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those Brfihraanas who are endued with penances and who
make gifts according to the measnre of their ability, succeed
in beholding it.^" It has been said that he that gives away a
hundred, having a thousand, he that gives away ten, hav-
ing a hundred, and he that gives a handful of water, having
no wealth, are all equal in respect of the merit they earn.^''
King Rantideva, when divested of all his wealth, gave a small
quantity of water with a pure heart. Through this gift, O
learned Brahmana, he went to Heaven.^^ The deity of right-
eousness is never gratified so much with large gifts of costly
things as with gifts of even things of no value, if acquired
lawfully and given away with devotion and faith.^^ King
Nriga had made gifts of thousands of kine unto the regenerate
class. By giving away only one cow that did not belong
to him, he fell into Hell.'°<^ U^inara's son Civi of excellent
vows, by giving away the flesh of his OAvn body, is rejoicing in
Heaven, having attained to the regions of the righteous.^"*
Mere wealth is not merit. Good men ac'quire merit by exerting
to the best of their powder and with the aid of pious means.
One does not acquire such merit by means of even diverse
Sacrifices as with even a little wealth that has been earned law-
ully."2 Through wrath, the fruits of gifts are destroyed.
Through cupidity one fails to go to Heaven. One conversant
with the merits of gift, and leading a just course of conduct
succeeds, through penances, in enjoying Heaven.^"^ The fruit,
O Brahmana, of this gift made by thee (of a x>rastha of pow-
dered barley) is much greater than what one acquires by
many Rajasuya sacrifices with profuse gifts or many Horse-
sacrifices.^°* With this prastha of powdered barley thou hast
conquered the eternal region of Brahman. Go thou in happi-
ness, learned Brahmana, to the abode of Brahman that is
without the stain of darkness.^*'^ O foremost of regenerate
persons, a celestial car is here for all of you. Do thou ascend
it as pleasest thee ! Brahmana, I am the deity of Right-
eousness. Behold me !"" Thou hast rescued thy body. The
fame of thy achievement will last in the world. With thy

Parva.] acwamedha piRVAi 237

wife, thy son, and thy daughter-in-law, go now to Heaven.'"''
— After the deity of Righteousness had said these words, that
Brahmana, with his wife, son and daughter-in-law, proceeded
to Heaven.'"^ After that learned Braamana, conversant with
all duties, had thus ascended to Heaven with his son, daughter-
in-law, and wife numbering the fourth, I came out of my
hole.^°^ There with the scent of that powdered barley, with
the mire cansed by the water (which the Brahmana had given
to his guest), with the contact (of my body) with the celestial
flowers that had been rained down, with the particles of the
barley-powder which that good man had given away,-*^" and
the penances of that Brahmana, my head became gold. Be-
hold, in consequence of the gift of that Brahmana who was
firm in truth, and his penances, half of this my ample body has
became golden im-^^^ ye regenerate ones, for converting the
rest of my body into gold I repeatedly repair, Avith a cheerful
heart, to the retreats of ascetics and the sacrifices performed
by kings.^*^ Hearing of this sacrifice of the Kuru king en-
dued with great wisdom, I came hither wir.h high hopes. I
have not, however, been made gold.^'^ Ye foremost of Brah-
man as, it was for this that I uttered those words, viz., that
this sacrifice can by no means compare with (the gift of ) that
prastha of powdered barley !"^ With the grains of that
praitha of powdered barley, I was made gold on that occasion.
This great sacrifice, however, is not equal to those grains.
Even this is my opinion.'^^^ Having said those words unto
all those foremost of Brahmanas, the mungoose disappeared
from their sight. Those Brahmanas then returned to their
respective homes."^^^

Vai9ampayana continued, — "0 conquerer of hostile towns,
I have now told thee all relating to that wonderful incident
which occurred in that great Horse-sacrifice."^ Thou shouldst
not, king, think highly of sacrifice. Millions of Rishis have
ascended to Heaven with the aid of only their penances."^
Abstention from injury as regards all creatures, contentment,
conduct, sincerity, penances, self-restraint, truthfulness, and
gifts are each equal in point of merit to sacrifice.""®


Section XCI.

Janamejaya said, — "0 puissant Rishi, kings are attached
to sacrifices. The great Rishis are attached to penances.
Learned Brahmanas are observant of tranquillity of mind,
peacefulness of behaviour, and self-restraint.'^ Hence it seems
that nothing can be seen in this world which can compare with
the fruits of sacrifices. Even this is my conviction. That
conviction, again, seems to be undoubtedly correct.^ Inumer-
able kings, best of regenerate persons, having worshipped
the deities in sacrifices, earned high fame here and obtained
Heaven hereafter.^ Endued with great energy, the puissant
chief of the deities, viz., Indra of a thousand eyes, obtained
the sovereignty over the deities through the many sacrifices he
performed with gifts in profusion and attained to the fruition
of all his wishes.* When king Yudhishthira, with Bhima and
Arjuna by him, resembled the chief of the deities himself in
prosperity and prowess,^ why then did that mungoose depreciate
that great Horse-sacrifice of the high-souled monarch ?"®

Vai^ampayana said, — "Do thou listen to me, king, as I
discourse to thee duly, Bharata, on the excellent ordinances
relating to Sacrifice and the fruits also, ruler of men, that
sacrifice yields !^ Formerly, on one occasion Cakra performed
a particular sacrifice. While the limbs of the sacrifice were
spread out, the Kitwijas became busy in accomplishing the
diverse rites ordained in the scriptures.^ The pourer of liba-
tions, possessed of every qualification, became engaged in
pouring libations of clarified butter. The great Rishis were
seated around. The deities were summoned one by one by
contented Brahmanas of great learning uttering scriptural
Mantras in sweet voices. Those foremost of Adhwaryyus, not
fatigued with what they did, recited the Mantras of the
Yajurveda in soft accents.^"^** The time came for slaughtering
the animals. When the animals selected for sacrifice were
seized, the great Rishis, king, felt compassion for them.^*
Beholding that the animals had all become cheerless, those
Rishis, endued with wealth of penances, approached Cakra

^Parva.] acwamedha parva. 239

and said unto him, — 'This method of sacrifice is not auspici-
ous !^^ Desirous of acquiring great merit as thou art, this is
verily an indication of thy unacquaintance with sacrifice. O
Purandara, animals have not been ordained to be slaughtered
in sacrifices.^^ puissant one, these preparations of thine are
destructive of merit ! This sacrifice is not consistent with
righteousness. The destruction of creatures can never be said to
be an act of righteousness !^* If thou wishest it, let thy prie.sts
perform thy sacrifice according to the Agama. By performing
a sacrifice according to the (true import of the) scriptural or-
dinances, great will be the merit achieved by thee." thou
of a hundred eyes, do thou perform the sacrifice with seeds of
grain that have been kept for three years. Even this, Cakra,
would be fraught with great righteousness and productive of
fruits of high efiicacy !'^^ The deity of a hundred sacrifices,
however, influenced by pride and overwhelmed by stupefaction,
did not accept these words uttered by the Rishis.'^ Then. O
Bharata, a great dispute arose in that sacrifice of Cakra be-
tween the ascetics as to how sacrifices should be performed,
that is, should they be performed with mobile creatures or
with immobile objects.-'® All of them Avere worn out with
disputation. The Rishis then, those beholders of truth, having
made an understanding with Cakra (about referring the matter
to arbitration) asked king Vasu." — 'O highly blessed one,
what is the Vedic declaration about sacrifices ? Is it prefer-
able to perform sacrifices with animals or with seeds and
juices?'-'' Hearing the question, king Vasu, without at all
judging of the strength or weakness of the arguments on the
two sides, at once answered, saying — 'Sacrifices may be per-
formed with whichever of the two kinds of objects is ready. ''^^
Having answered the question thus, he had to enter the
nether regions. Indeed, the puissant ruler of the Chedis had
to undergo that misery for having answered falsely."^ There-
fore, when a doubt arises, no person, however wise, should .singly
decide the matter, unless he be the puissant and self-born Lord
himself of creatures.-^ Gifts made by a sinner with an impure
understanding, for this, even when very large, become lost.
Such gifts go for nothing."* By the gifts made by a person

240 mahabharata; [Anugitci

of unrighteous conduct, — one, that is, who is of sinful soul and
who is a destroyer, just fame is never acquired either here or
hereafter.^^ That person of little intelligence who, from desire
of acquiring merit, performs sacrifices with wealth acquired by
unrighteous means, never succeeds in earning merit. "^ That
low wretch of sinful soul, who hypocritically assuming a garb
of righteousness makes gifts unto Brahmanas, only creates the
conviction in men about his own righteousness, (without earn-
ing true merit). -^ That Brahmana of uncontrolled conduct,
who acquires wealth by sinful acts, overwhelmed by passion
and stupefaction, attains at last to the goal of the sinful."^
Some one, overwhelmed by cupidity and stupefaction, becomes
bent on storing wealth. He is seen to persecute all creatures,
urged by a sinful and impure understanding."''^ He who, hav-
ing acquired wealth by such means, makes gifts or performs
sacrifices therewith, never enjoys the fruits of those gifts or
sacrifices in the other world in conse]uence of the wealth hav-
ing been earned by unrighteous means.^° Men endued Avith
wealth of penances, by giving awa}', to the best of their
power, grains of corn picked up from the fiields or roots or
fruits. or petherbs or water or leaves, acquired great merit and
proceeded to Heaven.-''^ Even such gifts are fraught with
righteousness and equl to high austerities. Such gifts, as also
compassion to all creatures, and Brahmacharyya, truthfulness
of speech, and kindness, and fortitude, and forgiveness,^" con-
stitute the eternal foundations of Righteousness which itself is
eternal. We hear of Vicvamitra and other kings of ancient
times.'^^ Indeed, Vigvamitra, and Asita, and king Janaka,
aud Kakshasena and Arshtisena, and king Sindhudwipa,^* —
these and many other kings, endued with wealth of penances,
having made gifts of articles acquired lawfully, have attained
to high success.^" Those amonost Brahmanas and Kshatrivas
and Vaigyas and Cudras who betake themselves to penances
O Bharata, and who purify themselves by gifts and other acts
of righteousness, proceed to Heaven."^"


Section XCII.

Janamejaya said, — "If, illustrious one, Heaven is the
fruit of wealth acquired by lawful means, do thou discourse
to me fully on it. Thou art well-conversant with the subject
and, therefore, it behooveth thee to explain it.^ regenerate
one, thou hast said unto me what the high fruit was that
accrued unto that Brahmana, who lived according to the Un-
ccha mode, through his gift of powdered barley. Without
doubt, all thou hast said is true.^ In what way, however,
was the attainment held certain of the highest end in all
sacrifices ? foremost of regenerate persons, it behooveth
thee to expound this to me in all its details !"^

Vaigampayana said, — "In this connection is cited this old
narrative, O chastiser of foes, of what occurred in former days
in the great sacrifice of Agastya.* In olden days, O king,
Agastya of great energy, devoted to the good of all creatures,
entered into a Diksha extending for twelve years.*^ In that
sacrifice of the high-souled Rishi many Hotris were engaged
that resembled blazing fires in the splendour of their bodies.
Among them were men that subsisted upon roots or fruits, or
that used two pieces of stone only for husking their corn, or
that were supported by only the rays (of the moon).® Among
them were also men who never took any food unless ifc
was placed before them by others solicitious of feeding them,
and those who never ate anything without having first served
the deities, the Pitris, and guests, and those who never
washed the food which they took. There Avere also Yatis and
Vikshus among them, king.'^ All of them were men who
had obtained a sight of the deity of Righteousness in his em-
bodied form. They had subjugated wrath and acquired a

* The 'Diksha' consists of the initiatm-y riles undergone by one de-
sirous of performing a particular sacrifice or completing a particular
vow. Some auspicious day is selected. Mantras are uttered and the
purpose is expressed in words. There were many long-extending sacri-
fices which were partly of th'; nature of vows. Till their completion
the performer or ebserver is said to undergo the period of 'Diktha.' — T.

[ 31 ]

242 MAHABHARATA. [Anugiifl

complete mastery over all their senses. Living in the observ-
ance of self-restraint, they were freed from pride and the desire
of injuring others.® They were ahvays observant of a pure
conduct and were never obstructed (in the prosecution of their
purposes) by their senses. Those great Rishis attended that
sacrifice and accomplished its various rites.^ The illustrious
E,ishi (Agastya) acquired the food that was collected in that
sacrifice and that came up to the required measure, by lawful
means according to the best of his power.^^ Numerous other
ascetics at that time performed large sacrifices. As Agastya,
however, was engaged in that sacrifice of his,^^ the thousand-
eyed Indra, best of the Bharatas, ceased to pour rain (on
the Earth). At the intervals, king, of the sacrificial rites,
this talk occurred among those Rishis of cleansed souls about
the high-souled Agastya, viz., — 'This Agastya, engaged in
sacrifice, is making gifts of food with heart purged of pride
and vanity.'^^*-^^ The deity of the clouds, however, has ceased
to pour rain. How, indeed, will food grow ? This sacrifice of
the Rishi, ye Brahmanas, is great and extends for twelve
years.** The deity will not pour rain for these twelve years.
Reflecting on this, it behooveth you to do some favour unto
this Rishi of great intelligence, viz., Agastya of severe pen-
ances.' When these words were said, Agastya of great prow-
ess,*^'*^ gratifying all those ascetics by bending his head, said,
— 'If Vasava does not pour rain for those twelve years,*^ I
shall then perform the mental sacrifice. Even this is the eter-
nal ordinance. If Vasava does not pour rain for these twelve
years,*® I shall then i)erform the Touch sacrifice. Even this is
the eternal sacrifice. If Vasava does not pour rain for these
twelve years," I shall then, putting forth all my exertion,
make arrangements fin- other sacrifices characterised by the
observance of the most difficult and severe vows. This present
sacrifice of mine, with seeds, has been arranged for by me
with labour extending for many years.*-" I shall, with seeds,

* Tlie first line of 20 is .lifferently read in the Bombay text. It
rnns, — 'steadfastly observing my vow, I sjiall make arrangements for
many sacrifices, creating the articles I want by thuught alone 'or fiats
of my will).'— T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva! 213

accomplish much good. No impediment will arise. This my
sacrifice is incapable of being baffled."* It matters little whe-
ther the deity pours rain or no downpours happen. Indeed, if
Indra does not, of his own will, show any regard for me,^^ I
shall, in that case, transform myself into Indra and keep all
creatures alive. Every creature, on whatever food he has been
nourished, will continue to be nourished on it as before."^ I
can even repeatedly create a different order of things. Let
gold and whatever else of wealth there is, come to this place
today !^* Let all the wealth that occurs in the three worlds
come here today of its own accord ! Let all the tribes of
celestial Apsaras, all the Gandharvas along with the Kinnaras,'^^
and Vi9wavasu, and ethers there are (of that order), approach
this sacrifice of mine ! Let all the wealth that exists among
the Northern Kurus,"^ come of their own accord to these sacri-
fices. Let Heaven, and all those who have Heaven for their
home, and Dharma himself, come hither !'^^ — After the ascetic
had uttered these words, everything happened as he wished,
in consequence of his penances, for Agastya was endued with
a mind that resembled a blazing fire and was possessed of ex-
traordinary energy.^^ The Rishis who were there beheld the
power of penances with rejoicing hearts. Filled with wonder
they then said these words of grave import.^^

"The Rishis said, — 'We have been highly gratified with the
xvords thou hast uttered. We do not, however, wish that thy
penances should suffer any diminution. Those sacrifices are
approved by us which are performed by lawful means. Indeed,
we desire duly those sacrifices which rest on lawful meana.*^*
Earning our food by lawful means and observant of our res-
pective duties, we shall seek to go through sacrificial initiations
and the pouring of libations on the sacred fire and the other
religious rites.^* We should adore the deities, practising
Brahmacharyya by lawful means. Completing the period of
Brahmacharyya we have come out of our abode, observing

* Probably, the sense is this : if a Brahmana prodaced extraordinary
results by his penances, a portion of his penances was supposed to be
destroyed. The Kishis did not like that any portion of Agastya's pen-
ancea should be spent for completing hia sacrifice. — T,

244) MAHABHARATAi [Anugit3

lawful methods. That understanding, which is freed from the
desire of inflicting any kind of injury on others, is approved
by us.^'"^^ Thou shouldst always, puissant one, commend
such abstention from injury in all sacrifices. We shall then
be highly gratified, foremost of regenerate ones. Alter the
completion of thy sacrifice, when dismissed by thee, we shall
then, leaving this place, go away.'^* As they were saying
these words, Purandara, the chief of the deities, endued with
great energy, beholding the power of Agastya's penances,
poured rain.^^ Indeed, Janamejaya, till the completion of
the sacrifice of that Rishi of immeasurable prowess, the deity
of rain poured rain that met the wishes of men in respect of
both quantity and time.^*' Placing Vrihaspati before him, the
chief of the deities came there, O royal sage, and gratified
the Rishi Agastya.^^ On the completion of that sacrifice,
Agastya, filled with joy, worshipped all those great Rishis duly
and then dismissed them all."^^

Janamejaya said, — "Who was that mungoose with a golden
head, that said all those words in a human voice ? Asked
by me, do thou tell me this !"^^

Vai^ampayana said, — "Thou didst not ask me before and,
therefore, I did not tell thee. Hear as I tell thee who that
mungoose was and why he could assume a human voice.^^ In
former times, the Rishi Jamadagni purposed to perform a
Craddha. His Homa-cow came to him and the Rishi milked
her himself.*^ He then placed the milk in a vessel that was
new, durable, and pure. The deity Dharma, assuming the
form of anger, entered that vessel of milk.*" Indeed, Dharma
was desirous of ascertaining what that foremost of Rishis
would do when seeing some injury done to him. Having re-
flected thus, Dharma spoiled that milk.*^ Knowing that the
spoiler of his milk was Anger, the ascetic was not at all enraged
with him. Anger, then, assuming the form of a Brahmana
lady, showed himself to the Rishi." Indeed, Anger, finding
that he had been conquered by that foremost one of Bhrigu's
race, addressed him, saying, — '0 chief of Bhrigu's race, I have
been conquered by thee. There is a saying among men that
the Bhrigus are very Avrathful. I now find that that saying

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 245

is false, since I have been subdued by thee '*^ Thou art pos-
sessed of a mighty soul. Thou art endued with forgiveness.
I stand here today, owning thy sway. I fear thy penances,
O righteous one ! Do thou, O puissant Rishi, show me
favour !'*^

"Jamadagni said, — 'I have seen thee, Anger, in thy em-
bodied form. Go thou whithersoever thou likest, without any
anxiety. Thou hast not done me any injury today. I have
no grudge against thee I" Those for whom I had kept this
milk are the highly blessed Pitris. Present thyself before
them and ascertain their intentions.'*^ Thus addressed, pene-
trated with fears Anger vanished from the sight of the Rishi.
Through the curse of the Pitris he became a mungoose.*^ He
then began to gratify the Pitris in order to bring about an end
of his curse. By them he was told these words : — 'By speak-
ing disrespectfully of Dharma thou shalt attain to the end of
thy curse !'^° Thus addressed by them, he wandered over
places where sacrifices were performed and over other sacred
places, employed in censuring great sacrifices. It was he that
came to the great sacrifice of king Yudhishthira.^^ Disprais-
ing the son of Dharma by a reference to the prastha of pow-
dered barley. Anger became freed from his curse, for Yudhish-
thira (as Dharma's son) was Dharma's self.°^ Even this is
what occurred in the sacrifice of that high-souled king. The
mungoose disappeared there in our very sight.*"^^


* It is difficult to resist the conviction that as much of this section
as relates to the mungoose is an interpolation. The Brahmanas could
not bear the idea of a sacrifice with such profusion of gifts, as that of
Yudhishthira, being censurable. Hence the invention about the trans-
formation of the mungoose. Truly speaking, the doctrine is noble of
the gift of a small quantity of barley made under the circumstances
being superior in point of merit to even a Horse-sacrifice performed by
a king with gifts in profusion made to the Brahmanas. — T,






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Acwamedhika Parva.


After offer of libations of water to his slain

kinsmen, Yudhishthira falls down in grief ... \

Dhritarashtra comforts him ., . ... .,, j^,
Dhritarashtra refers to Vid lira's advice about

the abandonment of Duryodhana ... ... 2

Ke(^ava's consolatory address to Yudhishthira ... jb

Yyasa comforts Yudhishthira ... .., 3

Vyasa advises Yudhishthira to perform the

Horse-sacrifice ... ... x

Yudhishthira enquires of Vyasa as to whence the

necessary wealth would come ... .., ib
Vyasa indicates a region in the Himalayas where

there is abundance of gold ... ... 5

The story of Marntta ... ... ... ^^

Vrihaspati and Samvarta ... ... ... rr

Indra urges Vrihaspati not to act as priest for

Marutta ... ... ... ._^ g

Vrihaspati accedes to Indra's request ... ... 9

Narada directs Marutta to seek Samvarta for

appointing him his priest ... ... jq

Conversation between Marutta and Samvarta ... 12

Marutta pledges his word that he would on no

accjount cast off Samvarta after appointing

him his priest ... ... ... 13

Samvarta directs Marutta to repair to Munjavat,

one of the peaks of Himavat, for gold ... 14,

The diverse names of Mahadeva ... ... jj,

Indra's endeavour to induce Marutta to cast off

Samvarta ... ... ... ^.. jg

Indra's failure and anger with Marutta ... jj

Conversation bet,ween Agni and Indra on the

puissance of a Brahmana ... ... 19



Indra seeks to injure Marutta ... ... 20

Indra forced by Samvarta's power to present him-
self at the sacrifice of Marutta ... ... 21

Indra himself superintends the great sacrifice of

Marutta ... ... ... ... 22

Marutta completes his sacrifice with copious pre-
sents of gold ... ... ... 23

Vasudeva recites to Yudhishthira the history of

the enmity between Indra and Vritra ... 24

Continuation of Vasudeva's discourse for comfort-
ing Yudhishthira ... ... ... 25

Yudhishthira tranquillised ... ... ... 29

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