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He (Gautama), however, had already been gratified with the dutiful
conduct of Utanka, There was no need, thwefore, o£ acy present. —T.

148 MAHABHARATA.' [Anugitci

"Ahalya said, — 'Blessed be thou, bring for me those celes-
tial ear-rings that are worn by the wife of Saudasa. That
which is due to thy preceptor will then be well-discharged.'*"
Replying unto her — 'So be it,' — Utanka departed, Jaiiame-
jaya, resolved to bring those ear-rings for doing what was
agreeable to his preceptor's wife.^^ That foremost of Brah-
manas, Utanka, proceeded without any loss of time to Saudasa
who had (through the curse of Va^ishtha) become a cannibal,
in order to solicit the ear-rings from him.*^ Gautama mean-
while said unto his wife — 'Utanka is not to be seen today.'
Thus addressed, she informed him how he had departed for
fetching the jewelled ear-rings (of Saudasa's queen).*^ At
this, Gautama said, — 'Thou hast not acted wisely. Cursed (by
■V"a<;i3htha), that king (who has been transformed into a man-
•ater) will verily slay Utanka !'**

"Ahalya said, — 'Without knowing this, holy one. I hav®,
set Utanka to this task. He shall not, however, incur any
danger through thy grace !''^ Thus addressed by her, Gau-
tama said, — 'Let it be so !' Meanwhile, Utanka met king
Saudasa in a deserted forest."'®

Section LVII.

VaiQampayana said,~"Beholding the king, who had become
so, of frightful mien, wearing a long beard smeared with the
blood of human beings, the Brahmana Utanka, king, did
not become agitated.* That monarch of great energy, inspiring
terror in every breast and looking like a second Yama, rising
up, addressed Utanka, saying,^— 'By good luck, best of
Brahmanas, thou hast come to me at the sixth hour of the day
when I am in search of food !''

"Utanka said,— '0 king, know that I have eome hither in
course of my wanderings for the sake of my preceptor. The
wise have said that while one is employed for the sake of one's
preceptor, one should not be injured.

"The king said,— '0 best of Brahmanas, food has been or-
dained for me at the sixth hour of the day. I am hungry.
I cannot, therefore; allo\y thee escape today !^

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 149

"Utanka said, — 'Let it be so, king ! Let this compact
be made with me ! After I have ceased to wander for my
preceptor I shall once more come and place myself within thy
power !® It has been heard by me, best of kings, that the
object I seek for my preceptor is under thy control, mon-
arch ! Therefore, ruler of men, I solicit thee for it 1^ Thou
daily givest many foremost of gems unto superior Brahmanas.
Thou art a giver, chief of men, from whom gifts may be
accepted. Know that I too am a worthy object of charity
present before thee, best of kings !^ Having accepted from
thee in gift that object for my preceptor which is under thy
control,* I shall, king, in consequence of my compact, once
more come back to thee and place myself under thy power.
I assure thee truly of this. There is no falsehood in this.
Never before have I spoken anything untrue, no, not even in
jest ! What shall I say then of other occasions?'^"

"Saudasa said, — 'If the object thou seek est for thy precep-
tor is capable of being placed in thy hands by me, if I be
regarded as one from whom a gift may be accepted, do thou
then say what that object is !'^^

"Utanka said, — '0 foremost of men, Saudasa, in my
estimation thou art a worthy person from whom gifts may be
accepted. I have, therefore, come to thee for begging of thee
the jewelled ear-rings (worn by thy queen).'^^

"Saudasa said, — 'Those jewUed ear-rings, learned and
regenerate Rishi, belong to my wife. They should be asked
from her. Do thou, therefore, solicit some other thing from
me. I shall give it to thee, thou of excellent vows !'^*

"Utanka said, — 'If we be regarded as any authority, do
thou cease then to urge this pretext. Do thou give those
jewelled ear-rings to me. Be thou truthful in speech, O
king.' "1*

Vai(jampayana continued, — "Thus addressed, the king once
more addressed Utanka and said unto him, — 'Do thou, at my
word, go to my venerable queen, best of men, and ask herj
saying,^" — Give ! — She of pure vows, thus solicited by thee, will
certainly, at my command, give thee, foremost of regenerate
persons, those jewelled ear-rings of liers without doubt !'^*

150 MAHABHARATA. [Anugitci

"Utanka said, — 'Whither, O ruler of men, shall I be able
to meet thy queen ? Why dost thou not thyself go to her ?'"

"Saudasa said, — 'Thou wilt find her today in the vicinity
of a forest fountain. I cannot see her today as the sixth
hour of the day has come.' "^^

Vai(jampayana continued, — "Thus addressed, Utanka, O
chief of Bharata's race, then left that spot. Beholding Mada-
yanti, he informed her of his object.^* Hearing the command
of Saudasa, that lady of large eyes replied unto the highly
intelligent Utanka, O Janamejaya, in these words r" — 'It is
even so, O regenerate one. Thou shouldst, however, sin-
less one, assure me that thou dost not say what is untrue ! It
behooves thee to bring me some sign from my husband."^
These celestial ear-rings of mine, made of costly gems, are such
that the deities and Yakshas and great Rishis always watch for
opportunities for bearing them away.-^ If placed at any time
on the Earth, this costly article would then be stolen by the
Nagas. If worn by one who is impure in consequence of
eating, it would then be taken away by the Yakshas. If the
wearer falls asleep (without taking care of these precious ear-
rings) the deities would then take them away,"^ O best of
Brahmanas, these ear-rings are capable of being taken away,
when such opportunities present themselves, by deities and
Rakshasas and Nagas, if worn by a heedless person."* best
of regenerate ones, these ear-rings, day and night, always
produce gold. At night, they shine brightly, attracting the
rays of stars and constellations.'^^ O holy one, if worn by any
one, he would be freed from hunger and thirst and fear of
every kind. The wearer of these ear-rings is freed also from
the fear of poison and fire and every kind of danger."^ If
worn by one of short stature, these become short. If worn by
; one of tall stature, these grow in size.^^ Even of such virtues
are these ear-rings of mine. They are praised and honoured
everywhere. Indeed, they are known over the three worlds.
^ Do thou, therefore, bring me some sign (from my husband) !' "^'


Section LVIII.

VaiganipayaTia said, — 'Utanka, coming back to king Sau-
dasa who was always well-disposed towards all his friends,
solicited him for some sign (to convince Madayanti of the fact
of his being really commissioned by the king). That foremost
one of Ikshaku's race then gave him a sign.^

"Saudasa said, — 'This my present condition is intolerable.
I do not behold any refuge. Knowing this to be my wish, do
thou give away the jewelled ear rings.*''^ Thus addressed by
the king, Utanka went back to the queen and reported to her-
the words of her lord. Hearing those words, the queen gave
unto Utanka her jewelled ear-rings.* Having obtained the
ear-rings, Utanka came back to the king and said unto him, —
'I desire to hear, monarch, what the import is of those mys-
terious words which thou saidst as a sign to thy queen !' — *

"Saudasa said, — 'Kshatriyas are seen to honour the Brah-
manas from the very beginning of the creation. Towards the
Brahmanas, however, many offences arise (on the part of
Kshatriyas).^ As regards myself, I am always bent in humility
before them. I am overtaken by a calamity through a Brah-
mana. Possessed of Madayanti, I do not see any other refuge.'
Indeed, foremost of all persons having of a high goal, I do
not behold any other refuge for myself in the matter of ap-
proaching the gates of Heaven or in continuing here, best
of regenerate ones I'' It is impossible for a king that is hostile
to Brahmanas to continue living in this world or in attaining
to happiness in the next.^ Hence have I given thee these my
jewelled ear-rings which were coveted by thee If Do thou
now keep the compact which thou hast made with me today !'®

* These words of the king are intended to "be reported to his queen
who woiUd understand the allusion. The sense is this : cursed bv Va-
cishtha, I have become a cannibal. My condition is intalerable. By
this gift of the ear-rinsfs to a deserving BrShmana, much merit may
arise. That merit may relieve me. — T.

t This also is an allusion to the dreadful curse of Va^ishtha. The
king refers to Madayanti as his only r<^fuge. She may save him by do-
ing an act of special merit, viz., giving away Ler cofitly ear-rings to a
truly deserving BrShmaua, — T.

152 MAHABTIAIlATAr [AllUgita

"Utanka said, — '0 king, I shall certainly act according to
my promise. I shall truly come back and place myself under
thy power. There is, however, a question, scorcher of foes,
which I wish to ask thee.' "^*'

"Saudasa said, — 'Say, learned Brahmana, what is in thy
mind. I shall certainly reply unto thy words. I shall dispel
whatever doubt may be in thy mind. I have no hesitation in

"Utanka said, — 'Those who are skilled in the rules of duty
say that Brahmanas are of restrained speech. One who be-
haves wrongly towards friends is regarded as vile as a thief *^*
Thou, again, king, hast become my friend today. Do thou
then, foremost of men, give me such counsel as is approved
by the wise.^^ As regards myself, I have now obtained the
fruition of my wishes. Thou, again, art a cannibal. Is it
proper for me to come back to thee or not ?'^*

"Saudasa said, — 'If it is proper (for me), foremost of
superior Brahmanas, to say what thou askest, I should then,
O best of regenerate ones, tell thee that thou shouldst never
come back to me !" O perpetuater of Bhrigu's race, by act-
ing even thus, thou wilt attain to what is beneficial to thee.
If thou comest back, learned Brahmana, thou wilt surely
meet with death !' "^«

Vai^ampayana continued, — "Thus addressed by the intelli-
gent king in respect of what was beneficial for him, Utanka
took leave of the monarch and set out for the presence of
Ahalya." Desirous of doing what was agreeable to the wife
of his preeepfcor, he took the ear-rings with him and set out
with great speed for reaching the retreat of Gautama.^^ Pro-
tecting them even in the manner directed by Madayanti, — that
is, binding then within the folds of his black deer-skin, — he
proceeded on his way." After he had proceeded for some

* The sense is this : .a Brahmana is never loose of tongue. He is
trnthfiil. Hence, having passpd my worrl to thee about my return, thou
mayst be yure that I would keep my woi'd. One, again, that acts im-
properly towards a friend, comes to be regarded as a thief. By this,
Utanka reminds the king that he should not inflict any wrong on Lim
by carrying out bis intention of eating him up. — T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 15S

distance, he became afflicted by hunger. He there beheld a
Vihva tree bent down with the weight of (ripe) fruits.* He
climbed that tree.*" Causing his deer-skin, chastiser of foes,
to hang on a branch, that foremost of regenerate persons then
began to pluck some fruits.^^ While he was employed in
plucking those fruits with eyes directed towards them, some
of them fell, king, on that deer-skin^^ in which those ear-
rings had been carefully tied by that foremost of Brahmanas.
With the strokes of the fruits, the knot became untied.^*
Suddenly that deer-skin, with the ear-rings in it, fell down.
When the knot being unfastened, the deer-skin fell down on
the ground, a snake who was there beheld those jewelled ear-
rings.-* That snake belonged to the race of Airavata. With
great promptness he took up the ear-rings in his mouth and
then entered an anthill. Beholding the ear-rings taken away
by that snake,^^"-® Utanka, filled with wrath and in great
anxiety of mind, came down from the tree. Taking his staff
he began to pierce that anthill." That best of Brahmanas,
burning with wrath and the desire for revenge, ceaselessly em-
ployed himself for five and thirty days in that task."^ The
goddess Earth, unable to bear the force of Utanka's walkinty
staff and with body torn therewith, became exceedingly anxi-
ous.-^ Unto that regenerate Rishi then, who continued to
dig the Earth from desire of making a path to the nether re-
gions inhabited by the Nagas,^® the chief of the celestials,
armed with the thunder, came there, on his car drawn by green
horses. Endued with great energy, he beheld that foremost of
Brahmanas, as he sat there engaged in his task.' "^^

Vai9ampayana continued, — "Assuming the garb of a Brah-
mana afflicted with the sorrow of Utanka, the chief of the
celestials addressed him, saying, — 'This (purpose of thine) ia
incapable of being achieved.^^ The regions of the Nagas are
thousands of Yojanas removed from this place. I think that
thy purpose is not capable of being achieved with thy walk-
ing staff.' ^*

"Utanka said, — 'If, O Brahmana, the ear-rings be not re-

■ ■ ■' ■ ■ -— — — — — ■ — - — — ■-— .- , _ - I ■*-

* Vilwa is the ^'gle marmaloi, — T.
[ 20 ]

154 MIHABHARATA. [Aniigit(i

covered by me from the regions of the Nagas, I shall cast oflf
my life-breaths before thy eyes, O foremost of regenerate per-
sons !' "»*

Vai(;ampayana said, — " When the thunder-armed Indra
failed to divert Utanka from his purpose, he united the latter'a
walking staff with the force of thunder.'^ Then, Janame-
jaya, the Earth, opening with those strokes having the force
of thunder, yielded a way to the (nether) regions inhabited by
the Nagas.'* By that path Utanka entered the world of
Nagas. He saw that that region lay extended thousands of
Yojanas on all sides." Indeed, blessed one, it was equipt
with many walls made of pure gold and decked with jewels
and gems.^^ There were many fine tanks of water furnished
with flights of stair-cases made of pure crystal, and many
rivers of clear and transparent water. He saw also many trees
with diverse species of birds perching on them.'* That perpe-
tuater of Bhrigu's race beheld the gate of that region which
was full five Yojanas high and a hundred Yojanas in width.**
Beholding the region of the Nagas, Utanka became very
cheerless. Indeed, he despaired of getting back the ear-rings."
Then there appeared unto hira a black steed with a white tail.
His face and eyes were of a coppery hue, thou of Kuru's
race, and he seemed to blaze forth with energy." Addressing
Utanka, he said, — 'Do thou blow into the Apana duct of my
body. Thou wilt then, learned Brahman a, get back thy
«ar-rings which have been taken away by a descendant of
Airavata's race !*' Do not loathe to do my bidding, son !
Thou didst it often at the retreat of Gautama in former days !'**

"Utanka said,— 'How did I know thoe in the retreat of
my preceptor ? Indeed, I wish to hear how I did in those
days what thou biddest me do now !'*^

"The steed said, — 'Know, learned Brfihmana, that I am
the preceptor of thy preceptor, for I am the blazing Jdtavedas
(deity of fire) ! By thee I was often worshipped for the sake
of thy preceptor,*" child of Bhrigu's race, duly and with a
pure heart and body. For that reason I shall accomplish what
is for thy good. Do my bidding without delay .'*^ Thus ad-
dressed by the deity of fire, Utanka did as he was directai.

Parva.] ACtriUEDHi pabta^ 15$

The deity then, gratified with him, blazed up for consuming
everything.** From the pores of his body, O Bharata, in
consequence of his very nature, a thick smoke issued threaten-
ing terrors to the world of Nagas.*' With that mighty and
wide-spreading smoke, Bharata, everything became envo-
loped in gloom, so that nothing, king, could any longer be
seen in the world of the Nagas.^° Cries of woe were heard
throughout the mansions of the Airavatas, uttered by the
Nagas headed by Vasuki, Janamejaya !^* Enveloped by
that smoke, the palaces could no longer be seen, Bharata,
These resembled woods and hills overwhelmed by a thick
frost/* With eyes that were red inconsequence of that smoke,
and afflicted by the energy of the deity of fire, the Nagas
came out of their mansions to the high-souled son of Bhrigu's
race for ascertaining what was the matter.'* Having heard
what the matter was from that ascetic of immeasurable energy^
all the Nagas, with fear depicted on their eyes, offered him
their worship according to due forms.®* Indeed, all the Naga»
placing the old and the youDg ones before them, bowed unto-
him with their heads and joining their hands addressed him,
saying, — 'Be gratified with us, holy one !'^* Having grati-
fied that Brahmana and offered him water to wash his feet
and the ingredients of the Arghya (for honouring him), the
Nagas gave him those celestial and highly-adored earrings.^*
Thus honored by them, Utanka of great prowess, circumam-
bulating the deity of fire, started for the retreat of his pre-
ceptor.^^ Indeed, repairing quickly to Gautama's asylum,
king, he presented those ear-rings unto the wife of his-
preceptor, sinless one.®^ That best of Brahmanas also told
his preceptor everything about Vasuki and the other Nagas
that had occurred.*' It was even thus, Janamejaya, that
the high-souled Utanka, having wandered through the three
worlds, fetched those jewelled ear-rings (for hia preceptor's
wife).*® Of such prowess, O chief of Bharata's race, was the
ascetic Utanka, So austere were the penances with which he
was endued. I have thus told thee what thou hadst asked


Section LIX.

Janamejaya said, — 'After having conferred that boon on
IJtanka, O foremost of regenerate persons, what did th»
mighty-armed Govinda of great celebrity next do ?"^

Vaicampayana said, — "Having granted that boon to Utanka
Govinda, accompanied by Satyaki, proceeded to Dwaraka on
his car drawn by his large steeds endued with great speed.*
Passing many lakes and rivers and forests and hills, he at
last came upon the delightful city of Dwaravati.' It was at
the time, O king, when the festival of Raivataka had begun,
that he of eyes like lotus-petals arrived with Satyaki as hia
companion.* Adorned with many beautiful things and covered
with diverse Koshas made of jewels and gems, the Raivataka
hill shone, king, with great splendour.^ That high moun-
tain, decked with excellent garlands of gold and gay festoons
of flowers, with many large trees that looked like the Kalpa
trees of Indra's garden,* and with many golden poles on which
were lighted lamps, shone in beauty through day and night.
By the caves and fountains the light was so great that it seem-
ed to be broad dayj On all sides beautiful flags waved on the
air with little bells that jingled continuously. The entire hill
resounded with the melodious songs of men and women.*
Raivataka presented a most charming prospect like Meru with
all his jewels and gems. Men and women, excited and filled
with delight, O Bharata,^ sang aloud. The swell of music
that thus rose from that foremost of mountains seemed to touch
the very heavens. Everywhere were heard spouts and loud
whoops of men Avho were in all stages of excitement.'® The
cackle of thousands of voices made that mountain delightful
and charming. It was adorned with many shops and stalls
filled with diverse viands and enjoyable articles." There were
heaps of cloths and garlands, and the music of Vinds and
flutes and Mridangas was heard everywhere. Food mixed
with wines of diverse kinds Avas stored here and there.'^ Gifts
were being ceaselessly made to those that were distressed, or
blind, or helpless. In consequence of all this, the festival of
that mountain became highly auspicious." There were many

Parva.] acwamedha Pakva. 157

Sacred abodes built on the breast of that mountain, hero,
within which resided man}^ men of righteous deeds. Even
thus did the heroes of Vrishni's race sport in that festival of
Raivataka.^* Equipt with those mansions, that mountain
shone like a second Heaven. At the arrival of Krishna, O
chief of Bharata's race,^^ that prince of mountains resembled
the blessed abode of Indra himself. Worshipped (by his rela-
tives), Krishna then entered a beautiful mansion. Satyaki
also went to his own quarters with a delighted soul. Govinda
entered his residence after a long ab^ence,""^^ having accom-
plished feats of great difficulty like Vasava amid the Danava
host. The heroes of the Bhoja, Vrishni, and Andhaka races,
all came forward to receive that high-souled one like the dei-
ties advancing to receive him of a hundred sacrifices." En-
dued with great intelligence, he honored them in return and
enquired after their welfare. With a gratified heart he then
saluted his father and mother.^® The mighty-armed hero was
embraced by both of them and comforted too (by numerous
evidences of afifection). He then took his seat with all the
Vrishnis sitting around him.^** Having washed his feet and
dispelled his fatigue, Krishna of mighty energy, as he sat
there, then recounted the chief incidents of the great battle
in answer to the questions put to him by his sire."**

Section LX.

"Vasudeva said, — 'O thou of Vrishni's race, I have repeat-
edly heard men speaking of the wonderful battle (between the
Kurus and the Pandavas).^ Thou, however, mighty-armed
one, hast witnessed it with thy own eyes. Do thou, therefore,
sinless one, describe the battle in detail.'' Indeed, tell me
how that battle took place between the high-souled Pandavas
(on the one side) and Bhishma and Kama and Kripa and
Drona and Calya and others (on the other side),' between, in
fact, numerous other Kshatriyas well-skilled in arms, differing
from one another in mien and attire, and hailing from diverse
realms.' "*

Vai^ampayana continued,— "Thua addressed by his sire, ha

159 MAUABHAKAT4. [Afiugiti

of eye3 like lotus-petals narrated, in the presence of his mother
also, how the Kaurava heroes had been slain in battle.'

"Vasudeva said, — 'The feats were highly wonderful that
were achieved by those high-souled Kshatriyas. In conse-
quence of their large number, they are incapable of being
enumerated in even hundreds of years.* I shall, however, .
mention only the foremost of them. Do thou listen, there-
fore, to me as I mention in brief those feats achieved by
the kings of Earth, thou of godlike splendour !^ Bhish-
ma of Kuru's race became the generalissimo, having eleven
divisions of the Kaurava princes under his command, like
Vasava of the celestial forces.*' Cikhandin of great intelli-
gence, protected by the blessed Arjuna, became the leader of
the seven divisions of the sons of Pandu.' The battle between
the Kurus and the Pandavas (under these leaders) raged for
ten days. It was so fierce as to make one's hair stand on its
cnd.^* Then Cikhandin, in great battle, aided by the wielder
of Gandiva, slew, with innumerable arrows, the son of Ganga
fighting bravely." Lying on a bed of arrows, Bhishma waited
like an ascetic till the sun leaving his southward path entered
on his northerly course when that hero gave up his life-
breaths.** Then Drona, that foremost of all persons conver-
sant with arms, that greatest of men under Duryodhana, like
Kavya himself of the lord of the Daityas, became gene-
ralissimo.-f-*' That foremost of regenerate persons, ever boast-
ing of his prowess in battle, was supported by the remnant
of the Kaurava force consisting then of nine Akshauhinis, and
protected by Kripa and Vrisha and others." Dbrishtadyumna
conversant with many mighty weapons, and possessed of great
intelligence, became the leader of the Pandavas. lie was
protected by Bhima like Varuna protected by Mitra." That
high-souled hero, always desirous of measuring his strength
with Drona, supported by the (remnant of the) Pandavas
army, and recollecting the wrongs inflicted (by Drona) on hi

* 'Chamu' here is used in a general sense, vis., a division. Of course,
it stands for an Akshauhini. — T.

t 'Kavi' or 'KSvya' is another name of Cukra, the preceptor of tke
Daityas.— T.

Parva.] acwamedha pakva. 159

sire (Drupada, the king of the Panchalas), achieved great feats
in battle." In that encounter between Drona and the son of
Prishata, the kings assembled from diverse realms were nearly
€xterminated." That furious battle lasted for five days. At
the conclusion of that period, Drona, exhausted, succumbed
to Dhrishtadyutuna." After that, Kama became the gene-
ralissimo of Duryodhana's forces. He was supported in battle

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