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fices of great splendour, and accompanied with presents.-^ Let
not therefore grief overpower thee again, on beholding thy
friends lying slain on the battle-field. Thou canst not see the
men slain in this battle alive again ."'■^ Therefore shouldst
thou perform magnificent sacrifices with presents, so that thou
mayst attain fame in this world, and reach the perfect way


Section XIV.

Vai9ampa3^ana said,— "With such speeches as these, was
the royal saint Yudhishthira, bereft of his friends, consoled by
those sages of great ascetic merits.^ And monarch, that lord
of men exhorted by the worshipful Vishtara^raba himself, and
by Dwaipayana (Vyasa), Krishna, Devasthana, Narada, Bhi-
ma, Nakula, Krishna (Draupadi), Sahadeva, and the sharp-
witted Vijaya, as well as by other great men, and Brahmanas
versed in the Castras, became relieved of all mental affliction
and sorrow arising from the death of his dear relations.""* And
that monarch Yudhishthira after performing the obsequial cere-
monies of his departed friends, and honoring the Bnlhmanas and
Devas (gods), brought the kingdom of the earth with its girdle
of oceans, under his sway.^ And that prince of Kuru's race
having regained his kingdom, with a tranquil mind, thus ad-
dressed Vyasa, Narada and the other sages who were present.^ —
I have been comforted by the words of so great, ancient and
aged saints as yourselves, and I have now no cause left for the
least affliction.'^ And likewise, I have attained great wealth, with
which I may Avorship the gods, therefore, with your assistance,
I shall now perform the sacrifice.^ O the best of regenerate
brings, we have heard that those (Himalayan) regions are full
of wonders, therefore, O Brahmana, saint and grandsire do
thou so ordain that under thy protection we may safely reach
the Himalaya mountains,^ the performance of my sacrifice being
entirely within thy control, and then the adorable celestial
saint Narada and Devasthana have also addressed exquisite
and well-meaning words for our well being.^^ No unlucky
man in times of great tribulation and distress, has ever the
good fortune to secure the services of such preceptors and
friends approved of all virtuous men.^^ Thus addressed by
the king, those great saints, bidding the king and Krishna
and Arjuna to repair to the Himalayan regions,^^ then and
there vanished in the presence of the assembled multitude, and
the king, the lordly son of Dharma, then seated himself there
for a while. ^^ And the Pandavas then in consequence of the
death of Bhishma, were engaged in performing his funeral cere-

so MAHABUARATA. [AcwamedhilM^

monies. And their time, while thus engaged, seemed too long in
passing,^* and performing the last rites to the mortal remains of
Bhishma, Karjia and other foremost Kauravas, they gave away-
large presents to Brahraanas. And then the foremost des-
cendant of Kuru,''' again performed with Dhritarashtra the
funeral rites (of the heroes slain in battle), and having given
away immense wealth to the Brahmanas, the Panda va chief ^*
with Dhritarashtra in advance, made his entry into the city of
Hastina Nagar, and consoling his lordly uncle, possessed of
eyes of wisdom,'^^ that virtuous prince continued to administer
the earth with his brothers. ^^

Section XV.

Janamejaya said,— '0 the best of regenerate beings, when
the Pandavas had reconquered and pacified their kingdom, .
what did the two warriors, Vasudeva and Dhananjaya do ?^

Vaicampayana said,— '0 lord of the earth, Vasudeva and
Dhananjaya were highly pleased when the Pandavas had suc-
ceeded in regaining and pacifying their dominions,^ and they
deported themselves with great satisfaction, like unto Indra
and his consort in the celestial regions, and amidst picturesque'
woodland sceneries, and tablelands of mountains, and sacred
places of pilgrimage, and lakes and rivers, they travelled with
great pleasure like the two Agwins in the Nandana garden
of Indra.'*'* And, Bharata, the hi^h-souled Krishna and the
son of Pandu (Dhananjaya) entering the beautiful hall of
assembly at Indraprastha, whiled away their time in great
merriment.^ And there, O princo, they passed their time in
recounting the stirring 'ucidents of the war, and the sufferings
of their past lives." And those two high-souled ancient sages,
glad at heart, recited the genealogy of the races of saints and
gods.'' Then Kecjava, knowing the full import of all matters,
addressed Partha in a sweet and beautiful speech of excellent
style and import.^ And then Janarddana comforted the son of
Pritha afflicted by the death of his sons, and thousands of
other relatives." And he of great ascetic merit and knowing
the science of all things duly consoling him, rested for a while,

Parva.] acwamedha parva.' SI

as if a great burden had been removed from his own person.^*^
Then Govinda (Krishna) consoling Arjuna with sweet speech
addressed these well-reasoned words to him.^^

Vasudeva said, — '0 Arjuna, the terror of thine enemies,
this wnole earth has been conquered by the king, the son of
Dharma, relying on the power of thy arms.^^ And the best
of men, the virtuous king Yudhishthira now enjoys the sover-
■eignty of the earth without a rival, by the might of Bhimasena
and the twin brothers.^^ thou who knowest what virtue is,
it was by righteousness alone, that the king has been able to
regain his kingdom free from all enemies (thorns), and it was
by the action of righteousness, that king Suyodhana has been
killed in battle,^* and, son of Pritha and pillar of the Kuru
race, the wicked sons of Dhritarashtra, a\aricious, always rude
in speech, and bent upon an unrighteous course of conduct,^^
having been exterminated with their followers, the king, the
son of Dharma and lord of the earth, now peaceably enjovs
the entire kingdom of the earth with thy aid,^^ and I too O son
of Pandu, have been pleasantly wliiling away my time in thy
company, amidst woodland scenes.^'' terror of thine ene-
mies, what more need I tell thee, but that where thou and
Pritha, and the king, the son of Dharma, and the mighty
Bhimasena and the two sons of Madri are, there am I attracted
with exquisite delight.^^ descendant of Kuru, in these de-
lightful and sacred and heaven-like halls of assembly, a long
time hath fleetted away in thy company without my seeing
Vasudeva, Valadeva and other leaders of the Vrishni race.^^"^**
And now I am desirous of repairing to the city of Dwara-
vati. Do thou therefore, most valorous of men, assent to
my departure.^^ When king Yudhishthira was smitten heavi-
ly with affliction, I with Bhishma, have recited to him many
appropriate legends suited to the occasion with a vew of assu-
aging his grief, and the pliant and high-minded Yudhishthira,
though our sovereign, and versed in all lore, paid due heed to
our words.^^ That son of Dharma honors truth, and is grateful
and righteous, therefore will his virtue, and good sense and
the stability of his power always endure."^"^* And now, O
Arjuna, if it pleases thee, do thou go to that high minded

32 MAHABHARATA." [Aciucimedhika

prince and tell him of my intention to depart from this place.'^'^
For, thou of mighty arms even if death coraeth to me,
I am unwilling to do anything that may displease him,
leaveing alone my going to the city of Dwarrivati."* son of
Pritha, and descendant of Kuru, I now tell thee truly desir-
ing to do only what is good and agreeable to thee, and there
can be nothing equivocal in it in any way. that the necessity
for my staying here no longer exists, when Arjuna that
monarch, the son of Dhritarashtra hath been slain with his
armies and attendants,""^^"-^ and the earth, my friend, with its
oirdle of seas, and its mountains and woods and forests, and the
kingdom of the Kuru king filled with various gems, have
passed under the sway of that wise son of Dharma. And
O foremost prince of Bharata's race, may that virtuous prince
administer the entire kingdom of the earth in righteous-
j^g,g 2y-3o j^,-,(j ^vitii the respect and approbation of numerous
high-souled Siddhas, and having his praises always extolled
by the court heralds.=^^ Do thou, chieftain of Kuru's race,
accompany me to-day to the presence of the king, the
great aggrandiser of the Kuru race, and sound him of my
intended return to Dwaraka.^^ As Yudhishthira the high-
souled Id'ig of the Kurus always commands my love and res-
pect, I have, son of Pritha, placed this my body and all
the wealth that I have in my house, at his disposal.^^' And
O prince Partha (son of Pritha) when this earth has come
under thy sway and that of the worshipful Yudhishthira of
excellent character, there no longer remains any necessity for
my staying here except for my affection for thee.^* And mon-
arch, when the re-doubtable Arjuna had been thus accosted by
the noble-hearted J anarddana, he, shewing all the honors due
to him, sorrowfully replied by merely saying 'be it so.'^s

Section XVI.

Janamejaya said,— 'When the high-souled Kec,ava and Ar-
juna after slaying their enemies repaired to the assembly rooms
what conversation, regenerate one, took place between

them '''

Parva.] acwamedha parva.' 53

CAnugita Parva. )

Vaigampayana said, — "The son of Pritha (Arjuna), having
recovered his own kingdom, joyously spent his time, without
doing anything else, in the company of Krishna, his heart
filled with delight, in that palace of celestial beauty.^ One
day, those two listlessly proceeded to a particular part of the
palace that looked, king, like a veritable portion of Heaven,
Themselves filled with delight, they were then surrounded by
their relatives and attendants.^ Pandu's son Arjuna, filled
with joy in the company of Krishna, surveyed that delightful
mansion, and then addressed his companion, saying, — '0 mighty
armed one, thy greatness became known to me upon the
approach of the battle.* son of Devaki, thy form also, as the
Lord of the universe, then became known to me !^ What thy
holy self said unto me at that time, G Kegava, through
aifection, has all been forgotten by me, O chief of men, in
consequence of the fickleness of my mind !® Eepeatedly,
however, have I been curious on the subject of those truths.
Thou, again, O Madhava, wilt repair to Dwaraka soon !' "''

Vai^ampayana continued, — "Thus addressed by him, Krishna
of mighty energy, that foremost of speakers, embraced Phal-
guna and replied unto him as follows.*

"Vasudeva said, — 'I made thee listen to truths that are
regarded as mysteries. I imparted to thee truths that are
eternal. Verily, I discoursed to thee on Religion in its true
form and on all the eternal regions.^ It is exceedingly dis-
agreeable to me to learn that thou didst not, from folly,
receive what I imparted. The recollection of all that I told
thee on that occasion will not come to me now.^*' Without
doubt, son of Pandu, thou art destitute of faith and thy
understanding is not good. It is impossible for me, Dhanan-
jaya, to repeat, in detail, all that I said on that occasion.^*
That religion (about which I discoursed to thee then) is more
than sufficient for understanding Brahma. I cannot discourse
on it again in detail.^^ I discoursed to thee on Supreme
Brahma, having concentrated myself in Yoga. I shall now,
however, recite to tKee an old history uf on the same topic.^*
O foremost of all persons observant of duty, listen to every-

[ 5 ]

34 MAHABHARATA.' [Anur/itcC

thing I now say, so that, with an understanding adapted to my
teaching, thou mayst succeed in attaining to the highest end !^*
chastiser of foes, on one occasion, a Brahmana came to us
from the regions of Heaven. Of irresistible energy, he came
from the regions of the Grandsire. He was duly reverenced by
us.^^ Listen, O son of Pritha, without yielding to scruples
of any kind, to what he, O chief of Bharata's race, said, in
answer to our enquiries, agreeably to heavenly forms !'^''

'The Brahmana said, — That which thou askest me, O
Krishna, connected with the religion of Moksha (Emancipa-
tion), led by thy compassion for all creatures (and not for thy
own good), — that, indeed, which destroys all delusion, — thou
that art possessed of supreme puissance,*^^ I shall now tell
thee duly, slayer of Madhu ! Do thou listen with concen-
trated attention as I discourse to thee, O Madhava !^^ A
Brahmana of the name of Ka9yapa, possessed of penances and
the foremost of all persons conversant with duties, came to a
certain other Brahmana who had become conversant with all
the mysteries of religion. i*^^ Indeed, the latter had mastered
all the knowledge which the scriptures teach respecting the
departure and reappearance of beings and possessed tha,t direct
knowledge of all things which Yoga gives. He was well
skilled in the truths of all topics relating to the world. He
had mastered the truth about pleasure and pain."° He knew
the truth about birth and death, and understood the dis-
tinctions between merit .and demerit. He was a beholder of
the ends attained to by embodied creatures high and low in
consequence of their acts."^ He lived like one emancipated
from the world. Crowned with ascetic success and possessed
of perfect tranquillity of soul, he had all his senses under
complete control. He seemed to blaze with the resplendence
of Brahma and capable of going everywhere at will. He knew
the science of disappearing at will from before the eyes of all.

* 'Bhiitanam &c.,' is explained by Nilakantha as 'no swasya,' and
the vocative 'vibho' is taken as 'Paramatnian.' — T.

t •Agatagamam' implies, as explained by the Commentator, 'prapLa-
^a^tarahasya m,'~T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 35

He used to rove in the company of invisible Siddhas and celes-
tial musicians. He used to sit and converse with them on
some spot retired from the bnstle of humanity. He was as
unattached to all things as the wind. Ka9yapa having heard
of him truly, desired to see him. Possessed of intelligence,
tiat foremost of all Brahman as approached the sage.^^"** Him-
self possessed of penances, Ka^yapa, moved by the desire of
acquiring merit, fell, with a rapt heart, at the feet of the sage
when he had seen all those wonderful attributes.^^ Filled
with wonder at the sight of those extraordinary accomplishments,
Ka^yapa began to wait upon that foremost of all Brahmanas,
with the dutiful reverence of a disciple waiting upon his pre-
ceptor and succeeded in propitiating hira.^® By his devotion,

scorcher of foes, rendering to him the obedience due from
a disciple to a preceptor, Ka9yapa gratified that Brahmana
who possessed all these accomplishments and was endued, be-
sides, with scriptural learning and excellent conduct.^^ Gratified
with KaQvapa, the Brahmana one day addressed him cheerfully
and spoke as follows, with an eye to the highest success. Listen
to those words, Janarddana, as I repeat them !^^

" ' — The ascetic crowned with success said, — By diverse
acts, son, as also by the aid of merit, mortal creatures
attain to diverse ends here and residence in Heaven.^^ No-
where is the highest happiness ; nowhere can residence be eter-
nal. There are repeated falls from the highest regions acquir-
ed with such sorrow.^" In consequence of my indulgence in
sin, I had to attain to diverse miserable and inauspicious ends,
filled as I was with lust and wrath, and deluded by cupidity.^^

1 have repeatedly undergone death and rebirth. I have eaten
diverse kinds of food, I have sucked at diverse breasts.^^ I have
seen diverse kinds of mothers, and diverse fathers dissimilar to
one another. Diverse kinds of happiness have been mine and
diverse kinds of misery, sinless one !^' On diverse occasions
have I been separated from what was agreeable and united
with what was disagreeable. Having earned wealth with great
toil I have had to put up with its loss.^* Insults and excessioA
misery I have received from king and relatives. Mental and
physical pain, of great severity, have been mine.^^ Humilia-


tions I have undergone, and death and imTniirement^ under
circumstances of great severity. Falls into Hell have been
mine, and great tortures in the domains of Yama.^® Decre-
pitude and diseases have repeatedly assailed me, and cala-
mities, as frequent, in copious measure. In this world I have
repeatedly undergone all those afflictions that flow from a
perception of all pairs of opposites.^^ After all this, one day,
overwhelmed with sorrow, blank despair came upon me. I
took refuge in the Formless. Afflicted as I was with great
distress, I gave up the world with all its joys and sorrows.*^®
Understanding then this path, I exercised myself in it in this
world. Afterwards, through ^tranquillity of soul, I attained
to this success that thou seest.'^^ I shall not have to come to
this world again (after my departure hence). Verily, till
I attain to absorption into eternal Brahma,' till, in fact, the
final dissolution of the universe, I shall look on those happy
ends that will be mine and on those beings that, constitute
this universe.^*** Having acquired this excellent success,
I shall, after departing from this world, proceed to what
is above it {i. e., Satyaloka) and thence to what is higher
(i. e., obsorption into Brahma).*^ Verily, I shall attain to
the condition, which is un manifest; of Brahma. Let no
doubt be thine as regards this. O scorcher of foes, I shall not.
return to this world of mortal creatures.*^ O thou of great
wisdom, I have become gratified with thee. Tell me what
I shall do for thee ! The time has come for the accomplish-
ment of that purpose for which thou hast come hither.**
Verily, I know that object for which thou hast sought me.
I shall soon depart from this world. Hence it is that I have
given thee this hint.** O thou of great wisdom and experience,


* 'Niriikara9ntena' is explained by Nilakantha as 'Asamprajnata-
i\adlu-san)adhigamya Bialnnabhavacritena,' implying reliance on

Erahraa by having recourse to Sarafullii or a suspension of all functions

of both body and mind (through Yoga) and arrival at that state which

is one of perfect unconsciousness.' — T.

t The dissolution here spoken of is the Mahapralaya and not the

Khanda or Avantara Pralayas. Till then, the sage will look upon all

beingsj i^ ^, their repeated misrations. — T.


I have been highly gratified with thee for thy behaviour. Do
thou question me ! I shall discourse on what is beneficial to
thee, agreeably to thy desirfe.*^ I think thy intelligence is
great. Indeed, I applaud it much, for it was with the aid of
that intelligence that thou wert able to recognise me. Surely,
O Kacjyapa, thou art possessed of great intelligence. — ' "*'

Section XVII.

"Vasudeva said, — 'Touching the feet of that sage, the Brah-
mana asked him some questions that were exceedingly diffi-
cult to answer. That foremost of all righteous persons then
discoursed on those duties that were referred to.^

•"Ka^yapa said, — How does the body dissolve away, and
how is another acquired ? How does one become emancipated,
after passing through a repeated round of painful rebirths?*
Enjoying Prakriti for sometime, how does Jiva cast off the
particular body (which Prakriti gives) ? How does Jiva, freed
from the body, attain to what is different from it (viz., Brah-
ma ?* How does a human being enjoy (and endure the fruits
of ) the good and bad acts done by him ? Where do the acts
exist of one that is devoid of body ?* — *

" 'The Brahmana said, — Thus urged by Ka^yapa, the
emancipated sage answered those questions one after another.
Do thou listen to me, scion of the Vrishni race, as I recite
to thee the answers he made.^

" ' — The Emancipated sage said, — Upon the exhaustion of
those acts capable of prolonging life and bringing on fame

* The Commentator explains that altogether seven questions are
asked. The first is about the- dissolution of the body. The second
relates to the manner of re-acquiring a body. The third has reference
to the manner in which rebirth may be avoided. The fourth relates to
the causes that operate for giving a body to Jiva. By 'Prakriti' ia
meant Nature or that Ne-science which is the cause of body. The fifth
relates to the Anyat or Param, viz , how final Emancipation or absorp-
tion into Brahma takes place. The sixth pertains to the manner in
which the fruits of acts are enjoyed or endured. The seventh enquires
after the way in vrhich acts attach to Jiva even ^vhen devoid of
a body,— T,


which are done in a particular body that Jiva assumes," the
embodied Jiva, with the span of his life shortened, begins to
do acts hostile to life and health. On the approach of destruc-
tion, his understanding turns away from the proper course/
The man of uncleansed soul, after even a correct apprehen-
sion of his constitution and strength and of the season of both
his own life and of the year, begins to eat at irregular intervals
and to eat such food as is hostile to him.*^ At such a time
he indulges in practices that are exceedingly harmful. He
sometimes eats excessively and sometimes abstains altogether
from food.^ He eats bad food or bad meat or takes bad drinks,
or food that has been made up of ingredients incompatable
with one another. He eats food that is heavy in excess of the
measure that is beneficial, or before the food previously taken
has been digested.^" He indulges in physical excercise and
sexual pleasure in excess of the due measure, or through evidity
for work, suppresses the urgings of his corporeal organism even
when they become pronounced.^^ Or, he takes food that is
very juicy, or indulges in sleep during daytime. Food that is
not properly digested, of itself excites the faults, when the
time comes.f^^ From such excitement of the faults in his
body, he gets disease ending in death itself. Sometimes the
person engages in perverse or unnatural acts like hanging (for
bringing about his death)." Through, these causes the living

* 'Kala' here means both the season of the year and the age of the
person. Food t^at is beneficial in summer is not so in winter, or that
which is beneficial in youth is otherwise at old age. All the texts that
I have seen have 'viditwa' and not 'aviditwa' which Telang takes in his
version for the "sacred Books of the East.'' 'Kala' is always interpreted
by the Commentators of Charaka as refering to either period of life or
period of the year. This, as well as the following verses, relate to the
laws of health as expounded by Charaka — T.

t The faults arc three, vh., Wind, Bile, and Phlegm. When exist-
ing in a state of harmony, they produce health. When one is excited
or two, or all, indisposition sets in. They are called 'dosha' or faults,
because of their liability to be excited and produce disease. Telang, not
suspecting that the whole passage is a reproduction of a passage in the
ancient work edited by Charaka, misunderstands some expressions and
wrongly render's 'doshau' into 'disorders.' It is a reclincal term,— T.


body of the creature dissolves away. Understand correctly
the manner as I declare it to thee !*^* Urged on by the Wind
which becomes violent, the heat in the body, becoming excited,
and reaching every part of the body one after another, res-
trains all the (movements of the) vital breaths.^^ Know truly
that excited all over the body, the heat becomes very strong,
and pierces every vital part where life may be said to reside.-*^
In consequence of this, Jiva, feeling great pain, quickly takes
leave of its mortal casement. Know, O foremost of regenerate
persons, that when the vital parts of the physical organism
become thus afflicted, Jiva sl^ps awa}^ from the body, over-
whelmed with great pain. All living creatures are repeatedly
afflicted with birth and death.^^"^^ It is seen, chief of Brah-
man as, that the pain which is felt by a person when casting
off his bodies is like to what is felt by him when first entering
the womb or when issuing out of it. His joints become
almost dislocated and he derives much distress from the waters
(of the womb).-f^^"-° Urged on by (another) violent wind, the
wind that is in the body becomes excited through cold, and
dissolves away the union of matter (called the body) into its
respective elements numbering five.^"^ That wind which re-
sides in the vital breaths called Prana and Apana occurring
within this compound of the five primal elements, rushes up-
wards, from a situation of distress, leaving the embodied crea-

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