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and restraining his senses and thoughts. And the subjects
were well pleased with that high-minded one constant in vir-
tue.^""^^ But he being constantly engaged in virtuous deeds,
his treasures and vehicles became greatly reduced. And on his
treasury having become depleted, the feudatory princes swarming
round began to give him trouble.^" Being thus oppressed by
many foes while his treasury, horses and vehicles were im-
poverished, the king underwent great tribulation along with his
retainers and the denizens of his capital.^=* Although his power
waned greatly, yet the foes could not slay the king, for his
power, Yudhishthira, was established in righteousness.^* And
when he had reached the extreme of misery along with the
citizens, he blew his hand (with his mouth), and from that
there appeared a supply of forces.^^ And then he vanquished
all the kings living along the borders of his dominions. And
from this circumstance, king, he hath been celebrated as
Karandhama.^" His son, (the first) Karandhama saw the light
at the beginning of the Treta age, equalling Indra himself,
endowed with grace, and invincible even by the immortals.^'^
At that time all the kings were under his control ; and alike
by virtue of his wealth and of his prowess, he became their
emperor.^® In short, the righteous king Avikshit by name,
became like unto Indra himself in heroism ; and he was given
to sacrifices, delicrhted in virtue and held his senses under

' CD

restraint.^''* And in energy he resembled the sun- and in for-
bearance, Earth herself; in intelligence, he was like Vrihaspati,

Parva.] acwamedha parva." 7

and in calmness the mountain Himavan himself."^ And that
king delighted the hearts of his subjects by act, thought, speech,
self-restraint, and forbearance.^^ — the lord who performed hun-
dreds of horse-sacrifices ; and whom the potent and learned
Angira himself served as priest.^^ His son surpassed his sire-
-in the possession of good qualities ; named Marutta, that lord
of kings was righteous and of great renown ; having the might
of ten thousand elephants, and like unto Vishnu's second self.^®^
Desirous of celebrating a sacrifice, that virtuous monarch, com-
ing to Mount Meru on the northern side of Himavat, caused
thousands of shining golden vessels to be forged. There on a
huge golden hill he performed the rites."*'^^ And goldsmiths
made basins and vessels and pans and seats without number."*
And the sacrificial ground was near this place. Aad that
righteous lord of Earth, king Marutta, along with other princes,,
performed a sacrifice there.' ""^

Section V.

"Yudhishthira said, — '0 best of speakers, how that king
became so powerful ? And how, twice-born one, did h© obtain
so much gold ?^ And where now, reverend sire, is all his
wealth ? And, ascetic, how can we secure the same ?'^

"Vyasa thereupon said, — As the numerous offspring of
the Prajapati Daksha, the Asuras and the Celestials challenged
each other (to encounter),^ so in the same way Angira's sons,
the exceedingly energetic Vrihaspati and the ascetic, Samvartta,
of equal vows, challenged each other, king. Vrihaspati be-
gan to worry Samvartta again and again.*"^ And constantly
troubled by his elder brother, he, Bharata, renouncing his
riches, went to the woods, with nothing to cover his body save
the open sky.** (At that time), Vasava. having vanquished
and destroyed the Asuras, and obtained the sovereignty of the
celestial regions, had appointed as his priest'' Angira's eldest
son, that best 6f Brahmanas, Vrihaspati. Formerly Angira
was the family-priest of king Karandhama f matchless among

* Digamvara, i. e., in a naked state. — T.

8 MAHABHARATA. [Agwamedhilca

men in might, prowess and character ; powerful like unto
Catakratu, righteous-souled and of rigid vows.^ O king, he had
vehicles, and warriors, and many adherents, and superb and costly
bedsteads,^" produced through dint of meditation by the breath
of his mouth. And by his native virtues, the monarch had
brought all the princes under his sway." And having lived as
long as he desired, he ascended heaven in his corporeal embodi-
ment. And his son named Avikshit — conqueror of foes — righteous
like unto Yayati,^^ brought all the Earth under his dominion.
And both in merit and might the king resembled his sire.^'*
He had a son named Marutta, endowed Avith energy, and re-
sembling Vasava himself. This earth clad in oceans felt herself
drawn towards him.^* He always* used to defy the lord of the
celestials ; and, son of Paudu, Vasava also de6ed Marutta.^^
And Marutta — master of Earth — was pure and possessed of
perfections. And in spite of his striving, Cakra could not
prevail over him.^^ And incapable of controlling him, he
riding on the horse, along with the celestials summoning
Vrihaspati, spoke to him thus." '0 Vrihaspati, if thou wishst
to do what is agreeable to me, do not perform priestly offices
for Marutta^** on behalf of the deities or the ancestral Manes.
I have, Vrihaspati, obtained the sovereignty of the three
worlds, while Marutta is merely the lord of the Earth.^** How,
O Brahmana, having acted as priest unto the immortal king
of the celestials, wilt thou unhasitatingly perform priestly func-
tion unto Marutta subject to death ?"° Good betide thee !
Either espouse my side or that of the monarch, Marutta, or
forsaking Marutta, gladly come over to me.-^ — Thus accosted
by the sovereign of the celestials, Vrihaspati, reflecting for a
moment, replied unto the king of the immortals." "Thou art
the Lord of creatures, and in thee are the worlds established.
And thou hast destroyed Namuchi, Vicjwarupa and Vala.'^^
Thou, hero, alone encompassest the highest prosperity of the
celestials, and, O slayer of Vala, thou sustainest the earth as
well as heaven.^* How, O foremost of the celestials, having
officiated as thy priest, shall I, O chastiser of Paka, serve a

* Nityada always, left out on the ground of redundancy.— T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva' 9

morfcal prince and do thou listen to what I say." Even if the
god of fire cease to cause heat and warmth, or the earth
change its nature, or the sun cease to give light, I shall never
deviate from the truth (that I have spoken).''^

Vai^ampayana continued,— "On hearing this speech from
Vrihaspati, Indra became cured of his envious feelings, and
then praising him he repaired to his own mansion. "^^

Section VI.

Vyasa said, — "The ancient legend of Vrihaspati and the
wise Marutta is cited in this connection.* On hearing of the
compact made by Angira's son Vrihaspati with the lord of the
gods (Indra), king Marutta made the necessary preparations
for a great sacrifice.^ The eloquent grandson of Karandhama
(Marutta) having conceived the idea of a sacrifice in his mind,
went to Vrihaspati and addressed him thus.^ "O worshipful
ascetic, I have intended to perform the sacrifice which thou
didst propose to me once on a previous occasion, in accordance
with thy instructions, and I now desire to appoint thee,* as
officiating priest at this sacrifice, the materials whereof have
also been collected by me. excellent one, thou art our family
priest, therefore do thou take those sacrificial things and per-
form the sacrifice thyself."^

Vrihaspati said, — "0 lord of the earth, I do not desire to
perform thy sacrifice, I have been appointed as priest by the
Lord of the gods (Indra) and I have promised to him to act as

Marutta said, — ^'Thou art our heriditary family priest, and
for this reason I entertain great regard for thee, and I have
acquired the right of being assisted at sacrifices by thee, and
therefore it is meet that thou shouldst officiate as priest at my

Vrihaspati said, — "Having, O Marutta, acted as priest to
the Immortals, how can I act as such to mortal men, and whe-
ther thou dost depart hence or stay, I tell thee, I have ceased
to act as priest to any but the Immortals.^ O thou of mighty
arms, I am unable to act as thy priest now. And according to

[ 2 ]

10 mahabharata; [Agivamedhikci

thy own dfiaire, thou canst appoint any one as thy priest who
will perform thy sacrifice."®

Vyasa said, — "Thus told, king Marutta became confused
with shame, and while returning home with his mind oppressed
by anxiety, he met Narada on his way.^" And that monarch
on seeing the divine Rishi Narada, stood before him with due
salutation, and with his hands clasped together, and then
Narada addressing him thus said, — royal sage, thou seemest
to be not well-pleased in thy mind,^^ is all well with thee,
where hast thou been, O sinless one, and whence the cause of
this thy mental disquietude ?^^ And, O king, if there be no
objection to thy telling it to me, do thou, O best of kings,
disclose (the cause of thy anxiety) to me, so that, O prince, I
■may allay the disquietude of thy mind with all my efforts.*^

Vai(;ampayana continued, — "Thus addressed by the great
Rishi Narada, king Marutta informed him of the rebuff he
•iiad received from his religious preceptor.'^*

Marutta said, — "Seeking for a priest to officiate at my
sacrifice, I v/ent to that priest of the Immortals, Vrihaspati,
4i\ie son of Angiras, but he did not choose to accept my offer.^^
Having met with this rebuff from him, I have no desire to live
any longer now, for by his abandoning me thus, I have, O
Narada, become contaminated with sin."^*

Vyasa said, — 'Thus told by that king, Narada, O mighty
prince, made this reply to him with words which seemed to
-revive that son of Avikshit."^''

Narada said, — "The virtuous son of Angiras, Samvarta by
-name is wandering over all the quarters of the earth in a naked
state to the wonder of all creatures ;^^ do thou, prince, go to
him, if Vrihaspati does not desire to officiate at thy sacrifice,
the powerful Samvarta, if pleased with thee, will perform thy

Marutta said, — "I feel as if instilled with new life, by these
thy words, O Narada, but O the best of speakers, do thou tell
me where I can find Samvarta,^" and how I can remain by his
side, and how I am to act so that he may not abandon me, for
I do not desire to live if I meet with a rebuff from him also.'*
Nur^a eaid, — 'Desirous of seeing Mthe9wara, O prince,

Tarva.] acwamedha parva! 11

he wanders about at his pleasure in the city of Varanaai, ia
the garb of a mad man.^^ And having reached the gate of
that city, thou must place a dead body somewhere near it, and
the man who shall turn away on seeing the corpse, do thou
O prince, know that man to be Samvarta,^^ and knowing him,
do thou follow his footsteps wheresoever that powerful man
chooses to go, and finding him (at length) in a lonely place
thou must seek his protection with thy hands clasped together
in supplication to him.^* And if he enquire of thee as to the
person who has given thee the information about his own self,
do thou tell him that Narada has informed thee about Sam-
varta.^® And if he should ask thee to follow me, thou must
tell him without any hesitation, that I have entered into the

Vyasa said, — "Having signified his assent to the proposal
of Narada, that royal sage after duly worshipping him, and
taking his permission, repaired to the city of Varan? si,^^
and having reached there, that famous prince did as he had
been told, and remembering the words of Narada, he placed a
corpse at the gate of the city.-* And by coincidence, that
Brahmana also entered the gate of the city at the same time.
Then on beholding the corpse, he suddenly turned away.^
And on seeing him turn back, that prince, the son of Avikshit
followed his footsteps with his hands clasped together, and with
the object of receiving instruction from him.^° And then find-
ing him in a lonely place, Samvarta covered the king with,
mud and ashes and phlegm and spittle.^^ And though thus
worried and oppressed by Samvarta, the king followed that
sage with his handj clasped together in supplication and trying
to appease him.^^ At length overcome with fatigue, and reach-
ing the cool shade of a sacred fig tree with many branches,
Samvarta desisted from his course and sat himself to rest."^*

Section VII.

Samvarta said, — "How hast thou come to know me, and
who has referred thee to me, do thou tell this to me truly,
if thou wishest me to do what is good to thee.^ And if thou

12 MAHABHARATA. [A^amedhilca

speak truly, thou shalt attain all the objects of thy desire, and
shouldst thou tell a lie, thy head shall be riven in a hundred

Marutta said, — "I have been told by Narada, wandering on
his way, that fchou art the son of our family-priest, and this
(information) has inclined my mind (towards thee), with ex-
quisite satisfaction."*

Samvarta said, — "Thou hast told this to me truly, he (Na-
rada) knovvs me to be a performer of sacrifices, now tell me
where is Narada living at present."*

Marutta said, — "That prince of celestial saints (Narada)
having given me this information about thee, and commended
me to thy care, has entered into the fire."^

Vyasa said, — 'Hearing these words from the king (Marutta)
Samvarta was highly gratified, and he said (addressing Ma-
rutta). 'I too am quite able to do all that.'^ Then, prince,
that Brahmana, raving like a lunatic, and repeatedly scolding
Marutta with rude words, again accosted him thus,'' 'I am afflict-
ed with a cerebral disorder, and, I always act according to
the random caprices of my own mind, why art thou bent upon
having this sacrifice performed by a priest of such a singular
disposition,^ my brother is able to officiate at sacrifices, and he
has gone over to Vasava (Indra), and is engaged in performing
his sacrifices, do thou therefore have thy sacrifice performed by
him.^ My elder brother has forcibly taken away from me all
my household goods and mystical gods, and sacrificing clients,
and has now left to me only this physical body of mine,^° and,
O son of Avikshit, as he is worthy of all respect from me, I
cannot by any means officiate at thy sacrifice, unless with his
permission.^^ Thou must therefore go to Vrihaspati first, and
taking his permission thou canst come back to me, if thou hast
any desire to perform a sacrifice, and then only shall I officiate
at thy sacrifice."^'*

Marutta said, — "Do thou listen to me, O Samvarta, I did
go to Vrihaspati first, but desiring the patronage of Vasava,
he did not wish to have me as his sacrificer.^* He said, 'Hav-
ing secured the priesthood of the Immortals, I do not desire to
act for mortals, and, I h:\ve been forbidden by Cakra (Indra) to

Parva.] acwamedha. parva. 13

officiate at Marutta's sacrifice,^* as he told me that Marutta
having become lord of the earth, was always filled with a desire
to rival him. And to this thy brother assented by saying to
the Slayer of Vala (Indra), Be it so.'^ Know thou, O best of
ascetics, that as he had succeeded in securing the protection
of the Lord of the Celestials, I repaired to him with gratified
heart, but he did not agree to act as my priest.^^ And thus
repulsed; I now desire to spend all I possess, to have this
sacrifice performed by thee, and to outstrip Vasava by the
merit of thy good offices.^^ As I have been repulsed by Vri-
haspati for no fault of mine, I have now no desire, O Brah-
man, to go to him to seek his aid in this sacrifice.''^^

Samvarta said, — "I can certainly, king, accomplish all
that thou desirest, if only thou agree to do all that I shall ask
thee to do,^® but I apprehend that Vrihaspati and Purandara
(Indra) when they will learn that I am engaged in performing
thy sacrifice, will be filled with wrath, and do all they can to
injure thee.^° Therefore, do thou assure me of thy stedfastness,
so a§ to ensure my coolness and constancy, as otherwise, if I
am filled with wrath against thee, I shall reduce (destroy) thee
and thy kindred to ashes."^^

Marutta said, — "If ever I forsake thee, may I never attain
the blessed regions as long as the mountains shall exist, and
the thousand- rayed sun continue to emit heat,^^ if I forsake
thee, may I never attain true wisdom, and remain for ever
addicted to worldly (material) pursuits."^^

Samvarta said, — "Listen, O son of Avikshit, excellent as is
the bent of thy mind to perform this act, so too, O king, have
I in my mind the ability to perform the sacrifice,^* I tell thee,
O king, that thy good things will become imperishable, and
that thou shalt lord it over Cakra and the Celestials with Gan-
dharvas."^^ For myself, I have no desire to amass wealth or
sacrificial presents, I shall only do what is disagreeable to both
Indra and my brother.^® I shall certainly make thee attain
equality with Cakra, and I tell thee truly that I shall do what
is agreeable to thee."^^


Section VIII.

Saravarfca said, — "There is a peak named Munjaban on the
summits of the Himalaya mountains, where the adorable Lord
of Uma (Mahadeva) is constantly engaged in austere devo-
tional exercises.* There the mighty and worshipful god of
great puissance, accompanied by his consort Uma, and armed
with his trident, and surrounded by wild goblins of many
sorts, pursuing his random wish or fancy, constantly resides in
the shade of giant forest trees, or in the caves, or on the
rugged peaks of the great mountain.^*^ And there the Rudras,
the Saddhyas, the Vi^wedevas, the Vasus, Yama, Varuna, and
Kuvera with all his attendants,* and the spirits and goblins,
and the two Agwins, the Gandharvas, the Apsarasas, the
Yakshas, as also the celestial sages,® the Sun-gods, as well as the
gods presiding over the winds, and evil spirits of all sorts, wor-
ship the high-souled lord of Uma, possessed of diverse charac-
teristics.' And there, O king, the adorable god, sports wiih
the wild and playful followers of Kuvera, possessed of weird and
ghastly appearances.^ Glowing with its own splendour, that
mountain looks resplendent as the morning sun.^ And no
creature with his natural eyes made of flesh, can ever ascertain
its shape or configuration, and neither heat nor cold prevails
there, nor doth the sun shine or the winds blow.^ And, king
neither doth senility, nor hunger, nor thirst, nor death nor
fear afflict any one at that place.^° And O foremost of con-
querors, on all sides of that mountain, there exist mines of
gold, resplendent as the rays of the sun. And, O king, the
attendants of Kuvera, desirous of doing good to him, protect
these mines of gold from intruders, with uplifted arms." Hie
thee thither, and appease that adorable god who is known
by the names of Sarva, Bedha,*=' Rudra, Citikantha, Surupa,
Suvarcha, Kapardi, Karala, Haryyaksha, Varada," Tryak-
sha, Pushnodantabhid, Vamana, Civa, Yamya, Avyaktarupa,
Sadvritta, Cankara," Kkshemya, Harikecja, Sthanu, Puru-
sha. Hirinetra, Munda, Krisha, Uttarana," Bhaskara, Sutirtha,
Devadeva, Ranha, Ushnishi, Suvaktra, Sahasraksha, Midh-
van/« Giri.;a, Pra,9anta, Yata, Chiravasa, Yilwadanda, Siddha

Farva.] acwamedha parva? 15

Sarvadandadhara,*' Mriga, Yyadha, Mahan, Dhanega, Bhava,
Vara, Somavaktra, Siddhamantra, Chakshu,^^ Hiranyavahu,
Ugra, Dikpati, Lelihana, Goshtha, Shiddhamantra, Vrishnu,
Pa9upati, Bhutapati,^' Vrisha, Matribhakta, Seiiani, Madhya-
ma,^° Sruvahasfca, Yati, Dhanwi, Bhargava, Aja,"° Krishna-
netra, Virupaksha, Tikshnadanshtra, Tikshna, VaiQwaiiaramu-
kha,^^ Mahadyuti, Ananga, Sarva, Dikpati, Bilohita, Dipta
Diptaksha, Mahauja,'^'^ Vasuretas, Suvapu, Prithu, Krittivasa,^^
Kapalmali, Suvamamukuta, Mahadeva, Krishna, Tryamvaka
Anagha,^* Krodhaiia, Nri9aT)sa, Mridu, Vahusali, Dandi, Tap-
tatapa, Akrurakarma, Sahasra^ira, Sahasra-charana, Swadha-
swarupa, Vahu-rupa, Danshtri,^^ Pinaki, Mahadeva, Maha-
yogi, Avyaya, Tri9ulahasta, Varada, Tryamvaka, Bhuvane-
9wara,-^ Tripuraghna, Trinayana, TriIoke9a, Mahanja, Sarva-
bhuta-prabhava, Sarvabhuta-dharana, Dharanidhara,^'' l9ana,
Cankara, Sarva, Civa, Vi9we9wara, Bhava, Uraapati, Pa9u-
pati, Vi9\varupa, Mahe9wara,'^^ Virupaksha, Da9abhuja, Vri-
shavadhwaja, Ugra, Sthanu, Civa, Raudra, Sarva, Giri9a,
l9wara.-" Sitikantha, Aja, Cukra, Prithu, Prithuhara, Vara,
Vi9warupa, Virupaksha, Vahurupa, Umapati,^" Anapganga-
hara, Hara, Caranya, Mahadeva, Chaturmukha.^^ There bow-
ing unto that deity, must thou crave his protection. And
thus, O prince, making thy submission to that high-souled
Mahadeva of great energy, shalt thou acquire that gold.^^ And
the men who go there thus, succeed in obtaining the gold.
Thus instructed, Marutta, the son of Karandhama, did as he
was advised.^^ And made superhuman arrangements for the
performance of his sacrifice. And artisans manufactured vessels
of gold for that sacrifice.^* And Vrihaspati too, hearing of the
prosperity of Marutta, eclipsing that of the gods, became greatly
grieved at heart,^^ and distressed at the thought that his rival
Samvarta should become prosperous, became sick at heart, and
the glow of his complexion left him, and his frame became
emaciated.^^ And when the Lord of the gods came to know
that Vrihaspati was much aggrieved, he went to him attended
by the Immortals and addressed him thus."*^


Section IX.

Indra said, — "Dost thou, O Vrihaspati, sleep in peace, and
are thy servants agreeable to thee, dost thou seek the welfare
of the gods, and do the gods O Brahmana, protect thee i"^

Vrihaspati said, — "I do sleep in peace, in iny bed, O Lord
of the gods, and my servants are to my liking, and I alwava
seek the welfare of the gods, and they cherish me well."^

Indra. said, — "Whence then is this pain, mental or physical,
and why art thou pale and altered in appearance (complexion)
at present, tell me, O Brahmana, who those people are, who
have caused thee pain, so that I may kill them all."^

Vrihaspati said, — "0 Indra, I have heard that Marutta will
perform a great sacrifice at which exquisite presents will be
given by him (to Brahmanas) and that at his sacrifice Sam-
varta will act as the officiating priest, and therefore do I desire
that he may not officiate as priest at that sacrifice."*

Indra said, — 'Thou, Brahmana, hast attained all the
objects of thy desire when thou hast become the excellent
priest of the gods, versed in all the sacred hymns, and hast over
readied the influence of death and dotage, what can Sam-
varta do to thee now ?"^

Vrihaspati said, — "Prosperity of a rival is always painful to
one's feelings, and for this reason too, thou dost with thy atten-
dant gods persecute the Asuras with their kith and kin, and kill
the most prosperous among them f hence, O Lord of the gods,
am I changed in appearance at the thought that my rival is
prospering, therefore, O Indra, do thou, by all means, restrain
Samvarta and king Marutta."^

Indra turning to Agni said, — "Do thou, O Jataveda, follow-
ing my direction, go to king Marutta to present Vrihaspati to
him, and say unto him that this Vrihaspati will officiate at
his sacrifice and make him immortal."®

Agni said, — "I shall presently, adorable one, repair thi-
ther as thy messenger, to present Vrihaspati to king Marutta ;
and to mike Indra's words true, and to shew respect to Vrihas-
pati, Agni departed."**

Vyd.>iii said, — "Then the high-so uled lire-god went on his

Parva.] acwamediia parva. If

errand, devastating all the forests and trees, like unto the
mighty wind, roaring and revolving at random at the end of the
.winter season."''"

Marutta said, — "Behold ! I find the fire-god come in his own
emhodiment, this day, therefore do thou, O Muni, offer him
a seat and water, and a cow, and water for washing the feet.^^

Agni said, — "I accept thy offerings of water, seat, and
water for washing the feet, sinless one, do thou know me as
the messenger of Indra, come to thee, in accordance with his

Marutta said,— "0 Fire-god, is the glorious Lord of the
Celestials happy, and is he pleased with us, and are the other
gods loyal to hi -n? Do thou enlighten me duly on all these

Agni said,— "0 lord of the earth, Cakra is perfectly happy,
he is pleased with thee, and wishes to make thee free from
senility, and all the other gods are loyal to him, do thou,
O king, listen to the message of the Lord of the Celestials.^*
And the object for which he has sent me to thee is to presenb
Vrihaspati to Marutta, O prince, let this priest (of the Celes-
tials) perform thy sacrifice, and make thee, who art only a
mortal, attain immortality."^^

Marutta said, — "This twije-born Brahmana Samvartta will
perform my sacrifice, and I pray to Vrihaspati, that he having

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