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recluse, thus devoting himself, would conquer Heaven." A
householder, or Brahmacharin, or forest-recluse, who would wish
to achieve Emancipation, should have recourse to that which
has been called the best course of conduct." Having granted
unto all creatures the pledge of utter abstention from harm, he
should thoroughly renounce all action. He should contribute
to the happiness of all creatures, practise universal friendliv-
ness, subjugate all his senses, and be an ascetic." Subsisting
upon food obtained without asking and without trouble, and
that has come to him spontaneously, he should make a fire.
He should make his round of mendicancy in a place whence
smoke has ceased to curl up and where all the inhabitants
have already eaten. *^^ The person who is conversant with
the conduct that leads to Emancipation should seek for alms
after the vessels (used in cooking) have been washed. He
should never rejoice when if he obtains anything, and never
be depressed if he obtains nothing.^° Seeking just what is
needed for supporting life, he should, with concentrated mind,
go about his round of mendicancy, waiting for the proper
time. He should not wish for earnings in common with others,
nor eat when honoured.^* The man who leads the life of
mendicancy should conceal himself for avoiding gifts with-
honour. While eating, he should not eat such food as forma
the remains of another's dish, nor such as is bitter, or as-

* What is stated here is this. The Sannyasin shoiild not ask for
alms : or, if he ever seeks for alms, he should seek them in a village
or house where the cooking has been already done and where every one
has already eaten. This limitation is provided as olherwise the Sannya-
sin may be fed to his fill by the householder who sees him.— T.

115 iiAiUBHA.i;iiTA [AnngitS

trincjent, or pungent.'* He should not also eat such kinds of
food as have a sweet taste. He should eat only so much as is
needed to keep him alive.^^ The person converstant with
Emancipation should obtain his subsistence without obstruct-
ing any creature. In his rounds of mendicancy he should
never follow another (bent on the same purpose)."* He should
never parade his piety ; he should move about in a secluded
place, freed from passion. Either an empty house, or a forest,
or the foot of some tree, or a river,"^ or a mountain-cave, be
should have recourse to for shelter. In summer he should pass
only one night in an inhabited place ; in the season of rains
he may live in one place. -^ He should move about the world
like a worm, his path pointed out by the Sun. From com-
passion for creatures, he should walk on the Earth with his
eyes directed towards it." He should never make any accu-
mulations and should avoid residence with friends. The man
conversant with Emancipation should every day do all his
acts with pure water."^ Such a man should always perform
his ablutions with water that has been fetched up (from the
river or the tank).* Abstention from harm, Brahmacharyya,
truth, siraplicity,^^ freedom from wrath, freedom from decry-
ing others, self-restraint, and habitual freedom from back-
biting : with senses restrained, he should steadily pursue
these eight vows.^° He should always practise a sinless mode
of conduct, that is not deceptive and not crooked. Freed
from attachment, he should always make one who comes as a
guest eat (at least) a morsel of food." He should eat just
enough for livelihood, for the support of life. He should eat
only such food as has been obtained by righteous means, and
should not pursue the dictates of desire.^* He should never
accept any other thing than food and clothing only. He should,
again, accept only as much as he can eat and nothing more.^'
He should not be induced to accept gifts from others, nor
should he make gifts to others. Owing to the heplessness of
creatures, the man of wisdom should always share with

* He sliould never plunge into a stream or lake or tank for bath-
ing. — T.

Parva.] acwa'mediia parva. 117

others.'* He should not appropriate what belongs to others,
nor should he take anything without being asked. He should
not, having enjoyed anything, become so attached to it as to
desire to have it once more.^^ One should take only earth and
water and pebbles and leaves and flowers and fruits, that are
not owned by any body, as they come, when one desires to do
any act.'* One should not live by the occupation of an arti-
san, nor should one covet gold. One should not hate, nor
teach (one that does not seek to be taught) ; nor should one
have any belongings.'^ One should eat only what is conse-
crated by faith. One should abstain froni controversies. One
should follow that course of conduct which has been said to
be nectarine. One should never be attached to anything, and
should never enter into relations of intimacy with any crea-
ture.'^ One should not perform, nor cause to perform, any
such action as involves expectation of fruit or destruction
of life or the hoarding of wealth or articles.'' Rejecting all
objects, content with a very little, one should wander about
(homeless), pursuing an equal behaviour towards all creatures
mobile and immobile.*** One should never annoy another
being ; nor should one be annoyed with another. He who is
trusted by all creatures is regarded as the foremost of those
persons that understand Emancipation.*^ One should not
think of the past nor feel anxious about the future. One
should disregard the present, biding time, with concentrated
mind.**^ One should never defile anything by eye, mind, or
speech. Nor should one do anything that is wrong, openly
or in secret.*' Withdrawing one's senses like the tortoise
withdrawing its limbs, one should attenuate one's senses and
mind, cultivate a thoroughly peaceful understanding, and seek
to. master every topic.** Freed from all pairs of opposites-
never bending one's head in reverence, abstaining from the
rites requiring the utterance of Swaha, one should be free
from miueness, and egoism. With cleansed soul, one should
never seek to acquire what one has not and protect what one

* 'Kalakankhi' implies, probably, 'simply biding time,' i. e., allow-
ing time to pass indifferently over him. — T.


has.*^ Free from expectations, divested of qualities, wedded
to tranquillity, one should be free from all attachments and
should depend on none. Attached to one's own self and
comprehending all topics, one becomes emancipated without
doubt.*" Those who perceive the self, which is without hands
and feet and back, which is without head and without stomach,
which is free from the operation of all qualities, which is
absolute, untainted, and stable,*^ which is without smell,
without taste and touch, without color, and without sound,
which is to be comprehended (by close study), which is un-
attached, which is without flesh,*^ which is free from anxiety,
unfading, and divine, and, lastly, which though dwelling in
a house resides in all creatures, succeed in escaping death.**
There the understanding reaches not, nor the senses, nor the
deities, nor the Vedas, nor sacrifices, nor the regions (of
superior bliss), nor penance, nor vows.^** The attainment to
it by those who are possessed of knowledge is said to be with-
out comprehension of symbols. Hence, the man who knows
the properties of that which is destitute of symbols, should
practise the truths of piety,*" The learned man, betaking
himself to a life of domesticity, should adopt that conduct
which is conformable to true knowledge. Though undeluded,
he should practise piety after the manner of one that is
deluded, without finding fault without it." Without finding
fault with the practices of the good, he should himself adopt
such a conduct for practising piety as may induce others to
ahva3'S disrespect him.^' That man who is endued with such
a conduct is said to be the foremost of ascetics. The senses,
the objects of the senses, the (five) great elements,*'* mind,
understanding, egoism, the unman ifest, Purusha also, after
comprehending these duly with the aid of correct inferences,^*
one attains to Heaven, released from all bonds. One conver-
sant with the truth, understanding these at the time of the

* The sense seems to be this : the self or soul is without qualities.
He who knows the self, or rather he who pursues the self with the
desire of knowing it, should practise the truths of piety laid down
above They constitute the path that le^ds to the self. — T.

Farva.] acwamedha parva. 119

termination of his life," should meditate, exclusively resting
on one point. Then, depending on none, one attains to
Emancipation. Freed from all attachments, like the wind in
space, with his accumulations exhausted, without distress of
any kind, he attains to the highest goal. — ' ""

Section XLVII.

" ' — Brahman said, — The ancients who were utterers of
certain truth, say that Renunciation is penance, Brahmanas,
dwelling in that which has Brahma for its origin, understand
Knowledge to be high Brahma.** Brahma is very far off,
and its attainment depends upon a knowledge of the Vedas.
It is free from all pairs of opposites, it is divested of all quali-
ties ; it is eternal; it is endued with unthinkable qualities; it
is supreme,^ It is by knowledge and penance that those
€ndued with wisdom behold that which is the highest. Verily,
they that are of untained minds, that are cleansed of every
sin, and that have transcended all passion and darkness (suc-
ceed in beholding it.)^ They who are always devoted to re-
nunciation, and who are conversant with the Vedas, succeed in
attaining to the supreme Lord who is identical with the path
■of happiness and peace, by the aid of penance.* Penance, it
has been said, is light. Conduct leads to peity. Knowledge
is said to be the highest. Renunciation is the best penance.^
He who understands self through accurate determination of
all topics, which is unperturbed, which is identical with
Knowledge, and which resides in all entities, succeeds in going
€verywhere.^ That learned man who beholds association and
dissociation, and unity in diversity, is released from misery.'^
He who never desires for anything, who despises nothing, be-
comes eligible, even when dwelling in this world, for assimila-
tion with Brahma.^ He who is conversant with the truths
about qualities of Pradhana, and understands the Pradhana
as existing in all entities, who is free from mineness and
egoism, without doubt becomes emancipated.' He who is

* 'That which has: IJrahraa for its origin' implies the Vedas.— T.


freed from all pairs of opposites, who does not bend his head
to any body, who has transcended the rites of Swadha, suc-
ceeds by the aid of tranquillity alone in attaining to that
which is free from pairs of opposites, which is eternal, and
which is divested of qualities.-'® Abandoning all action, good
or bad, developed from qualities, and casting off both truth
and falsehood, a creature, without doubt, becomes emancipat-
ed.*^ Having the unmanifest for the seed of its origin, with
the understanding for its trunk, with the great principle of
egoism for its assemblage of boughs, with the senses for the
cavities of its little sprouts,*^ with the (five) great elements for
its large branches, the objects of the senses for its smaller
branches, with leaves that are ever present, with flowers that
always adorn it, and with fruits both agreeable and disagree-
able always produced,^^ is the eternal tree of Brahma which
forms the support of all creatures. Cutting and piercing that
tree with knowledge of truth as the sword, the man of wis-
dom,** abandoning the bonds which are made of attachment
and which cause birth, decrepitude and death, and freeing
himself from mineness and egoism, without doubt, becomes
emancipated.*^ These are the two birds, which are immutable,
which are friends, and which should be known as unintelligent.
That other who is different from these two is called the Intelli-
gent.** When the inner self, which is destitute of knowledge
of nature, which is (as it were) unintelligent, becomes con-
versant with that which is above nature, then, understanding
the Kshetra, and endued with an intelligence that transcends
all qualities and apprehends everything, becomes released
from all sins. — ' "*^

Section XLVIII.

" ' — Brahman said, — Some regard Brahma as a tree. Some
regard Brahma as a great forest. Some regard Brahma as
unmanifest. Some regard it as transcendant and freed from
every distress.* They think that all this is produced from
and absorbed into the unmanifest. He who, even for the
short space of time that is taken by a single breath, when his

Parva.] ACWAMEDHA parva. 221

end comes, becomes equable,^ attaining to the self, fits him-
self for immortality. Kestraining the self in the self, even
for the space of a wink,^ one goes, through the tranquillity
of the self, to that T7hich constitutes the inexhaustible
acquisition of those that are endued with knowledge. Res-
training the life-breaths again and again by controlling them
according to the method called Pranayama,* by the ten or
the twelve, he attains to that which is beyond the four and
twenty. Thus having first acquired a tranquil soul, one at-
tains to the fruition of all one's wishes.*^ When the quality
of Goodness predominates in that which arises from the Un-
manifest, it becomes fit for immortality. They Avho are con-
versant with Goodness applaud it highly, saying that there
is nothing higher than Goodness.^ By inference we know
that Purusha is dependent on Goodness. Ye best of regene-
rate ones, it is impossible to attain to Purusha by any other
means.'' Forgiveness, courage, abstention from harm, eqabi-
lity, truth, sincerity, knowledge, gift, and renunciation, are
said to be the characteristics of that course of conduct which
arises out of Goodness.^ It is by this inference that the wise
believe in the identity of Purusha and Goodness. There is
no doubt in this.^ Some learned men that are devoted to
knowledge assort the unity of Kshetrajna and Nature. This,
however, is not correct.^** If it is said that Nature is differ-
ent from Purusha, that also will imply a want of considera-
tion.-^^ Truly, distinction and association should be known (as
applying to Purusha and Nature). Unity and diversity are
likewise laid down. That is the doctrine of the learned. In
the gnat and Udumvara both unity and diversity are seen.^'^

* Commentators differ about vrhat is implied by the ten or the
twelve. Nilakantha thinks that the ten mean the eight characteristics
of Yoga, viz., Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dha-
rana, Dhyana, Samadhi, and Tarka and Vair.agya. The twelve would
imply the first eight, and these four, viz., Maitri, Karuna, Mudita, and
TJpeksha. If ten ^?ms twelve or two and twenty be taken, then that
number would be made up by the five modes of Yama, the five of
Niyama, the remaining six of foga 'beginning with Ai^ana. avid pndinrf
•with Samadhi), the four beginning with Maitri, and tae two, viz.,
Tarka and Vairagya. — T.

[ 16 ]

122 maHaBHAkata! [AnugitS

As a fish in water is different from it, such is the relation of
the two {viz., Purusha and Nature). Verily, their relation ia
like that of water drops on the leaf of the lotus. — '"

" 'The preceptor continued, — Thus addressed, those learned
Brahmanas, who were the foremost of men, felt some doubt!^
and (therefore) they once more questioned the Grandsire (of
all creatures).*' "^*

Section XLIX.

" 'The Hishis said, — Which among the duties is deemed to
be the most worthy of being performed ? The diverse modes
of duty, we see, are contradictory.* Some say that (it re-
mains) after the body (is destroyed). Others say that it does
not exist. Some say that everything is doubtful. Others
have no doubts.-]-^ Some say that the eternal (principle) ia
not eternal. Some say that it exists, and some that it exists
not. Some say it is of one form, or twofold, and others that
it is mixed.^ Some Brahmanas who are conversant with
Brahma and utterers of truth regard it to be one. Others,
that it is distinct ; and others again that it is manifold.*
Some say that both time and space exist ; others, that it is
not so. Some bear matted locks on their heads and are clad
in deer-skins. Others have shaven crowns and go entirely
naked.^ Some are for entire abstention from bathing, and some
for bathing. Such differences of views may be seen among
deities and Brahmanas conversant with Brahma and endued

* What is said in this Lesson seems to be this : the Unmanifest or
Prakriti is that condition in which all the three qualities of Goodness,
Passion, and Darkness exist in a state of combination. The unmanifest
is the conJition existing before creation. When one particular qaality,
viz., Goodness prevails over the others, there arises Purusha, that, viz.,
from whom everything flows. The relation of Purusha and Nature is
both unity and diversity. The three illustrations of the Gnat and the
Udnmbara, the fish and water, and water drops and the lotus leaf, ex-
plain the relation between Purusha and Nature. He is in Nature, yen
different from it. There is both association and dissociation. — T.

t The doubts appertain to duties, that is, whether they should be
•done or not, and whether they have any effects here and hereafter. — T.

Parva.] acwamedha parvaI 123

with perceptions of truth." Some are for taking food ; while
some are devoted to fasts. Some applaud action. Others
applaud perfect tranquillity.^ Some applaud Emancipation.
Some, various kinds of enjoyments.^ Some desire diverse
kinds of wealth. Some, poverty. Some say that means should
be resorted to. Others, that this is not so.^ Some are de-
voted to a life of abstention from harm. Others are addicted
to destruction. Some are for merit and glory. Others say
that this is not so.^® Some are devoted to goodness. Others
are established on doubt, Some are for pleasure. Some are
for pain. Other people say that it is meditation.^^ Other
learned Brahmanas say that it is Sacrifice. Others, again,
say that it is gift. Others applaud penances. Others, the
study of the scriptures.^^ Some say that knowledge and re-
nunciation (should be followed). Others who ponder on the
elements say that it is Nature. Some extol everything.
Others, nothing.^^ O foremost one of the deities, duty being
thus confused and full of contradictions of various kinds, we
are deluded and unable to come to any conclusion." People
stand up for acting, saying, — This is good,— This is good.— He
that is attached to a certain duty applauds that duty as the
best.^^ For this reason our understanding breaks down and
our mind is distracted. We, therefore, wish, best of all
beings, to know what is good." It behooves thee to declare
to us, after this, what is (so) mysterious, and what is the
cause of the connection between the Kshetrajna and Nature.^''
Thus addressed by those learned Brahmanas, the illustrious
creator of the worlds, endued with great intelligence and
possessed of a righteous soul, declared to them accurately what
they asked. — ' ""

Section L.

•"—Brahman said,— Well then, I shall declare to yoa
what you ask. Learn what was told by a preceptor to a dis-
ciple that came unto him.^ Hearing it all, do you settle pro-
perly (what it should be). Abstention from harming any crea-
ture is regarded as the foremost of all duties.^ That is the

124 MAHABHARATA.' [Anugitd

highest seat, free from anxiety and constituting an indication
of holiness. The ancients who were beholders of the certain
truth, have said that knowledge is the highest happiness.'
Hence, one becomes released of all sins by pure knowledge.
They that are engaged iu destruction and harm, they that are
infidels in conduct,* have to go to Hell in consequence of their
being endued with cupidity and delusion. Those who, without
procrastination, perform acts, impelled thereto by expectation,^
become repeatedl}'' born in this world and sport in joy.
Those men who, endued with learning and wisdom, perform
acts with faith, free from expectations, and possessed of con-
centration of mind, are said to percieve clearly," I shall,
after this, declare how the association and the dissociation
takes place of Kshetrajua and Nature. Ye best of men,
listen. The relation here is said to be that between the object
and the subject.*'^"^ Purusha is always the subject ; and
nature has been said to be the object. It has been explained,
by what has been said in a previous portion of the discourse
where it has been pointed out, that they exist after the
manner of the gnat and the Udum;'^ara.^ An object of enjoy-
ment as it is, Nature is unintelligent and knows nothing.
He, however, who enjoys it, is said to know it. Kshetrajna
being enjoyer, Nature is enjoyed.-^^ The wise have said that
Nature is always made up of pairs of opposites (and consists
of qualities). Kshetrajna is, on the other hand, destitute of
pairs of opposites, devoid of parts, eternal, and free, as re-
gards its essence, from qualities.-^^ He resides in everything
alike, and walks, with knowledge. He always enjoys Nature
as a lotus leaf (enjoys) water.^^ Possessed of knowledge, he is
never tainted even if brought into contact with all the quali-
ties." Without doubt, Purusha is unattached like the unsteady
drop of water on the lotus-leaf. This is the certain conclusion
(of the scriptures) that Nature is the property of Purusha.^*
The relation between these two {viz., Purusha and Nature) is

I ^- — — — — — — ^ — — — — — _.

* The thinking or enjoying agent is subject, and that which is
thought or e"joyed is object. Subject and object are two well known
words in Sir W Hamilton's philosophy. 1 follow Telang in adopting
thorn.— T.

Parva.] aCWamedha. parva. 125

like that existing between matter and its maker. As one goes
into a dark place taking a light with him,^^ even so those who
wish for the Supreme proceed with the light of Nature.* As
long as matter and quality (which are like oil and wick) exist,
so long the light shines.-'® The flame, however, becomes ex-
tinguished when matter and quality (or oil and wick) are
exhausted. Thus Nature is manifest ; while Purusha is said
to be unmanifest.-^'^ Understand this, ve learned Brahmanas !
Well, I shall now tell you something more. With even a
thousand (explanations), one that has a bad understanding
succeeds not in acquiring knowledge.^^ One, however, that
is endued with intelligence succeeds in attaining happiness,
through only a fourth share (of explanations). Thus should
the accomplishment of duty be understood as dependent on
means.^^ For the man of intelligence, having knowledge of
means, succeeds in attaining to supreme felicity.-** As some
man travelling along a road without provisions for his journey,
proceeds with great discomfort and may even meet with des-
truction before he reaches the end of his journey, even so
should it be known that in acts there may or may not be
fruits.-}-"^ The examination of what is agreeable and what
disagreeable in one's own self is productive of benefit.^ The
progress in life of a man that is devoid of the perception of
truth is like that of a man who rashly journeys on a long road
unseen before. The progress, however, of those that are
endued with intelligence is like that of men who journey
along the same road, riding on a car unto which are yoked

* 'Sattwa pradipa,' rendered 'light of Nature,' implies, as Nila-
kaiitha explains, knowledge, which is a manifestation of Nature.
Arjuua Misra's interpretation seems to be better. He says that know-
ledge, — that is, knowledge of truth, — is acpuired by the self through

t The sense seems to be this : one who proceeds on a journey must
provide oneself with the necessary means, otherwise one is sure to feel
discomfort or meet with even destruction. So, in the journey of life,
one must provide oneself with knowledge as the means. One may then
avoid all discomfort and danger. Action does not constitute the proper
means. It may or may not produce fruits. — T.

I /. «., one should not cai'e for the external. — T,

126 Mi-HABHiRATA. [Anugit3

(fleet) steeds and which moves with swiftness. Having as-
cended to the top of a mountain, one should not cast one's
eyes on the surface of the earth. *""^* Seeing a man, even
though travelling on a car, afflicted and rendered insensible
by pain, the man of intelligence journeys on a car as long as

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