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ture.^^ It is even thus that the wind leaves the body. Then
is seen breathlessness. The man then becomes destitute of
heat, of breath, of beauty, and of consciousness."^ Deserted
by Brahma (for Jiva is Brahma), the person is said to be dead.

* "^Jivitam' in the second line seems to be an objective of 'cariram'
in the first. — T.

t 'Garbha-sankramane' is explained by Nilakantha as 'entering this
foetus in the womb after casting off the body appertain^ to the other
world. I think Telang is not correct in his version of 19 and 20.
'Atisarpana' can never imply 'exhaustion ;' hence, 'karmanam' can never
be the reading he adopts. Besides 'tadricam' seems .to settle the ques-
tion. The tortures felt at death are similor to those at birth. — T.

X 'Sambhutatwam' is 'sanhatatwam.' 'Niyachachati' is 'nacyyati'
'Vayu' is understood in the second line, or that in the first line of the
next may be taken as the nom. of 'niyachcchati.' — T.


By those ducts through which he perceives all sensuous objects,
the bearer of the body no longer perceives them,"* The life-
breaths that are generated by food, it is the eternal Jiva who
creates in the body in those very ducts."^ The elements gather-
ed together become in certain parts firmly united. Know that
those parts are called the vitals of the body. It is said so
in the Castras."" When those vital parts are pierced, Jiva,
rising up, enters the heart of the living creature and restrains
the principle of animation without any delay .'^^ The creature
then, though still endued Avith the principle of conciousness,
fails to know anything. The vital parts being all overwhelmed,
the knowledge of the living creature becomes overwhelmed
by darkness.-" Jiva then, who has been deprived of every-
thing upon which to stay, is then agitated by the wind.
He then, deeply breathing a long and painful breath,^^ goes
out quickly, causing the inanimate body to tremble. Dis-
sociated from the body, Jiva, however, is surrounded by his
acts.^** He becomes equiped on every side with all his aus-
picious acts of merit and with all his sins. Brahraanas en-
dued with knowledge and equiped with the certain conclusions
of the scriptures,^^ know him, from indications, as to whether
he is possessed of merit or with its reverse. Even as men
possessed of eyes behold the fire-fly appearing and disappearing
amid darkness, men possessed "of the eye of knowledge and
crowned with success of penances, behold, with spiritual vision,
Jiva as he leaves the body, as he is reborn, and as he enters
the womb. It is seen that Jiva has three regions assigned to
him eternally.^^"^* This world where creatures dwell is called
the field of action. Accomplishing acts good or bad, all em-
bodied creatures attain to the fruits thereof.^^ In consequence
of their own acts, creatures acquire even here superior or in-
ferior enjoyments. Doers of evil deeds here, in consequence
of those acts of theirs, attain to Hell.^^ This condition of
sinking with head downwards, in which creatures are cooked,
is one of great misery. It is such that a rescue therefrom is
exceedingly difficult. Indeed, one should strive hard for saving
oneself from this misery.*^ regions where creatures
dwell when they ascend from this world I shall now declare

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 41

truly. Do thou listen to me with attention.'^ By listening to
what I say, thou shalt attain to firmness of understanding and
a clear apprehension of (good and bad) acts. Know that even
those are the regions of all creatures of righteous deeds, viz.,
the stellar worlds that shine in the firmament, the lunar disc,
and the solar disc as well that shines in the universe in its
own light.^^"**' Upon the exhaustion, again, of their merits,
they fall away from those regions repeatedly. There, in Heaven
itself, is distinction of inferior, superior, and middling felicity.*^
There in Heaven itself, is discontent at sight of prosperity
more blazing than one's own. Even these are the goals which
I have mentioned in detail.*^ I shall, after this, discourse to
you on the attainment by Jiva of the condition of residence
in the womb.*" Do thou hear me, with concentrated atten-
tion, regenerate one, as I speak to thee ! — ' "**

Section XVIII.

" ' — The Brahmana said, — The acts, good and bad, that Jiva
does are not subject to destruction. Upon attainment of body
after body, those acts produce fruits corresponding with them.*^
As a fruit-bearing tree, when the season comes of productivity,
yields a large quantity of fruit, merit, achieved with a pure
heart, similarly yields a large crop (of felicity).^ After the
same fashion, sin, done with a sinful heart, produces a large
crop of misery. The Soul (or Jiva), placing the mind ahead,
addresses himself to action.^ Hear then how Jiva, equipt
with all his acts and overwhelmed with lust and wrath, enters
the womb.* The vital seed, mixed with blood, enters the
womb of females and becomes the field (of Jiva), good or bad,
born of (his) acts.^ In consequence of his subtlety and the
condition of being unmanifest, Jiva does not become attach-
ed to anything even after attaining to a body. Therefore, he
is called Eternal Brahma.f That {viz., Jiva or Brahma) is

* 'Pachante' is 'phalam prayachcchanti.' — T.

t Nilakantha explains this verse in a diiferent way. According to him

it means, 'In consequence of his subtlety and imperceptibility, Jiva

does r.ot bpcome attached to anything. For this rtason, one possessed

[ G ]

42 iiAHABHARATA." [Anugitci

the seed I of all creatures. It is in consequence of Him that
living creatures live. That Jiva, entering all the limbs of the
foetus part by part, accepting the attribute of mind, and re-
siding within all the regions that belong to Prana, supports
(life). In consequence of this, the foetus, becoming endued
with mind, begins to move its limbs.*'"^ As liquified iron,
poured (into a mould), takes the form of the mould, know
that the entrance of Jiva into the foetus is even such.' As
fire, entering a mass of iron, heats it greatly, do thou know
that the manifestation of Jiva in the foetus is such.^*' As a
lamp, burning in a room, discovers (all things within it),
after the same manner mind discovers the different limbs
of the body.-f-^^ Whatever acts, good or bad, Jiva does in a
former body, have certainly to be enjoyed or endured by him.^*
By such enjoyment and endurance former acts are exhausted,
and other acts, again, accumulate, till Jiva succeed in acquir-
ing a knowledge of the duties included in that contemplation
which leads to Emancipation.^^ Regarding this, I shall tell
thee those acts by which Jiva, best of men, while coursing
through a repeated round of re-births, becomes happy.^* Gifts,
observances of austerity, Brahmacharyya, bearing Brahma ac-
cording to the ordinances laid down, self-restraint, tranquillity,
compassion for all creatures,^^ restraint of passions, abstention
from cruelty as also from appropriating what belongs to others,
refraining from doing even mentally, all acts that are false
and injurious to living creatures on the Earth," reverently
serving mother and father, honouring deities and guests,
worship of preceptors, pity, purity, constant restraint of all
organs,^'^ and causing of all good acts, are said to constitute

of a knowledge of Bi'ahma, having become cognisant of Brahma, and
attained the great object of his desire, succeeds in becoming so (i. e.,
dissociated from all things). This interpretation seems to be a little
far-fetciied. — T.

■"■ 'Chetasa' indicates 'upadhibhutena,' for previously, Jiva was with-
out 'upadhi.' 'PrJlnasthaneshu' implies 'Indriyagolokeshu' or those vital
parts which constitute the seats of the senses. 'Chetana' does not, I
think, mean 'consciousness'. It implies mind. — T.

t Causes thera to grow. I do not follow Nilakantlia here. — T.

Parva.] acwamedha. parva. 43

the conduct of the good. From observance of such conduct,
arises Righteousness which protects all creatures eternally.^®
Such conduct one would always behold among persons that
are good. Verily, such conduct resides there eternally. That
course of practices to which persons of tranquil souls adhere
indicates Righteousness.-^^ Among them is thrown that
course of practices which constitutes eternal Righteousness.
He who would betake himself to that Righteousness would
never have to attain to a miserable end.^® It is by the
conduct of the good that the world is restrained in the paths
of Righteousness when it falls awa3\ He that is a Yogin is
Emancipated, and is, therefore, distinguished above these (viz,,
the good).*^^ Deliverance from the world takes place, after a
long time, of one who acts righteously and well on every occa-
sion as he should.^^ A living creature thus always meets with
the acts done by him in a former life. All these acts constitute
the cause in consequence of which he comes into this world
in a state different from his true form.-f^' There is a doubt
in the world as regards the question. By what was the ac-
ceptance (by Jiva) of a body first determined.'^* The Grand-
sire of all the worlds, viz,, Brahman, having first formed a
body of his own, then created the three worlds, in their en-
tirety, of mobile and immobile creatures.''^ Having first him-
self assumed a body, he then created Pradhana. That Pra-
dhana is the material cause of all embodied creatures, by whom
is all this covered, and whom all came to know as the high-
est.** This that is seen is said to be destructible ; while the
other is immortal and indestructible. This that \^is seen) is
said to be Kshara (the destructible) ; that, however, which is
the other is the Immortal (as also) Akshara (the Indestructible).
Of each Purusha taken distributively, the whole is duality
among these three4^'^ Seen first (to appear in an embodied

* Nilakancha points out that one of the cha's indicates the reason or
cause. Hence, the use of 'therefore' in the text,— T.

t 'Vikrita' does not necessarily mean degraded. It implies 'changed
or altered.' Jiva, who is pure and immaculate, takes birth in this
world, falling away from his true status of Brahma owing to his acts.
Acts, again, are eternal, no begining being conceivable. — T.

I 'Parantwamritamaksharam' indicates tico things, vk.^ Amritam aud

44- MaH'ABHar\ta. [AnugUa

form), Prajapati (then) created all the prima] elements and
all immobile creatures. Even this is the ancient audition.*^
Of that (acceptance of body), the Grandsire ordained a limit
in respect of time, and migrations among diverse creatures
and return or rebirth.^'' All that I say is proper and correct,
like to what a person who is endued with intelligence and
who has seen his soul, would say on this topic of previous
births.*^* That person who looks upon pleasure and pain as
inconstant, which, indeed, is the correct view, who regards
the body as an unholy conglomeration, and destruction as
ordained in action,^^ and who remembers that what little of
pleasure there is, is really all pain, Avill succeed in crossing
this terrible ocean of worldly migration that is so difficult to
cross.^^ Though assailed by decrepitude and death and dis-
ease, he that understands Pradhana beholds with an equal eye
that Consciousness which dwells in all beings endued with
Consciousness.^^ Seeking the supreme seat, he then becomes
utterly indifferent to all (other) things. O best of men, I
shall now impart instruction to thee, agreeably to truth, con-
cerning this.^* Do thou, learned Brahmana, understand
in completeness that which constitutes the excellent know-
ledge, as I declare it, of that imdestructible seat ! — ' "*^

Aksharam. The first line speaks of Kshara, or the matei-ial case, or body;
tlieii of that which is 'para' or other. This other is of two kinds, viz.,
'Amritam' or 'cudilia-chaitanyara,' implying 'Brahma' in its condition of
purity ; and 'Aksharam' or Jiva as existing in the material ease. In the
second line, 'trayanam' refers to Kshara, Amrita, and Akshara. 'Mi-
thunam' is duality, referring to that which is composed of Kshara and
Akshara. What is stated in this Verse is that every Purusha is a duality,
made up of Kshara and Akshara. Telang gives a different version of the
verse. He ignores the word 'trayanam' totally, and takes 'Mithunam' as
implying a couple (male and female). All the texts I have seen contain
'trayanam.' — T.

* 'Atra purvajanmani (vishaye) yathJi ka^^hit raedhavi ^c, (vadet\'
seems to be the correct order of the words. Telang translates the first
liiie dillcfeiitly,— T,


Section XIX.

«' ' — The Brahmana said, — He who becomes absorbed in the
one receptacle (of all things), freeing himself from even the
thought of his own identity with all things, — indeed, ceasing
to think of even his own existence, — gradually casting off one
after another, will succeed in crossing his bonds.*^ That man
who is the friend of all, who endures all, who is attached to
tranquillity, who has conquered all his senses, who is divested
of fear and wrath, and who is of restrained soul, succeeds in
emancipating himself.^ He who behaves towards all creatures
as towards himself, who is restrained, pure, free from vanity,
and divested of egoism, is regarded as emancipated from every-
thing.^ He also is emancipated who looks with an equal eye
upon life and death, pleasure and pain, gain and loss, agree-
able and disagreeable.* He is in every way emancipate who
does not covet what belongs to others, who never disregards any
body, who transcends all pairs of opposites, and whose soul is
free from attachment.^ He is emancipated who has no enemy,
no kinsman, and no child, who has cast off religion, wealth,
and pleasure, and who is freed from desire or cupidity.® He
becomes emancipated who acquires neither merit nor demerit,
who casts off the merits and demerits accumulated in previous
births, who wastes the elements of his body for attaining to a
tranquillised soul, and who transcends all pairs of opposites.'
He who abstains from all acts, Avho is free from desire or
cupidity, wbo looks upon the universe as unenduring or as
like an A9wattha tree, ever endued with birth, death, and
decrepitude,^ whose understanding is fixed on renunciation,
and whose eyes are always directed towards his own faults,
soon succeeds in emancipating himself from the bonds that

* 'Ekayana' is the one receptacle of all things, viz., Brahma. 'Tush-
ni' implies 'ahamevedam sarvamasmityabhimanamapyakurvan,' i. e.,
'without even retaining the conbciousness of his own identity with
everything.' 'Kinchikachintayan' — i. e., not even thinking that he ia
existing. 'Purvam purvam parityajya' implies the gradual merging of
the grosser in the subtler, i. e., the successive stages of Yoga before
absorption into Brahma. I follow Nilakantha, — T^

411 MvHabHar\T4. [Anugit^

bind him.*' He that sees his soul void of smell, of taste and
touch, of sound, of belongings, of vision, and unknowable, be-
comes eraancipated-t^" He who sees his soul devoid of the
attributes of the five elements, to be without form and cause,
to be really destitute of attributes though enjoying them, be-
comes eraancipated-t^^ Abandoning, with the aid of the un-
derstanding, all purposes relating to body and mind, one
gradually attains to cessation of separate existence, like a fire
unfed with fuel.§^^ One who is freed from all impressions,
who transcends all pairs of opposites, who is destitute of all
belongings, and who uses all his senses under the guidance of
penances, becomes emancipated.lF^' Having become freed
from all impressions, one then attains to Brahma which is
Eternal and supreme, and tranquil, and stable, and enduring,
and indestructible.^* After this I shall declare the science of
Yoga than which there is nothing superior, and how Yogins,.
by concentration, behold the perfect .soul.$^^ I shall declare
the instructions regarding it duly. Do thou learn from me
those doors by which directing the soul within the body one
beholds that which is without beginning and end.|l" With-
drawing the senses from their objects, one should fix the mind

* The first half of the second line of 8 is read differently in the Bengal
texts. 'A9wasthamava9am miidhara' implies 'without ease or happiness,
endued with slavery and ignorance.' — T.

t The Soul being destitiite of these becomes 'Chinrnfttra,' »'. e , a pure
Chit withoiit the attributes superinduced upon it by Ne-science or
ignorance. — T.

J Formlessness implies subtlety. 'Without cause' implies increate or
as identical with eternal Brahma. Dissociation from attributes while
enjoying them implies an emancipate condition. — T.

§ 'Nirvana,' according to orthodox Commentators, implies the anni-
hilation or cessation of separate or individual existence by absorption
into universal and etei'nal Brahma. — T.

H The impressions caused by objects outside self are destroyed by
'those belonging to contemplation. The latter, again, should be des-
troyed before absorption into Brahma can occur. — T.

$ 'Siddham' is explained as 'destitute of the errors, due to Ne-
science. — T.

II 'Atmanam' is 'Chittam ;' 'atmani' is 'dehe ;' 'charayan' is 'antar-
;mukham kritwai' 'nityam' is 'adyantajunyam.' So Nilakauth>i, - -Tt

Parva.] icwamedha pakva^ 47

upon the soul ; having previously undergone the severest aus-
terities, one should practise that concentration of mind which
leads to Emancipation.*" Observant of penances and always
practising concentration of mind, the learned Brahmana, en-
dued with intelligeuce, should observe the precepts of the
science of Yoga, beholding the soul in the body.^^ If the
good man succeeds in concentrating the mind on the soul, he
then, habituated to exclusive meditation, beholds the Supreme
soul in his own soul.-^® Self-restrained, and always concen-
trated, and with all his senses completely conquered, the man
of cleansed soul, in consequence of such complete concentra-
tion of mind, succeeds in beholding the soul by the soul.^*^
As a person beholding some unseen individual in a dream re-
cognises him, saying, — This is he, — when he sees him after
waking, after the same manner the good man having seen the
Supreme Soul in the deep contemplation of Samadhi recog-
nises it upon waking from Samadhi.-f-^^ As one beholds the
fibrous pith after extracting it from a blade of the Sdccharum.
Munja, even so the Yogin beholds the soul, extracting it from
the body.^'' The body has been called the Hacckarum Muvja,
and the fibrous pith is said to stand for the soul. This is the
excellent illustration propounded by persons conversant with
Yoga.^* When the bearer of a body adequately beholds the
Soul in Yoga, he then has no one that is master over him, for
he then becomes the lord of the three worlds.:}:^* He succeeds
in assuming diverse bodies according as he wishes. Turning
away decrepitude and death, he neither grieves nor exults.^^
The self- restrained man, concentrated in Yoga, can create
(for himself ) the godship of the very gods. Casting off his

* 'Fixinff the mind upon the sonl' is that concentration which leads to
Emancipation. This becomes possible in consequence of severe austeri-
ties undergone previoiisly. — T.

t I expand the yerse a little to make it intelligible. The sense ia
ibis : having seen the Supreme Soul in Samadhi, upon awaking from it,
he recognises it in the universe, i. e., regards the universe to be nothing
^Ise than the Supreme Soul. — T.

I This may also mean 'he has none superior to him ; not even he that
is the Lord of the universe.' — T.

48 MaHabHaRata. [Anugitrt

transient body he [attains to immutable Brahma.*** No fear
springs up in him at even the sight of all creatures falling
victims to destruction (before his eyes). When all creatures
are afflicted, — he can never be afflicted by any one."^ Devoid
of desire and possessed of a tranquil mind, the person in Yoga
is never shaken by pain and sorrow and fear, the terrible
effects that flow from attachment and affection.-'* Weapons
never pierce him; death dues not exist for him. Nowhere
in the world can be seen any one that is happier than he.^®
Having adequately concentrated his soul, he lives steadily on
himself. Turning off decrepitude and pain and pleasure, he
sleeps in comfort.^" Casting off this human body he attains
to (other) forms according to his pleasure. While one is
enjoying the sovereignty that Yoga bestows, one should never
fall away from devotion to Yoga.-|-^^ When one, after ade-
quate devotion to Yoga, beholds the Soul in oneself, one then
ceases to have any regard for even him of a hundred sacri-
fices (Indra).l^- Hear now how one, habituating oneself to
exclusive meditation, succeeds in attaining to Yoga. Think-
ing of that point of the compass which has the Sun behind it,
the mind should be fixed, not outside, but in the interior of
that mansion in which one may happen to live. Residing
within that mansion, the mind should then, with all its out-
ward and inward (operations), behold in that particular room
in which one may stay. At that time when, having deeply
meditated, one beholds the All (viz., Brahma, the Soul of the

* The first line seems to be doubtful. The sense, as I understand it,
ig^ — such a person becomes the god of the very gods. The causul verb
'karayate' may be taken as equivalent to 'karoti.' — T.

t I follow Nilakantha in rendering the second line. The sense is
clear, viz , that one should not fall away from the practice of Yoga,
tempted by the puissance that Yoga brings. Telang renders the line
•one practising concentration should never become despondent.' I think,
Nilakantha is right. — T.

+ Nilakantha notes that this indicates that only that Yogin who has
not advanced much may be tempted by the desire of enjoyment. He,
however, who has adequately devoted himself to Yoga, feels no regard
for ludra himself l)ut can turn hi;u away like Diojeuis dismissing
Alexa vi -i lUa 'i eat -T.

Parva.] ' acwamedha paRva.' 4D

universe), there is then nothing external to Brahma where the
mind may dwell Restraining all the senses in a forest that
is free from noise and that is uninhabited,^^"^" with mind
fixed thereon, one should meditate on the All (or universal
Brahma) both outside and inside one's body. One should
meditate on the teeth, the palate, the tongue, the throat, the
neck likewise ; one should also meditate on the heart and the
ligatures of the heart !*^^

'"The Brahmana continued, — Thus addressed by me, thafc
intelligent disciple, slayer of Madhu, once more asked me
about this religion of Emancipation that is so diflScult to
explain.®^ — How doos this food that is eaten from time to time
become digested in the stomach ? How does it become trans-
formed into juice ? How, again, into blood '^^'^ How does it
nourish the flesh, the marrow, the sinews, the bones? How
do all these limbs of embodied creatures grow ?*^ How does
the strength grow of the growing man ? How occurs the
escape of all such elements as are not nutritive, and of all
impurities separately ?" How does this one inhale and again,
exhale ? Staying upon what particular part does the Soul
dwell in the body ?*^ How does Jiva, exerting himself, bear

* I have endeavoured to render verses 33 to 37 as literally as poss-
ible, under the guide of Nilakantha, omitting his inferences. The
passage relates to the mysteries of Yoga. In the second line of 33,
'drishtapurvara digara,' which has been rendered 'that point of the
compass which has the Sun behind it,' means the instructions laid down
in the Vedanta as based upon the Crutis. 'Drishtam' implies 'Cruti,'
for it is as authoritative as anything seen- 'Pura' implies a city, a
.citadel, or a mansion. Here it refers to the body. The 'avasatha' with-
in the 'pura' refers to the 'chakra' or nervous centre beginning with what
i.s called the 'muladhara.' At the time when Brahma is realised, the
whole universe appears as Brahma and so nothing exists, besides Brahma,
upon which the mind can then dwell. Telang, I think, is not correct

• in rendering 'managchasya vahyatah' as 'his mind should not any way

wander outside.' The correct version would be 'the mind is then no-
where,' implying that at that time the mind has nothing else to dwell
upon. 'Kayamabhyantaram' is 'kayamabhi' and 'antaram,' i. e., both
•within and without the body. Th-^* several parts of the body named,
beginning with teeth, &c., refer to eating and other operations, all of

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