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acted as priest to Mahendra (Indra) it does not look well for
him now to act as priest to mortal men."^®

Agni said,— "If this Vrihaspati officiate as thy priest, then'
shalt thou by the blessings of Devaraja (Indra^ attain the
highest region in the celestial mansion and attaining fame
shalt thou certainly conquer the heavenly region.^^ And, O
lord of men, if \'riha=pati act as thy priest, thou shalt be able
to conquer all the regions inhabited by men, and the heavenly
regions, and all the highest regions created by Prajapati and
even the entire kingdom of the gods. '^^

Samvarta said, — "Thou must never come again thus to pre-
sent Vrihaspaai to Marutta ; for know, Pavaka, (Agni) if
thou dost, I losing my temper, will burn thee with my fierce
evil e^-es."

[ 3 ]

18 mahabharataI [A^ivamedhika

Vyasa said, — "Then Agni apprehending destruction by fire,
nnd trambliiig like the leaves of the Agwattha tree {Ficus
religiosa), returned to the gods, and the high-souled Cakra
seeing that carrier of oblrti^ns (Agni) in the company of
Vrihaspati said as follows :"""

Indra said, — "Thou O Jataveda (Agni) didst go to present
Vrihaspati to Marutta according to my direction, now what
'did that sacrificing king say unto thee and did he accept my
■ message ?^*

Agni said, — "Thy message was not acceptable by Marutta
and when urged by me, he clasping the hands of Vrihaspati,
repeatedly said, that Samvarta would act as his priest."- And
•he also observed that he did not desire to attain the worldly
and the heavenly regions, and all the highest regions of Praja-
pati, and that if he were so minded, he would accept the
-terms of Indra."'^

Indra said, — "Do thou go back to that king and meeting
him, tell him these words of mine, full of significance, and if
■he obey them not, I shall strike him with my thunderbolt."*

Agni said, — "Let this king of the Gandharvas, repair thi-
•ther as thy messenger, O Vasava, for, I am afraid to go thi-
ther myself. Know, O Cakra, that highly incensed Samvarta
addicted to ascetic practices, told me these words in a rage."^
'I shall burn thee with my fierce evil eyes if thou on any account
come again here to present Vrihaspati to king Marutta.' "'®

Cakra said, — "O Jataveda, it is thou who dost burn all
•other things and there is none else who can reduce thee to
•ashes, all the world is afraid to come in contact with thee, O
carrier of oblations, these words of thine are worthy of no
credence. "^''

Agni said, — "Thou, Cakra, hast encompassed the -domi-
nion of the heaven and the earth and the firmament by the
might of thine own arms, but even thus how could Vritra (of
old) wrest from thee the sovereignty of the celestial regions ?"^^
Indra said, — "I can reduce my foes to submisson and can
even reduce the size of a mountain to an atom, if I will it.
But, O Vahni, as I do not accept the libation of Soma drink
i-f oSfared by a foe, and as I do n-ot strike the weak with my

Farva.] acwamedha parya^ 19

thunderbolfc (Vritra seemed to triumph over me for a time.)
But who among mortals can live in peace by creating feud with
me.^^ I have banished the Kalakeyas to the earth, and re-
moved the Danavas from heaven, and have terminated the exr
istence of Prahlada in heaven, can there be any man who can
live in peace by provoking my enmity."^"

Agni said, — "Dost thou, O Mahendra, remember that in
olden times when the sage Chyavana officiated at the sacrifice
of Caryati with the twin gods A9wins, and himself appro-
priated the Soma offering alone, thou wert filled with wrath,
and when bent upon preventing Caryati's sacrifice,^^ thou didst
violently strike Chyavana v/ith thy thunderbolt, that Brah-
mana, Q Purandara, giving way to passion, was able by the
power of his devotions to seize and hold fast thy hand with
thy thunderbolt in it.^^ And in a rage, he again created a
terrible looking enemy of thine, the Asura named Mada assum-
ing all shapes, on beholding whom thou didst shut thine eyes
with fear,''^ whose one huge jaw was placed on earth, and the
other extended to the celestial regions, and who looked terri-
ble with his thousand sharp teeth extending over a hundred
Yojanas,^* and had four prominent ones thick a set, and shin-
ing like a pillar of silver, and extending over two hundred
Yojanas. And when grinding his teeth he pursued thee with
his terrible and uplifted pike with the object of killing thee,^^
thou on beholding that terrible monster, presented a (pitiful)
spectacle to all the bystanders. Then, O slayer of Danavas,
overcome with fear of the monster, with thy hands clasped in
supplication, thou didst seek the protection of the great sage."*
The might of Brahmanas, O Cakra, is greater than that of ths
Kshatriyas, none are more powerful than Brahmanas and
knowing duly, as I do, the power of Brahmanas, I do not,
Cakra, desire to come in conflict with Samvarta."^^

Section X.

Indra said,— "Even so it is, the might of Brahmanas is
great and there are none more powerful than Brahmanas, but
I can never bear with equanimity the insolent pride of Avi-

20 HAUABHARATA. [AewaYiiedhiko.

kshita's son, and so shall I smite him with my thunderbolt*
Therefore, O Dhritarashtra, do thou according to my direction
repair to king Marutta attended by Sainvarta, and deliver this
message to him — 'do thou prince accept Vrihaspati as thy *
spiritual preceptor, as otherwise, I shall strike thee with my
terrific thunderbolt.' ""

Vyasa said, — "Then Dhritarashtra betook himself to that
monarch's court and delivered this message to him from

Dhritarashtra said, — "0 lord of men know that I am Dhri-
tarashtra the Gandharva, come here with the object of deliver-
ing to thee the message of Indra, do thou, liin among
kings listen to the words which the high-souled lord of all the
worlds meant for thee,* — that one of incomprehensible achieve-
ments (Indra) only said this much, — 'do thou accept Vrihas-
pati as thy officiating priest for the sacrifice, or if thou do not
comply with my request, I shall strike thee with my terrific
thunderbolt.' "^

Marutta said, — 'Thou, O Purandara, the Vigwadevas, the
Vasus and the A^wins ye all know, that in this world there is
no escape from the consequences of playing false to a friend,
it is a great sin like unto that of murdering a Brahmana.^
Let Vrihaspati (therefore) officiate as priest to that Mahendra
the supreme Deva (god), the highest one wielding the thunder-
bolt, and prince, Samvarta will act as my priest, as neither
his (Tndra's) words, nor thine commend themselves to me."^

The Gandharva said, — "Do thou lion among princes, lis-
ten to the terrible war-cry, of Vasava roaring in the heavens,
assuredly and openly will Mahendra hurl his thunderbolt at
thee, do thou therefore be-think thyself of thy good, for this is
the time to do it."^

Vyasa said, — "Thus accosted by Dhritarashtra, and hearing
the roar of howling Vtlsava, the king communicated this in-
telligence to Samvarta stcdfast in devotion and the highest of
all virtuous men.'"^

Marutta said, — "Verily this rain-cloud floating in the air
indicates that Indra must be near at present, therefore, O
prince of Brahmanas, I seek shelter from Lhce, do thou best

Farva.] acwamedha. parva. 21

of Bralimanas remove this fear of Iiidra from niy mind.'*' The
Wielder of the thunderbolt is coming encompassing the ten
directions of space with his terrible and superhuman refulgeiice
and my assistants at this sacrificial assembly have been over-
come with fright.''-

Samvarta said, — "0 lion among Icings, thy fear of Cakra
will soon be dispelled, and I shall soon remove this terrible
pain by means of my magic lore (incantatioji), be calm and
have no fear of being overpowered by Indra.'" Thou hast
nothing to fear from the god of a hundred sacrifices, I shall
use my staying charms, king, and the weapons of all the
gods will avail them not.-^^ Let the lightning flash in all
the directions of space, and the winds entering into the clouds
pour down the showers amid the forests, and the waters deluge
the heavens and the flashes of lightning that are seen will
avail not, thou hast nothing to fear,'* let Yasava pour down
the rains and plat his terrific thunderbolt where he will, float-
ing among the watery masses (clouds) for thy destruction, for
the god Vahni (Agni) will protect thee in every way, and
make thee attain all the objects of thy desire."'^

Marutta stid, — "This appalling crash of the thunderbolt to-
gether with the howling of the v.'inds, seem terrible to my ears
and my heart is afflicted again and again, O Brahmana, and
my peace of mind is gone at present."

Samvarta said, — "O king, the fear in thy mind from this
terrible thunderbolt will leave thee presently. I shall dispel
the thunder by the aid of the winds, and seting aside all fear
from thy mind, do thou accept a boon from me according to
thy heart's desire, and I shall accomplish it for thee."'^

Marutta said, — "I desire, Brahmana, that Indra all of a
sudden should come in person at this sacrifice, and accept the
oblation offered to him, and that all the other gods also come
and take their appointed shares of the offerings and accept the
libations of Soma offered to them."'^

Samvarta said, — "I have, by the power of my incantations
attracted Indra in person to this sacrifice. Behold, monarch
Indra coming with his horses, and worshipped by the other
gods hastening to this sacrifice.""

22 MAHABHARATA. [Agwcimedhikcc

Then the Lord of the Devas attended by the other gods
and riding in his chariot drawn b}' the most excellent steeds,
approached the sacrificial altar of that son of Avikshit and
drank the Soma libations of that unrivalled monarch.^" And
king Marutta with his priest rose to receive Indra coming with
the host of gods and well-pleased in mind, he welcomed the
lord of the Devas with due and foremost honors according to
the Castras,"^

Samvarta said, — "Welcome to tliee, O Indra, by thy pre-
sence here, O learned one, this sacrifice has been made grand,

slayer of Vala and Vritra, do thou again quaff this Soma
juice produced by me today ." -

Marutta said, — "Do thou look with kindness upon me, I
bow unto thee, O Indra, by thy presence, my sacrifice has
been perfected, and my life too blessed with good results. O
Surendra, this excellent Brahmana, the younger brother of
Vrihaspati is engaged in performing my sacrifices."^^

Indra said, — '"I know thy priest, this highly energetic as-
cetic, the younger brother of Vrihaspati, at whose invitation

1 have come to this sacrifice, I am, O monarch, well-pleased
with thee and my resentment against thee hath been des-

Samvarta said, — "If, prince of the Devas, thou art pleas-
ed with us, do thou thyself give all the directions for this
sacrifice, and Surendra, thyself ordain the sacrificial por-
tions (for the gods), so that O god, all the world may know
that it hath been done by thee."-^

Vyasa said, — 'Thus accosted by the son of Angira, Cakra
himself gave directions to all the gods to erect the hall of
assembly, and a thousand well-furnished excellent rooms looking
grand as in a picture,"^ and speedily to complete the staircase
massive and durable, for the ascent of the Gandharvas and
Apsarasas and to furnish that portion of the sacrilicial ground
reserved for the dance of the Apsarasas, like unto the palace
of Indra in the heaven."^ O king, thus directed, the re-
nowned dwellers of heaven speedily fulfilled the directions of
Cakra. And then, O king, Indra well-pleased and adored,
thus said to king Marutta/^— prince, by associating with


thee at this sacrifice, thine ancestors who have gone before
thee, as well as the other gods have been highly gratified and
accepted the oblations offered by thee.^^ And now, O king,
let the foremost of regenerate beings offer on the sacrificial
altar a red bull appertaining to the Fire-god and a secred
and duly consecrated blue bull with a variegated skin, ap-
pertaining to the Vi9wedevas.^° Then, O king, the sacrificial
ceremony grew in splendour, wherein the gods themselves
collected the food, and Cakra the lord of the gods, possessed
of horses, and worshipped by the Brahmanas, became an
assistant at the sacrifice.^^ And then the high-souled Sam-
varta ascending the altar, and looking radiant as the second
embodiment of the blazing fire, loudly addressing the gods
with complaisance, offered oblations of clarified butter to the
fire with incantation of the sacred hymns.^^ And then the
slayer of Vala first drank the Soma juice, and then the assem-
bly of other gods who drank Soma, and then in happiness
and with the king's permission they returned home well-pleas-
ed and delighted.^^ Then that monarch, the slayer of his
enemies, with a delighted heart, placed heaps of gold on
diverse spots, and distributing the immense wealth to the
Brahmanas, he looked glorious like Kuvera the god of wealth.^*
And with a buoyant heart, the king filled his treasury with
different kinds of wealth, and with the permission of his spiri-
tual preceptor, he returned (to his kingdom) and continued to
rule the entire realm extending to the borders of the sea.^^ So
virtuous in this world was that king, at whose sacrifice such
an enormous quantity of gold was collected, and now, O
prince, thou must collect that gold and worshipping the gods
with due rites, do thou perform this sacrifice."^^

Vai9ampayana continued, — "Then the Pandava prince Yu-
dhishthira was delighted on hearing this speech of the son of
Satyavati (Vyasa), and desirous of performing his sacrifice
with those riches, he held repeated consultations with his


Section XI.

Vaicampayfina aiid. — "Whe7i Yyasa of wonderful achieve-
ments h-vi con iliided his .spee(3h to the king, the hig^ily-puis-
sant son of Yasuilevt (Krishna) also addressed him. Knowing
the kin«', the .son of i^rir.hfi, aflHicted in mind, and bereft of his
relatives and kinsmen slain in battle, and appearing crest
fillen like t'ue sun darkeiie>i by eclipse, or fire smothered by
sm )ke, tiiat prop of the Vrishni race (Krishna), comf(n'ting the
SOI of Dharma, essa3 ed to address him thus."^"^

Vasudeva said, — "■All crookedness of heart leads to destruc-
tion (perdition ?) and all rectitude leads to Brahma, (spiri-
tual excellence). This and this only is the aim and object of
all true wisdom, what can mental discractiou do (to one who
un lerstands this) 1* Thy Karma has not yet been annihilated
nor hive thy enemies been subjugated, for thou dost not yet
know the enemies that are .still lurking within thiiie own
flesh. ^ I shall (therefore) relate to thee truly as I have heard
it, the story of the war of Indra with Vritra as it took place.®
In ancient times the Pritliivi (earth), king, was encomposs-
ed bv Vritra, and by this abstraction of earthly matter the
seat of all o«ior, there arose bad odors on all sides, and the
Performer of a hundred sacrifices (Indra), being much enraged
by this act, hurled his tliunberbolt at Vritra.'"^ And being
deeplv wounded by the thunderbolt of mighty Indra, Vritra
entcrevi into the (vvaters), and by doing .so, he destroyed their
pi'operty.^ The waters being seized by Vritra, their liquid pro-
perty left them. At this Indra became highly enraged and
again smote him with his thunderbolt.-'^ And he (Vritra)
smitten by the thunderbolt by the most powerful Indra betojk
himself to the J voti (luminous matter) and abstracted its in-
herent property.*' The luminous matter being overwhelmed by
Vritra and its property, color and form being thereby lost,^''' the
wrathful Indra again hurled his thunderbolt at him. And
thus wounded again by Indra of immeasurable power," Vritra
entered all on a sudden into the Vayu (ga.seous matter, and
thereafter nnide away with its inherent property.'* And this
matter being overpowered by Vritra and its property, touch


being lost. Indra became again filled with wrath and flung
his thunderbolt at him. And wounded therein by the mighty
(Indra), he overwhelmed the Aka^a (ether), and took away
its inherent property, and the Akaca being overwhelmed by
Vritra, and its property, sound, being destroyed, the god of a
hundred sacrifices highly incensaed, again smote him with his
thunderbolt.^^"^® And thus smitten by the mighty Indra, he
suddenly entered into his (Cakra's) body, and took away its
essential attributes.^'' And overtaken by Vritra, he was filled
with great illusion. And, venerable sir, the mightiest of
Bharata's race,^® we have heard that Va^ishtha comforted Indra
(when he was thus afflicted) and that the god of a hundred
sacrifices slew Vritra in his body by means of his invisible
thunderbolt, and know, O prince, that this religious mystery
was recited by Oakra to the great sages, and they in turn told
it to me."°

Section XII.

Vasudeva said, — "There are two kinds of ailments, physical
and mental. They are produced by the mutual action of the
body and mind on each other, and they never arise without!
the interaction of the two.^ The ailment that is produced in
the body, is called the physical ailment, and that which has its
seat in the mind, is known as the mental ailment.'^ The cold,
the warm (phlegm and bile) as well as the windy humours, O
kin.>-, are the essential transformations generated in the physioal
body, and when these humours are evenly distributed, and are
present in due proportions, they are said to be symptomatic of
good health.^ The warm humour is acted upon (allayed)
by the cold, and the cold by the warm. And Sattwa, Rajas,
and Tamas are the attributes of the soul,* and it is said by
the learned, that their presence in due proportions, indicates
health (or the mind). But if any of the three preponderate,
some remedy is enjoined (to restore the equilibrium.)^ Happi-
ness is overcome by sorrow, and sorrow by pleasure. Some
people while afflicted by sorrow, desire to recall (past) happi-
ness, while others, while in the enjoyment of happiness, desire

[ * ]

2G mahabharata! [AgwamedhiJca

to recall past sorrow.* But thou, son of Kunti, dost neither
desire to recall thy sorrows nor thy happiness, what else dost
thou desire to recall barring this delusion of sorrow. Or, per-
chance, son of Pritha, it is thy innate nature,'' by which
thou art at present overpowered. Thou dost not desire to
recall to thy mind the painful sight of Krishna standing in the
hall of assembly with only one piece of cloth to cover her body,
and while she was in her menses and in the presence of all the
Panda vas. And it is not meet that thou shouldst brood over
thy departure from the city, and thy exile with the hide of the
antelope for thy robe, and thy wanderings in the great forest,
nor shouldst thou recall to thy mind the affliction from Jata-
sura, the fight with Chitrasena, and thy troubles from the Sain-
dhavas.^'^* Nor it is proper, O son of Pritha, and conqueror
of thy foes, that thou shouldst recall the incident of Kichaka's
kicking Draupadi, during the period of thy exile passed in
absolute concealment,^- nor the incidents of the fight which
took place between thyself and Drona and Bhishma. The
time has now arrived, when thou must fight the battle which
each must fight single handed with his mind.^^ Therefore,
chief of Bharata's race, thou must now prepare to carry the
struggle against thy mind, and by dint of abstraction and the
merit of thine own Karma, thou must reach the other side
(overcome) of the mysterious and unintelligible (mind).^* In
this war there will be no need for any missiles nor for friends nor
attendants. The battle which is to be fought alone and single
handed has now arrived for thee.^® And if vanquished in this
struggle, thou shalt find thyself in the most wretched plight,
and O son of Kunti, knowing this, and acting accordingly,
shalt thou attain success.^^ And knowing this wisdom and the
destiny of all creatures, and following the conduct of thy
ancestors, do thou duly administer thy kingdom."

Section XIII.

Vasudeva said, — "0 scion of Bharata's race, salvation is
not attained by foregoing the external things (like kingdom
&ic), it is only attained by giving up things which pander to

Parva.] acwamedha parva.' 27

the flesh (body). ^ The virtue and happiness which are attainable
by the person who has renounced only the external objects, but
who is at the sametime engrossed by passions and weakness of
the flesh, let these be the portion of our enemies.^ The word
with two letters is Mrityu (death of the soul or perdition), and
the word with three letters is Cacjwata Brahman, or the eternal
spirit. The consciousness that this or that thing is mine, or
tbe state of being addicted to worldly objects is Mrityu and the
absence of that feeling is Ca9watam.^ And these two, Brahman
and Mrityu, O king, have their seats in the souls of all crea-
tures, and remaining unseen, they, without doubt, rage war with
each other.* And if, O Bharata, it be true that no creature is
ever destroyed, then one doth not make oneself guilty of the
death of a creature by piercing (destroying) its body.^ What
matters the world to a man, if having acquired the sovereignty
of the whole earth with its mobile and immobile creation, he
does not become attached to it, or engrossed in its enjoy-
ment.® But the man who having renounced the world, has
taken to the life of the recluse in the forest, living on wild
roots and edibles, if such a man, O son of Pritha, has a crav-
ing for the good things of the world, and is addicted to them,,
he may be said to bear Mrityu (death) in his mouth.'' Do
thou, Bharata, watch and observe the character of thy
external and internal enemies, (by means of thy spiritual
vision). And the man who is able to perceive the nature of
the eternal reality is able to overreach the influence of the
great fear (perdition).® Men do not look with approbation
upon the conduct of those who are engrossed in worldly de-
sires, and there is no act without having a desire (at its root)
and all (Kama) desires are, as it were, the limbs (offshoots) of
the mind. Therefore, wise men knowing this, subjugate their
• desires. The Yogi who holds communion with the Supreme
Spirit, knows Yoga to be the perfect way (to salvation) by reason
of the practices of his many former births. And remembering
that, what the soul desires, is not conducive of piety and virtue,
but that the repression of the desires is at the root of all true
virtue, such men do not engage in the practice of charity,
Yedic learning, asceticism, Vedic rites whose object is attain-

28 MAHABHARATA. [AgwamedhiJcco.

ment of worldly prosperity, ceremonies, sacrifices, religious
rules and meditation, with the motive of securing any advan-
tage thereby. ^"^^ In illustration of thi« truth, the sages versed
in ancient lore, recite these Gathas called by the name of
Kamagita, do thou Yudhishthira, listen to the recital of
them in detail.^' (Kama says) No creature is able to destroy
me without resorting to the proper methods {viz., subjugation
of all desires and practice of Yoga &c.)^^ If a man knowing,
my power, strive to destroy me by muttering prayers &c., I
prevail over him by deluding him with the belief that I am
the subjective ego within him. If he wish to destroy me by
means of sacrifices with many presents,^* I deceive him by ap-
pearing in his mind as a most virtuous creature amongst the.
mobile creation, and if he wish to annihilate me by mas-
tering the Vedas and Vedangas, I overreach him by seeming
to his mind to be the soul of virtue amongjst the immobile,
creation.-^^ And if the man whose strength lies in truth, desire,
to overcome me by patience,^** I apj)ear to him as his mind,
and thus he does not perceive my existence, and if the man of
austere religious practices, desire to destroy me by means of
asceticism,^^ I appear in the guise of asceticism iu his mind,,
and thus he is prevented from knowing me, and the man of
learning,-^® who with the object of attaining salvation desires to
destroy me, I frolic and laugh in the face of such a man
intent on salvation. I am the everlastius: one without a
compeer, whom no creature can kill or desti-oy.^'^ For this-
reason thou too, prince, divert thy desires (Kama) to virtue,
so that, by this means, thou mayst attain what is well for thee."'*
Do thou therefore make preparations for the due performance
of the horse-sacrifice with presents, and various other sacri-

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