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there is a car-path-f"^ The man of learning, when he sees
the car-path end, abandons his car for going on. Even thus
proceeds the man of intelligence who is conversant with the
ordinances respecting truth and Yoga (or Knowledge and
Devotion).^^ Conversant with the qualities, such a man pro-
ceeds, comprehending what is next and next.j^'' As one that
plunges, without a boat, into the terrible ocean, with only
one's two arms, through delusion, undoubtedly wishes for des-
truction f^ while the man of wisdom, conversant with distinc-
tions, goes into the water, with a boat equipt with oars, and
soon crosses the lake without fatigue, and having crossed it
attains to the other shore and casts off the boat, freed from
the thought of meum."^ This has been already explained by
the illustration of the car and the pedestrian. One who has
been overwhelmed by delusion in cotisequence of attachment,
adheres to it like a fisherman to his boat.^° Overcome by the
idea of meum, one wanders within its narrow range. After
embarking on a boat it is not possible in moving about on
land.^^ Similarly, it is not possible in moving about on water
after one has mounted on a car. There are thus various
actions with regard to various objects.^^ And as action is
performed in this world, so does it result to those that perform
them. That which is void of smell, void of taste, and void of
touch and sound,^^ that which is meditated upon by the sages

* /. e., one need not do acta enjoined by the scriptures after one has
attained to knowledge which is the highest seat. — T.

t The sense is this : riding on a car may not always be comfortable.
As long as there is a car-path, one should travel on one's car. If, how-
ever, the road be such as not to be fit for a car to proceed along it, one
should avoid a car in going over it, for the car, instead of conducing to
comfort, would, on s\ich a path, be productive of only discomfort. — T.

X I. e., first action with desire ; then action without desire ; then
knowledse, according to Arjuna Misra. Nilakantha explains that
action is first, then Yoga ; then the «tate of Hansa or Paramahane*.— T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 127

with the aid of their understanding, is said to be Pradhana.
Now, Pradhana is unmanifest. A development of the un-
manifest is Mahat.'* A development of Pradhana when it
has become Mahat is Egoism. From egoism is produced the
development called the great elements.^^ And of the great
elements respectively, the objects of sense are said to be the
developments. The unmanifest is of the nature of seed. It
is productive in its essence.^* It has been heard by us that
the great soul has the virtues of a seed, and that is a product.
Egoism is of the nature of seed and is a product again and
again.^'^ And the five great elements are of the nature of
seed and products. The objects of the five great elements are
endued with the nature of seed, and yield products. These
have Chitta for their property. Among them, space has one
equality ; wind is said to have two.^^"^^ Light, it is said, is
endued with three qualities ; and water as possessed of four
qualities. Earth, teeming with mobiles and immobiles, should
be known as possessed of five qualities.*** She is a goddess
that is the source of all entities and abounds with examples of
the agreeable and the disagreeable. Sound, likewise touch,
color, taste, and smell numbering the fifth," — these are the
five qualities of earth, ye foremost of regenerate persons !
Smell always belongs to earth, and smell is said to be of vari-
ous kinds.** I shall state at length the numerous qualities of
smell. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable, sweet, sour, pung-
ent, diffusive and compact, oily and dry, and clear.*^ Thus
smell, which belongs to the earth, should be known as of
ten kinds.*** Sound, touch, likewise color, and taste have
been said to be the qualities of water. I shall now speak of
the qualities of Taste. Taste has been said to be of various
kinds.*^ Sweet, sour, pungent, bitter, astingent, and saline
likewise. Taste, which has been said to appertain to water,
is thus of six varieties.*^ Sound, touch, and likewise color, —
these are the three qualities which light is said to be possessed
of Color is the quality of light, and color is said to be of

* 'Katu' is not bitter but pungent or sharp, as that which is attached
to chillies. — T.

128 M/vnABnAR\T4. [Anug't'l

various kinds/^ White, dark, likewise red, blue, yellow, and
grey also, and short, long, minute, gross, square and cir-
cular," of these twelve varieties is color which belongs to
light. These should be understood by Brahmanas venerable
for years, conversant with duties, and truthful in speech.**
Sound and touch should be known as the two qualities of
wind. Touch has been said to be of various kinds.^° Kough,
cold and likewise hot, tender and clear, hard, oily, smooth,
slippery, painful and soft,^^ of twelve kinds is touch, which is
the quality of wind, as said by Brahmanas crowned with
success, conversant with duties, and possessed of a sight of
truth.^^ Now, space has only one quality, and that is said
to be sound. I shall speak at length of the numerous qualities
of sound.^^ Shadaja, Rishabha, together with Gandhara, Ma-
dhyaraa, and likewise Panchama ; after this should be known
Nishada, and then Dhaivata,* besides these, there are agree-
able sounds and disagreeable sounds, compact, and of many
ingredients.^* Sound which is born of space should thus be
known to be of ten kinds. Space is the highest of the (five)
elements. Egoism is above it.^^ Above egoism is understand-
ing. Above understanding is the soul. Above the soul is the
XJnmanifest. Above the Unmanifest is Purusha.'^*' One who
knows which is superior and inferior among existent creatures,
who is conversant with the ordinances in respect of all acts,
and who constitutes himself the soul of all creatures, attains
to the Unfading Soul.—' "''

Section LI.

" ' — Brahman said, — Since the mind is the ruler of these
five elements, in the matter of controlling and bringing them
forth, the mind, therefore, is the soul of the elements.^ The
mind always presides over the great elements. The under-
standing proclaims power, and is called the Kshetrajna.f^ The

* These are the notes of the Hindu Gamut. — T.

t The understanding operate.s on what is placed before it by the
mind. The understanding, therefore, is, as it were, the lord exercising
power or severeignty, being sprved by tlie mind. — T.


Parva.] acwamedha parva. 129

mind yokes the senses as a charioteer yokes good steeds. The
senses, the mind, and the understanding are always joined to
the Kshetrajna.^ The individual soul, mounting the chariot to
Avhich big steeds are yoked and which has the understanding
for the reins, drives about on all sides.* With all the senses
attached to it (for steeds), with the mind for the charioteer,
and the understanding for the eternal reins, exists the great
Brahma-car.^ Verily, that man endued with learning and
wisdom who always understands the Brahma-car in this way,
is never overwhelmed by delusion in the midst of all entities.® -
This forest of Brahma begins with the unmanifest and ends
with gross objects. It includes mobile and immobile entities,
and receives light from the radiance of the sun and the moon,
and is adorned with planets and constellations. It is decked,
again, on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. It is
always embellished likewise by diverse kinds of waters. It is
the means of subsistence for all creatures. It is, again, the
goal of all living creatures. In that forest the Kshetrajna al-
ways moves about.''"^ Whatever entities exist in this world,
mobile and immobile, are the very first to be dissolved away.
After this (are dissolved) those qualities which compose all
entities.^" After the qualities (are dissolved) the five elements.
Such is the gradation of entities. Gods, men, Gandharvas,
Pitjachas, Asuras, (and) Rakshasas,^^ have all sprung from
Nature, and not from actions, nor from a cause. The Brah-
manas, who are creators of the universe, are born here again
and again.-^^ All that springs from them dissolves, when the
time comes, in those very five great elements like billows in
the ocean. ■'^ All the great elements are beyond those elements
that compose the universe. He that is released from those
five elements goes to the highest goal.^* Tiie puissant Praja-
pati created all this by the mind only. After the same manner
Rishis attained to the status of deities by the aid of penance.-"^
After the same manner, those who have achieved perfection,
■who were capable of the concentration of Yoga, and who subsist
on fruits and roots, likewise perceive the triple Avorld by pen-
ance.^*' Medicines and herbs and all the diverse sciences are
acquired by means of penance alone, for all acquisition has

[ 17 ]

130 MA.HABHARATA. [Amigitd

penance for its root.*^ Whatever is difficult, of acquisition,
•difficult to learn, difficult to vanquish, difficult to pass through,
are all achievable by i>enance, for penance is irresistible."
One that drinks alcoholic liquors, one that slays a Brahmana,
one that steals, one that destroys a foetus, one that violates
■one's preceptor's bed, becomes cleansed of such sin by pen-
ance well performed.^^ Human beings, Pitris, deities, (sacri-
ficial) animals, beasts and birds, and all other creatures mobile
and immobile,^" by always devoting themselves to penances,
become crowned with success by penance alon-e. In like
manner, the dieties, endued with great powers of illusion, have
attained to Heaven."^ Those who without idleness perform
acts with expectations, being full of egoism, approach the
presence of Prajapati.*^ Those high-souled ones, however,
who are devoid of mineness and freed from egoism through the
pure contemplation of Yoga, attain to the great and highest
oregions."^ Those who best understand the self", having attained
to Yoga contemplation and having their minds always cheerful,
enter into the un manifest accumulation of happiness.^* Those
persons who are freed from the idea of mineness as also from
egoism and who are reborn after having attained to the fulness
of Yoga contemplation, enter (when they depart from such life)
into the highest region reserved for the great, viz^, the Un-
raanifest." Born from that same unraanifest (principle) and
attaining to the same once more, freed from the qualities of
Darkness and Passion, and adhering to only the quality of
Goodness,-® one becomes released from every sin and creates
all things* Such a one should be known to be Kshetrajna
in perfection. He that knows him knows the Veda.t"
Attaining to pure knowledge from (restraining) the mind, the
ascetic should sit self restraii>ed. One necessarily becomes

* 'Sarviln svijati,' i. c, creates all -things by attaining to the condi-
tion of the universal cause, for the unniariifest is; tlie \uiiversal cause.
Between such a one and the Supreme Soul thci* isi no difference. Even
^this is said in the last sentence. — T.

+ The man who reads the book called Veda is not truly conversant
with tlie Veda. He, however, who knows Kthctrajna, i^ legardtd as
truly knowing the Veda. — T,

Parva.] acwamedha PARVAi 131

that on which one's mind is set. This is an eternal mystery."
That which has the unmanifest for its beginning and gross
qualities for its end, has been said to have Ne-science for it3
indication. Bat do you understand that whose nature is
destitute of qualities." Of two syllables is Mrityu (death);
of three syllable is the eternal Brahma. Mineness is death,
and the reverse of mineness is the eternal. *2'* Some men who
are led by bad understanding applaud action. Those, however,
that are numbered among the high-souled ancients never
applaud action.^^ By action is a creature born with body
which is made up of the sixteen.f (True) Knowledge swallows
np Purusha (Self with consciousness of body). Even this is
what is highly acceptable to eaters of Amrita.t^^ Therefore,
those whose vi^sion extends to the other end (of the ocean of
life) have no attachment to actions. This Purusha, however,
is full of knowledge and not full of action.S^^ He dies not
who understands Him that rs immortal, immutable, incompre-
hensible, eternal and indestructible— Him that is the res-
trained Soul and that transcends all attachments.^* He who
thus understands the Soul to which there is nothing prior,
which is uncreated, immutable, unconquered, and incomprehen-
sible even to those that are eaters of nectar, certainly becomes
himself incomprehensible and immortal through these means. *■


* The argument is that 'Mrifcyxi' or death being of two syllables, the
correspondence is justifiable between it and 'Mama' or mineness which
also is of two syllables. So in the case of Brahma and 'na mama.' Of.'
course, what is meant by mineness being death and not-mineness being
Brahman ar emancipation, cannot be luiintelligible to one who baa
carefully read the preceding sections. — T.

t /. e., the five great elements, four organs of knowledge I with mind,
and the four organs of action. — T.

I The word 'Purusha' here is used- in the sense of 'dehabhimani Jiva*
or individual self with consciousHess of body. True knowledge des-
troys this condition of Jiva, for the man of knowledge identifies him-
self with the universe and thereby assimilates himself to Brahma. By
eaters of Amrita are meant they who never take any food, without
offering portions thereof to the deities, Pitris, and guests. Of course,
Yogins of piety are implied by it.— T.

$ 'Purusha' here implie.'s Jiva diA'csted of consciousness of body. — T.


Expelling all impressions and restraining the soul in the soul,
he understands that auspicious Brahma than which nothing
greater exists.^^ Upon the understandi7ig becoming clear, he
succeeds in attaining to tranquillity. The indication of tran-
quillity is like what takes place in a dream. *^^ This is the
goal of these emancipated ones who are intent on knowlenge.
They behold all those movements which are born of succeessive
developments.f^^ This is the goal of those who are unattached
to the world. This is the eternal usage. This is the acquisi-
tion of men of knowledge. This is the uncensured mode of
conduct.^^ This goal is capable of being attained by one that
is alike to all creatures, that is n^ithout attachment, that is
without expectations, and that looks equally on all things.^**
I have now declared everything to you, ye foremost of regene-
rate Rishis ! Do you act in this way forthwith ; you will
then acquire success ! — *^

" 'The preceptor continued, — Thus addressed by the pre-
ceptor Brahman, those high-souled sages acted accordingly and
then attained to many regions (of great felicity). ^'^ Do thou
also, blessed one, duly act according to the words of Brah-
man as declared by me, thou of pure soul ! Thou wilt then
attain to success ! — ' "*^

"Vasudeva said, — 'Thus instructed in the principles of
high religion by the preceptor, the pupil, son of Kunti, did
everything accordingly, and then attained to Emancipation.**
Having done all that he should have done, the pupil, per-
petuater of Kuru's race, attained to that seat repairing
whither one has not to grieve.'*^

"Arjuna said, — 'Who, indeed, was that Brahmana, Krish-
na, and who the pupil, Janarddana ! Truly, if it is fit to
be heard by me, do thou then tell me, O lord !'"

* The meaning is this : in a dream what is seen is all unreal. So,
when tranquillity has been attained, all the surroundings become un-
real. Nilakantha gives a sligltly different interpretation ; it is this :
when tranquillity has been attained, the Soul lives without attachment
to the body and all «;xternal objects. Indeed, the Soul then lives com-
pletely in itself even as it works in course of a dream. — T.

t The sense is that they behold all worldly objects, present, past and
future, which are, of course, due to development of previous causes. — T.

Parva.] acwamediia. parva. 133

"Vasudeva said, — 'I am the preceptor, mighty-armed
one, and know that the mind is my pupil. Through my
affection for thee, Dhananjaya, I have related this mystery
to thee !*^ If thou hast any love for me, O perpetuator of
Kuru's race, do thou then, after having heard these instruc-
tions relating to the Soul, always act duly (according to
them), thou of excellent vows !*" Then when this religion
has been duly practised, O mower of foes, thou wilt become
freed from all thy sins and attain to absolute emancipation/^
Formerly, when the hour of battle came, this very religion,
O thou of mighty-arms, was declared by me (to thee) ?
Do thou, therefore, set thy mind on it !^° And now,
chief of Bharata's race, it is long since that I saw the
lord my sire. I wish to see him again, with thy leave,
Phalguna !' ""

Vai^ampayana continued, — "Unto Krishna who had said
so, Dhananjaya said in reply, — 'We shall go today from this
town to the city called after the elephant.^" Meeting king
Yudhishthira of virtuous soul there, and informing him (of
thy intention) thou shalt then repair to thy own city ;"'^*

Section LII.

"YaiQampayana said, — 'After this, Krishna ordered Da-
ruka, saying, — 'Let my car be yoked.' Within a very short
space of time Daruka informed (his master), saying, — 'It has
been yoked.'^ The son of Pandu then commanded all his at-
tendants, saying, — 'Prepare yourselves and be ready. We
shall repair today to the city named after the elephant.'*
Thus addressed, O king, those troops accoutred themselves, and
informed Prithas son of immeasurable energy, saying,— 'Every-
thing is equipt.'^ Then those two, viz., Krishna and the son of
Pandu, ascended their car and proceeded on the journey, the
loving friends engaged the while in delightful conversation.*
Unto Vasudeva seated on the car, Dhananjaya of great energy
once more said these words, chief of Bharata's race !^ — 'O
perpetuater of the Vrishni race, the king has obtained victory
through thy grace. All his foes have been slain, and he has

134 MAHABHARATA. [Anugilcl

recovered his kingdom without a thorn in it (to make it dis-
agreeable).® slayer of Madhu, through thee the Pandavas
are endued with a powerful protector. Having obtained thee
for our raft we have crossed the Kuru ocean.^ O thou that
hast this universe for thy handiwork, salutations to thee, O
Soul of the universe, best of all beings in the universe !
I know thee in that measure in which I am approved by
thee.*^ O slayer of Madhu, the soul of every creature is al-
ways born of thy energy. Playful sport (in the form of crea-
tion, preservation, and destruction) is thine. Earth and sky,
O lord, are thy illusion.^ This whole universe, consisting of
mobile and immobile objects, is established on thee. Thou
Greatest, by modification, the four orders of Being {viz., vivi»-
parous, oviparous, filth-born, and vegetables).^" Thou Greatest
the Earth, the Welkin, and Heaven, slayer of Madhu.
The stainless lunar light is thy smile. The seasons are thy
senses." The ever-moving wind is thy breath, and death,
existing eternally, is thy wrath. In thy grace is the goddess
of prosperity. Verily, Cree is always established in thee, O
thou of the highest intelligence !^- Thou art the sport (m
which creatures engage) ; thou art their contentment ; thou
their intelligence, thou their forgiveness, thou their inclina-
tions, thou their beauty. Thou art the universe with its
mobile and immobile objects. At the end of the cycle, it is
thou, O sinless one, that art called destruction.^^ I am in-
capable of reciting all thy qualities in course of even a long
period. Thou art the Soul and the Supreme Soul. I bow to
thee, O thou of eyes like the (petals of the) lotus.^* O thou
that art irresistible, I have learnt it from Narada and Devala
and the Island-born (Vyasa), and the Kuru grandsire also,"
that all this (universe) rests on thee. Thou art the one Lord
of all creatures. This, O sinless one, that thou hast declared
unto me in consequence of thy favour for myself," I shall duly

* This line is rather obscure. The sense seems to be this: no one
can know the Supreme Deity if it is not the latter's pleasure to be known.
One, therefore, understands Him in exactly that measure in which it is
His pleasure to be known.— T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 135

accomplish in its entirety, O Janarddana ! Exceedingly won-
derful is this which thou hast done from desire of doing what
is agreeable to us,^^ viz., the destruction in battle of the Kau-
rava (^prince), the son of Dhritarashtra. That host had been
burnt by thee which I (subsequently) vanquished in battle.^'
That feat was achieved by thee in consequence of which
victory became mine ! By the power of thy intelligence was
shown the means by which was duly effected the destruction of
Duryodhana in battle, as also of Kama, as of the sinful king of
the Sindhus, and Bhuri9ravas.^"~^° I shall accomplish all that
which, son of Devaki, pleased with me thou hast declared
to myself. I do not entertain any scruple in this.^^ Repair-
ing to king Yudhishthira of righteous soul, I shall, sinless
one, urge him to dismiss thee, O thou that art conversant with
every duty l"^ lord, thy departure for Dwaraka meets with
my approbation. Thou shalt soon see my maternal uncle,
O Janarddana !^^ Thou shalt also see the irresistible Vala-
deva and other chiefs of the Vrishni race !' — Thus conversing
with each otlier, the two reached the city named after the
elephant.^* They then, with cheerful hearts, and Avithout
any anxiety, entered the palace of Dhritarashtra which re-
sembled the mansion of Cakra.-^ They then saw, O monarch,
king Dhritarashtra, and Vidura of great intelligence, and
king Yudhishthira f^ and the irresistible Bhimasena, and the
two sons of Madri by Pandu ; and king Dhritarashtra seated ;
and the un vanquished Yuyutsu ;^^ and Gandhari of great
wisdom, and Pritha, and the beautiful Krishna, and the other
ladies of Bharata's race with Subhadra counting first.^^ They
also saw all those ladies that used to wait upon Gandhari.
Then approaching king Dhritarashtra, those two chastisers of
foes'* announced their names and touched his feet. Indeed,
those high-souled ones also touched the feet of Gandhari and
Pritha^° and king Yudhishthira the just, and Bhima. Em-
bracing Vidura also, they enquired after his welfare.^^ In
the company of all those persons, Arjuna and Krishna then
approached king Dhritarashtra (again). Night came and then
king Dhritarashtra of great intelligence dismissed all those
perpetuaters of Kuril's race as aho Janarddana for retiring to

136 MAi[/\imAniT\ [Avngitd

their respective chambers. Permitted by the king, all of
them entered their respective apart m en ts.""'^^ Krishna of
great energy proceeded to the apartments of Dhananjaya.
Worshipped duly and furnished with every object of comfort
and enjoyment,^* Krishna of great intelligence passed the
night in happy sleep with Dhananjaya as his companion.
"When the night passed away and morning came, the two
heroes,^" finishing their morning rites and decking their persons
properly, proceeded to the mansion of king Yudhishthira the
just. There Yudhishthira the just, of great might, sate with
his ministers.^® The two high-souled ones, entering that well-
adoriied chamber, beheld king Yudhishthira the just like the
two Acwins beholding the chief of the celestials.^^ Meeting
the king, he of Vrishni's race, as also that foremost hero of
Kuru's race, obtaining the permission of Yudhishthira who
was highly pleased with them, sat themselves down.^^ Then
the king, gifted with great intelligence, seeing those two
friends, became desirous of addressing them. Soon that best
of monarohs, that foremost of speakers, addressed them in the
following words.^'-'

"Yudhishthira said, — 'Ye heroes, ye foremost ones of
Yadu's and Kuru's race, it seems that ve two are desirous of
saying something to me. Do ye say what is in your mind.
I shall soon accomplish it. Do not hesitate !'*°

"Thus addressed, Phalguna, well conversant with speech,
humbly approached king Yudhishthira the just and then said
these words.*' — 'Vasudeva here, of great prowess, O king, is
long absent from home. He desires, with thy permission, to
see his sire.*" Let him go, if thou thinkest it meet, to tlie
city of the Anarttas ! It behooveth thee, hero, to grant
him permission !'"

"Yudhishthira said, — '0 lotus-eved one, blessed be thou !

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