change of vessels is allowed. — T.

* Vilwa is the ^gle marmelos, and Pala^a is the Butea frondotS, of

lloxburgh.— T.

t At first he should live on fruits and roots and 1-eaves, &c. Next
on water, and then on air. There are different sects of forest recluses.
The ccurse of life is settled at the time of the initiatory rites.— T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 115

should be free from envy. He should eat little, and depend
always on the deities.^* Self-restrained, practising universal
compassion, and possessed of forgiveness, he should wear both
beard and hair (without submitting to the operations of
the barber). Performing sacrifices and devoting himself to
the study of the scriptures, he should be steady in the obser-
vance of the duty of truth.^® With body always in a state
of purity, endued with cleverness, ever dwelling in the forest,
with concentrated mind, and senses in subjection, a forest-

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