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O slayer of Madhu, do thou go this very day to the city of
Dwaravati for seeing, O puissant one, that foremost one of
Sura's race !** O miglity-armed Kecava, thy departure is
approved by me ! Thuu hast not seeji my materiial uncle as
also the goddess Devaki, for a long time I*^ Meeting my
maternal uncle and repairing to Valadeva also, giver of

Pay^va.] acwamedha parva. 137

honors, thou wilt, O thou of great wisdom, worship both of
them at my word as they deserve.**' Do thou also think of
me daily as also of Bhima, that foremost of mighty men, and
of Phalguna and Nakula and Sahadeva, O giver of; honours !*'^
Having seen the Anarttas, and thy sire, O mighty-armed one,
and the Vrishnis, thou wilt come back to my horse-sacrifice,
O sinless one !" Do thou then depart, taking with thee di-
verse kinds of gems and various sorts of wealth. Do thou,
O hero of the Satwata race, also take with thee whatever else
thou likest !** It is through thy grace, Ke(;ava, that the
whole Earth, O hero, has come under our dominion and all our
foes have been slain !'^^

"When king Yudhishthira the just of Kuru's race said so,
Vasudeva, that foremost of men, said these words (in reply).®^

"Vasudeva said, — 'O mighty-armed one, all jewels and
gems, all wealth, and the entire Earth, are thine and thine
alone. Whatever wealth exists in my abode, thou, lord,
art always the owner thereof !'^^ Unto him Yudhishthira, the
son of Dharma, said, — 'Be it so' — and then duly worshipped
(Krishna) the eldest brother, endued with great ejiergy, of
Gada. Vasudeva then proceeded to his paternal aunt (Kunti).
Duly honouring her, he circumambulated her person.^* He
was properly accosted by her in return, and then by all the
others having Vidura for their first. The four-armed eldest
brother of Gada then set out from Nagapura on his excellent
car.f^* Placing his sister, the lady Subhadra, on the car, the
mighty-armed Janarddana then, with the permission of both
Yudhishthira and (Kunti) his paternal aunt, set out, accom-
panied by a large train of citizens." The hero who had the
foremost of apes on his banner, as also Satyaki, and the two
sons of Madravati, and Vidura of immeasurable intelligence.

* Krishna's father Vasudeva is Yudhishthira's maternal uncle. Ya-
dhishthira asks Krishna to worship Vasudeva and Valadeva on hia
behalf, t. e., he charges Krishna to bear to them a iflesage of respect
and love from him.— T.

t The cUy of Hastinapura in sometimes called Nagapura, both 'Hasti*
and 'Naga' being words expressive of the elephant. 'The city cal l«d
after the elephant' is the usual description of the Kuru c»pital.~T.

[ 18 J

1S8 MAHABnAitATA; [AnugiUl

and Bhima himself whose tread resembled that of a prince of
elephants, all followed Madhava." Janarddana of mighty
energy, causing all those extenders of the Kuru kingdom and
Vidura also to return, addressed Daruka, and Satyaki, say-
ing, — 'Urge the steeds to speed.'" Then that grinder of hos-
tile masses, viz., Janarddana of great prowess,, accompaiiied
'by Satyaki, the foremost one of Cini's race, proceeded to the
city of the Anarttas, after having slain all Lis foes, like He of
a hundred sacrifices proceeding to Heaven (after slaughtering
-all hia foesV""

Section LIII.

Vai^ampayana said, — 'As he of Vrishni's race was proceed-
ing to Dwaraka, those foremost princes of Bharata's race,
those chastisers of foes, embraced him and fell back with their
attendants.-^ Phalguna repeatedly embraced the Vrishni hero,
and as long as he was v^^ithin the range of vision, he repeated-
»ly turned his eyes towards hira.^ With great difficulty, the
son of Pritha withdrew his gaze that had fallen on Govinda.
The unvanquished Krishna also (did the same).* The indica-
tions that were manifested on the occasion of that high-souled
one's departure, I shall now detail. Do thou listen to me.*
The wind blew with great speed before the car, clearing the
jpath of sand-grains and dust and thorns.^ Vasava rained
pure and fragrant showers and celestial flowers before the
wielder of Caranga.* As the mighty-armed hero proceeded,
he came upon the desert ill-supplied with water. There he
beheld that foremost of ascetics, named Utanka, of immeasur-
able energy.'' The hero of large eyes and great energy wor-
shipped that ascetic. He was then worshipped by the ascetic
in return. Vasudeva then enquired after his welfare.^ That
foremost of Brahmanas, viz., Utanka, politely accosted by
Madhava, honoured him duly and then addressed hira in
these wor^ls,* — '0 Caurin, having repaired to the mansions of
the KuTus and the Pandavas, hast thou succeeded in establish-
ing a durable understanding between them such as should
exist between brothers? It behooves thee to t-ell me every-

JParva.] jlcwamedha parva^ 139

thing.*® Dost thou come,. Ke9ava, after having united
them in peace, — them that are thy relatives and that are ever
dear to thee, foremost one of Vrishni's race ?** Will tha
five sons of Pandu, and the children of Dhritarashtra, O scor-
cher of foes, sport in the world in joy with thee ?*' Will all
the kings enjoy happiness in their respective kingdoms, in
consequence of the pacification of the Kauravas brought
about by thee ?^* Has that trust, son, which I had always
reposed on thee, borne fruit with regard to the Kauravas ?'^*

"The blessed and holy one said, — 'I strove my best at first,
for bringing about a good understanding, in regard to the
Kauravas. When I could not by any means succeed in estab-
lishing them on peace,^* it happened that all of therm, with
their relatives and kinsmen, met with death. It is impossible
to transgress destiny by either intelligence or might." O
great Rishi, sinless one, this also cannot be unknown to
thee. They (the Kauravas) transgressed the counsels which.
Bhishma and Vidura gave them referring to me.*" En-
countering one another they then became guests of Yama's
abode. Only the five Pandavas constitute the remnant of tha-
unslain, all their friends and all their children having been
slaughtered. All the sons of Dhritarashtra also, with their
children and kinsmen, have been slain.'^* When Krishna had
said these words, Utanka, filled with wrath, and with eyes
expanded in rage, addressed him in these words.^'

"Utanka said, — 'Since, though able, Krishna, thou didsfc
not rescue those foremost ones of Kuru's race, who were thy
relatives and, therefore, dear to thee, I shall, without doubt,
curse thee !^® Since thou didst not forcibly compel them to
forbear, therefore, slayer of Madhu, I shall, filled with
wrath, denounce a curse on thee !^* It seems, Madhava,
that, though fully able (to save them), thou wert indiffer-
ent to these foremost of Kurus who, overwhelmed by insin-
cerity and hypocrisy, have all met with destruction !'^*

"Vasudeva said, — '0 scion of Bhrigu's race, listen to what

♦ 'Mahyam' is equal to 'mam uddigya,' i, e.y referring to my divin®
nature. — T,

140 MaHabhaRata. [Anugitcl

I say in detail. Do thou accept my apologies also. thou
of Bhrigu's race, thou art an ascetic !** After having heard
my words relating to the soul, thou mayst then utter thy
curse. No mnn is able, by a little ascetic merit, to put me
down.'* foremost of ascetics, I do not wish to see the
destruction of all thy penances ! Thou hast a large measure
of blazing penances. Thou hast gratified thy preceptors and
seniors.*^^ foremost of regenerate ones, I know that thou
hast observed the rules of Brahmacharyya from the days of
thy infancy. I do not, therefore, desire the loss or diminution
of thy penances achieved with so much pain l' "^*

Section LIT.

"Utanka said, — 'Do thou, Kegava, tell me that faultless
Adhyatma. Having heard thy discourse I shall ordain what
is for thy good or denounce a curse to thee, Janarddana !'^

"Vasudeva .said, — 'Know that the three qualities of Dark-
ness and Passion and Goodness exist, depending on me as
their refuge. So also, regenerate one, know that the
Rudras and the Vasus have sprung from me.* In me are all
creatures, and in all creatures do I exist ; know this. Let no
doubt arise in thy mind respecting this.^ So also, O regene-
rate one, know that all the tribes of the Daifcyas, all the
Yakshas, Gandharvas, Rakshasas, Nagas, Apsaras, have sprung
from me.* Whatever has been called existent and non-exist-
ent, whatever is manifest and not-manifest, whatever is des-
tructible and indestructible, all have me for their soul.^ Those
fourfold courses of duty which, ascetic, are known to attach
to the (four) modes of life, and all the Vedic duties, have mo
for their soul.« Whatever is non-existent, whatever is exist-
ent and non-existent, and whatever transcends that which ia
existent and non-existent,— all these which constitute the uni-
verse—are from me. There is nothing higher (or beyond) me

* An ascetic loses his penances by cursing another rightly or wrong-
ly. Hence, forgiveneas was always practised by the Briihmanas -who
■were aecetics. A Brahmana's strength consisted in forgiTcness, Tlia
more forgiving he was, ihe more powerful he became.— T.

Farva.] acwamkdha pakva. lil

who am the eternal god of gods.*' O perpetuater of Bhrigu'a
race, know that all the Vedas beginning with (the original
syllable) Om are identical with me. Know, son of Bhrigu's
race, that I am the sacrificial stake ; I am the Soma (drunk
in sacrifices); I am the Charu (cooked in sacrifices for
being offered to the deities) ; I am the Homa (that is per-
formed) ; I am those acts which sacrificers perform for gratify-
ing the deities ; I am even the pourer of the sacrificial liba-
tion ; and I am the Havi or libation that is poured. I am the
Adhyaryu. I am the Kalpaka ; and I am the highly sancti-
fied sacrificial Havi. It is me whom the Udgatri, in the great
sacrifice, hymns by the sound of his songs. In all rites of
expiation, Brahmana, the utterers of auspicious Mantras
and benedictions fraught with peace hymn my praises who
am the artificer, foremost of regenerate ones, of the uni-
verse.®"^* Know, best of regenerate persons, that Dharma
is my eldest-bol-n offspring, sprung from my mind, O
learned Brahmana, whose essence is compassion for all crea-
tures." Constantly transforming myself, I take birth in
diverse wombs, best of men, for upholding that son of
mine, with the aid of men now existing in or departed from
the world. Indeed, I do this for protecting Righteousness
and for establish in cr it." In those forms that I assume for the
purpose, I am known, son of Bhrigu's race, in the three
worlds as Vishnu and Brahman and Cakra. I am the origin
and I am the destruction of all things.^* I am the creator of
all existent objects and I am their destroyer. Knowing no
change myself, I am the destroyer of all those creatures that
live in sinfulness." In every Yuga I have to repair the cause-
way of Righteousness, entering into diverse kinds of wombs
from desire of doing good to my creatures." When, son of
Bhrigu's race, I live in the order of the deities, I then verily

* The first 'asat' or non-existent refers to fuch objects as the horns
of the hare. The second, viz., 'sadasat,' or existent and non existent,
refers to such objects as exist and meet with destruction. 'Sadasat
parani' or that which transcends the existent and non-existent, refers to
the.unmanifest. The universe consists of these three. All this is frem
Vasudeva. — T«

142 MAHABHARiTAi [Anugita

act in every respect as a deity.** When I live in the order of
the Gandharvas, I then, O son of Bhrigu's race, act in every
respect as a Gandharva.'^ When I live in the order of the
Nagas I then act as a Naga, and when I live in the order of
Yakshas or that of Rakshasas, I act after the manner of that
order.^^ Born now in the order af humanity I must act as a
human being. I appealed to them (the Kauravas) most pite-
ously. But stupefied as they were and deprived of their senses,
they refused to accept my words." I frightened them, filled
with wrath, referring to some great fear (as the consequence
of their slighting my message). But once more I showed
themselves n)y usual (human) form.^° Possessed as they were
of unrighteousness, and assailed by the virtue of Time, all of
them have been righteously slain in battle, and have, without
doubt, gone to Heaven.** The Pandavas also, best of Brah-
manas, have acquired great fame. I have thus told thee all
that thou hadst asked me.' "**

Section LV.

"Utanka said, — 'I know thee, Janarddana, to be the
creator of the universe. Without doubt, this knowledge that
I have is the result of thy grace towards me.* thou of un-
fading glory, my heart is possessed of cheerful tranquillity in
consequence of its being devoted to thee. Know, chastiser
of foes, that my heart is no longer inclined to curse thee !*
If, Janarddana, I deserve the least grace from thee, do thou
then show me once thy sovereign form !' "*

Vai^ampayana continued, — "Gratified with him, the holy
one then showed Utanka that eternal Vaishnava form which
Dhananjaya of great intelligence had seen.* Utanka beheld
the high-souled Vilsudeva of universal form, endued with
mighty-arms. The effulgence of that form was like that of a
blazing fire or a thousond suns. It stood before him filling all
space. It had faces on every side.* Beholding that high and
wonderful Vaishnava form of Vishnu, in fact, seeing the Su-
preme Lord (in that guise), the Brahmana Utanka became
filled with wonder.*

parva.] ACWAMEdha parva. 143

"Utanka said, — '0 thou whose handiwork is the universe,
I bow to thee, soul of the universe, parent of all things !
With thy feet thou hast covered the whole Earth, and with
thy head thou fillest the firmament '^ That which lies be-
tween the Earth and the firmament has been filled by thy
stomach. All the points of the compass are covered by thy
arms. O thou of unfading glory, thou art all this !^ Do thou
withdraw this excellent and indestructible form of thine. I
wish to behold thee now in thy own (human) form whicn, too,
is eternal !' "®

Vai^ampayana continued, — "Unto him, Janamejaya, Go-
vinda of gratified soul said these words, — 'Do thou ask for some
boon ! — Unto him Utanka, however, said,^° — 'Even this is a
sufficient boon from thee for the present, O thou of great
splendour, in that, Krishna, I have beheld this form of
thine, foremost of all beings !'" Krishna, however, once
more said unto him, — 'Do not scruple in this matter ! This
must be done ! A sight of my form cannot Le fruitless !'^^

"Utanka said; — 'I must accomplish that, O lord, which
thou thinkest should be done 1 I desire to have Avater wher-
ever my wish for it may arise. Water is scarce in such de-
serts !'^* Withdrawing that energy, the Supreme Lord then
said unto Utanka,— 'Whenever thou wilt require Avater, think
of me !' Having said so, he proceeded towards Dwaraka.^*
Subsequently, one day, the illustrious Utanka, solicitous of
water and exceedingly thirsty, wandered over the desert. In
course of his wanderings he thought of Krishna of unfading
glory." The intelligent Rishi then beheld in tlint desert a
naked hunter (of the Chandala class), all besmeared with dirt,
surrounded by a pack of dogs." Extremely fierce- looking, he
carried a sword and was armed with bow and n^•o^vs. That
foremost of regenerate ones beheld copious streams of water
issuing from the urinary organs of that hunter." As soon as
Utanka had thought of Krishna, that hunter smilingly ad-
dressed him, saying,— *0 Utanka, O thou of Bhrigu's race, do
thou accept this water from me." Beholding thee afflicted
by thirst I have felt great cempassion for thee !' Thus ad-
dressed by the hunter, the ascetic showed no iriclination to

144 ' ITAHARHARATA. lAnugitS

accept that water." The intelligent Utanka even began to
censure Krishna of unfading glory. The hunter, however,
repeatedly addressed the Rishi, saying, — 'Drink !'^° The
ascetic refused to drink the water thus otfered. On the other
hand, with heart afflicted by hunger and thirst, he even
gave way to wrath. Disregarded by the high-souled Rishi
through that conviction,*^ the hunter, king, with his pack
of dogs, disappeared there and then. Beholding that (won-
derful) disappearance, Utanka became filled with shame.^*
He even thought that Krishna, that slayer of foes, had be-
guiled him (in the mater of the boon he had granted). Soon
after, the holder of the conch and discus and mace, endued
with great intelligence, came to Utanka by the way (along
which the hunter had come). Addressing Krishna, the Brah-
mana said, — '0 foremost of beings, it was scarcely proper for
thee to otfer water unto foremost of Brahmanas in the form of
a hunter's urine, lord !' Unto Utanka who said these words,
Janarddana of great intelligence replied, comforting him with
many soft words, — 'That form which it was proper to assume
for oftering thee water, in that form was water ofi'ered to thee !
But, alas, thou couldst not understand it ! The wielder of the
thunderbolt, Purandara, was requested by me for thy sake."^"-^
My words to that puissant deity were, — Do thou give nectar
in the form of water unto Utanka. — The chief of the celestials
replied to me, saying, — It is not proper that a mortal should
become immortal !-" Let some other boon be gi-anted to
Ucanka ! — son of Bhrigu's race, these words were repeated-
ly addressed to me. The lord of Cachi, however, was once
more requested by me in these words, viz., even nectar should
be given to Utanka l^'^ — The chief of the celestials then, com-
forting me, said, — If, thou of great intelligence, nectar is
to be given to himj^** I shall then assume the form of a hunter
and give it to that high-souled descendant of Bhrigu's race.
If that son of Bhrigu accepts it thus,*^ I then go to him, O
lord, for giving it unto him ! If, however, he sends me away
from disregard, I shall not then give it to him on any
account !'= — Having made this compact with me, Vasava ap-
peared befoiT thee, in that disgui^, for giving thee cectar.

Tarva.] acwamedha parva. 145

Thou, however, didst disregard him and send him away, seeing
that the illustrious one had put on the guise of a Chandala.
Thy fault has been great. Once more, with regard to thy
desire, I am prepared to do what is in my power. Indeed,
this painful thirst of thine, I shall arrange, shall be slaked.
On those days, O regenerate one, in which thou wilt feel a
desire for water,^*"^^ clouds well-charged with water will rise
over this desert. Those clouds, O son of Bhrigu's race, will
give thee savoury water to drink. Verily, those clouds will
become known in the world as Utanka-clouds.'** Thus ad-
dressed by Krishna, Utanka became filled with gladness, and
to this day, O Bharata, Utanka-clouds (appear and) shower
rain on arid deserts."^''

Section LVI.

Janamejaya said, — "With what penances was the high-
souled Utanka endued so that he entertained the wish to de-
nounce a curse on Vishnu himself, who is the source of all
puissance f*-

Vai9ampayana said, — "0 Janamejaya, Utanka was endued
with austere penances. He was devoted to his preceptor. En-
dued with great energy, he abstained from worshipping any-
body else.' All the children of the Rishis, Bharata, enter-
tained even this wish, viz., that their devotion to prceptora
should be as great as that of Utanka.* Gautama's gratifica-
tion with and affection for Utanka, among his numerous dis-
ciples, were very great, Janamejaya.* Indeed, Gautama wa3
highly pleased with the self-restraint and purity of behaviour
that characterised Utanka, and with his acts of prowess and
the services he rendered to him.^ One after another, thousands
of disciples received the preceptor's permission to return home
(after the completion of their pupilage). In consequence,
however, of his great affection for Utanka, Gautama could not
permit him to leave his retreat." Gradually, in course of
time, son, decrepitude overtook Utanka, that great ascetic.
The ascetic, however, in consequence of his devotion to hia
preceptor, was not conscious of it.' One day, he set out,

[ 19 ]

145 M4liA.BHiR\TA [Anugitii

X) monarch, for fetching fuel for his preceptor. Soon after
Utanka brought a heavy load of fuel.' Toil-worn and hungry
and afflicted by the load he bore on his head, O chastiser of
foes, he threw the load down on the Earth, king.' One of
his matted locks, white as silver, had become entangled with
the load. Accordingly, when the load was thrown down, with
it fell on the earth that matted lock of hair.^° Oppressed as
he had been by that load and overcome by hunger, O Bharata,
TJtanka, beholding that sign of old age, began to indulge in
loud lamentations from excess of sorrow.-^^ Conversant with
every duty, the daughter of his preceptor then, who was pos-
sessed of eyes that resembled the petals of the lotus, and of
hips that were full and round, at the command of her sire,
sought, with downcast face, to hold Utanka's tears in her
hands. Her hands seemed to burn with those tear drops that
she held. Unable, accordingly, to hold them longer, she av9,3
obliged to throw them down on the Earth.^^"'^ The Earth
herself was unable to hold those tear-drops of Utanka. With
a gratified heart, Gautama then said unto the regenerate
Utanka," — 'Why, O son, is thy mind so afflicted with grief
today ? Tell me calmly and quietly, learned Rishi, for I
wish to hear it in detail !'"

"Utanka said, — 'With mind entirely devoted to thee, and
wholly bent upon doing what is agreeable to thee, with my
heart's devotion turned to thee, and with thoughts entirely
dwelling on thee,^^ (I have resided here till) decrepitude has
■come upon me without my knowing it at all. I have not,
ao-ain, known any happiness. Though I have dwelt with thee
for a hundred years yet thou hast not granted me permission to
depart.^' Many disciples of thine, that were my juniors, have,
however, been permitted by thee to return. Indeed, hun-
dreds and thousands of foremost Brahmanas have, equipt with
knowledge, been permitted by thee (to depart from thy retreat
and set themselves up as teache^^?) !'^^

"Gautama said,— 'Through my love and affection for thee,
and in consequence of thy dutiful services to me, a long time
has elapsed without my knowing it, foremost of Brah:
manas !" If, however, thou of Bhrigu's race, the desire is

Parva.] acwamedha paeya. 1^7

entertained by thee of leaving this place, do thou go . without
delay, receiving my permission !'^*

"Utanka said, — 'What shall I present to my preceptor?'
Tell me this, best of regenerate persons ! Having brought
it, I shall go hence, lord, with thy permission I'^^

"Gautama said — 'The good say that the gratification of the
preceptor is the final fee.* Without doubt, O regenerate one^.
I have been highly gratified with thy conduct.^^ Know, O
perpetuater of Bhrigu's race, that I have been exceedingly
gratified with thee for this. If thou becomest a young man.
today of sixteen years,^* I shall bestow on thee, regenerate-
one, this my own daughter for becoming thy wife. No other
woman save this one is capable of waiting upon thy energy !'^*
At these words of Gautama, Utanka once again became a
youth and accepted that famous maiden for his wife. Receiv-
ing the permission of his preceptor, he then addressed his pre-
ceptor's wife, saying,^" — 'What shall I give thee as final fee for
my preceptor ? Do thou command me ! I desire to- accom-
plish, with wealth or even my life, what is agreeable and
beneficial to thee !^* Whatever gem, exceedingly wonderful
and of great value, exists in this world, I shall bring for thee
with the aid of my penances. I have no doubt in this !'^'

"Ahalya said, — 'I am highly gratified with thee, learned
Brahmana, with thy unintermitting devotion, sinless one !
This is enough. Blessed be thou, go whithersoever thou,
iikest !' "==«

Vai(jampayana continued, — "Utanka, however, monarch,,
once more said these words, — 'Do thou command me, mother !
It is meet that I should do something that is agreeabla to>
thee 1'-^

* To this day, preceptors in India have to feed and teach their dis-
ciples without any pecuniary compensation. In fact, the sale of know-
ledge has been strictly forbidden. Pupils, however, after completing
their studies, had to give the final Dakz/und whicli varied according to
their means. The kings and princes of India thought themselves honored
if solicited by pupils in search of the final ©akshina. What Gautama says
here is that the object of the final present is to gratify the preceptor.

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