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. which iniluence the mind and dispose it for purity and otherwise.— T.

[ 7 ]

50 mahabharata! [AnugUci

the body ? Of what color and of what kind is the body in
which he dwells again (leaving a particular body ?)" O holy
one, it behooveth thee to tell me all this accurately, sinless
one ! — Even thus was I interrogated by that learned Brah-
mana, Madhava '" I replied unto him, thou of mighty
arras, after the manner I myself had heard, O chastiser of all
foes ! As one placing some precious object in one's store room
should keep one's mind on it,*^ so, placing the mind within
one's own body, one should then, restraining all the senses,
seek after the Soul, avoiding all heedlessness." One would,
becoming always assiduous in this way and gratified with one's
Town self, within a very short time attain to that Brahma by
beholding which one would become conversant with Pra-
dhana.**^ He is not capable of being seized by the eye ; nor
even by all the senses.f It is only with the lamp of the mind
that the great Soul can be seen.*^ He has hands and feet on
all sides ; he has ears on all sides ; he dwells, pervading all
things in the world.t*^ Jiva beholds the Soul as extracted
from the body (like the stalk from a blade of Saccharum Munja,
when knowledge comes). Then casting off Brahma as invested
with form, by holding the mind in the body, he beholds
Brahma as freed from all attributes.S^" He sees the Soul
with his mind, smiling as it were at the time. Depending
upon that Brahma, he then attains to Emancipation in me.H^*

* /. e., that from which the entire universe has been created — T.

+ Probably, 'by any of the senses.' The plural form occurs in tlie

original. — T.

J This answers the question respecting the form of the Soul, says

Nilakantha. — T.

$ I render this verse, following Nilakantha's gloss. The second line
of 50, according to that Commentator, refers to the ascension of the
Yogin from Brahma vested with attributes to Brahma divested of all
attributes. The 'tara' does not refer to 'body' as Telangltakes it, but to
Brahma as endued with hands and feet on all sides, Sec. 'Dehe swam
dharayan' means 'restraining the mind within the body.' 'Kevalam
Brahma' is Brahma without attributes. — T.

^ The speaker here is the regenerate visitor of Krishna. The latter
is repeating the words of that visitor. In this verse, Krishna, forget-
ting tkat he is merely reciting the worii of another, refers to himself as

Parva.]" icwamedha parta. 51

foremost of regenerate ones, all this mystery has now been
declared by me. I ask thy permission, for I shall leave this
spot. Do thou (also) go whithersoever thou pleasest !^^ Thus
addressed by me, O Krishna, on that occasion, that disciple
of mine, endued with austere penances, that Brahmana of
rigid vows, went away according to his pleasure ! — '^*

"Vasudeva continued, — 'That best of Brahmanas, son of
Pritha, having said these words unto me, on that occasion,
properly relating to the religion of Emancipation, disappeared
then and there.^* Has this discourse been heard by thee, O
son of Pritha, with mind directed solely towards it ? Even
this was what thou didst hear on that occasion while thou
wert on thy car.^^ It is my opinion, O son of Pritha, that
this is difficult of being comprehended by one whose under-
standing is confused, or who has acquired no wisdom by study,
or who eats food incompatiable with his body, or whose Soul
is not purified.*^^ O chief of Bharata's race, this is a great
mystery among the deities that has been declared (to thee).
At no time or place, O son of Pritha, has this been heard by
man in this world.^^ O sinless one, than thyself, no other
man is deserving of hearing it. It is not, at this time, capable
of being easily understood by one whose inner soul is con-
fused.^^ The world of the deities is filled, son of Kunti,
with those who follow, the religion of actions. The cessation
of the mortal form (by practising the religion of inaction) is
not agreeable to the deities.f^' That goal, son of Pritha,
is the highest which is constituted by eternal Brahman where
one, casting off the body, attains to immortality and becomes

the Supreme Brahma in whom one must merg© for attaining to Eman-
cipation. — T.

* The second lire of 56 is read variously. — T.

t Heaven is the reward of those who follow the religion of Pravirtti
er acts, such as sacrifices, religious observances, &c. The followers,
however, of the religion of Nivritti or inaction, i. e., they who betake
themselves to the path of knowledge, become emancipated. The deities
derive their sustenance from the former and become even jealous of the
latter, for the emancipate state is high&r than that of the deities them-
seh'es.— T.

5% MAHABHAllATA. [Atnigltii

always happy.®** By adhering to this relit^ion, even they who
are of sinful birth, such as women and Vai^yas and Cudras,
attain to the highest goal." What need be said then, son
of Pritha, ofjBrahmanas and Kshatriyas possessed of greafc
learning, always devoted to the duties of their own orders,
and who are intent on (the acquisition of ) the region of
Brahma?*" This has been laid down with the reasons (on
which its rests) ; and also the means for its acquisition ; and
its complete attainment and fruit, viz., Emancipation and the
ascertainment of the truth regarding pain.^^ chief of Bha-
rata's race, there is nothing else that is fraught with happiness
greater than this. That mortal, son of Pandu, who, endued'
with intelligence, and faith, and prowess, renounces as unsubs-
tantial what is regarded as substantial by the world, succeeds
within a short time in obtaining the Supreme by these
means.**"^® This is all that is to be said, — there is nothing
else that is higher than this. Yoga takes place in his case,
O son of Pritha, who devotes himself to its constant practice
for a period of six months.' "**

Section XX.

Vasudeva said, — 'In this connection is cited the ancient
narrative, son of Pritha, of the discourse that took place
between a married couple.-^ A certain Brahmana's spouse,
beholding the Brahmana, her husband, who was a complete
master of every kind of knowledge and wisdom, seated in
seclusion, said unto him,- — Into what region shall I go, de-
pending on thee as my husband, — thee that art seated, hav-
ing cast off all (religious) acts, that art harsh in thy conduct
towards me, and that art so undiscerning?** It has been
heard by us that a wife attains to those regions which are
acquired by her husband. What, indeed, is the goal that I
shall attain, having obtained thee for my husband?* — Thus

* 'Avichak.shanam' is undiscerning, in the sense of the husband's
not kijo\ying that the inteiTogatrix, as wife, has no other refuge thap'
Jier.lord with all his defects,— T.

Farua.] actvva^^^edha parva. Sf

questioned, th'^t Brahmana of tranquil soul then said unto
her, smilingly, — blessed dame, I am not offended with these
words of thine, sinless one !^ Whatever acts exist that are
adopted with the aid of others, that are seen (in consequence
of their grossness), and that are true, are done, as acts, by
men devoted to acts.*® Those persons that are destitute of
knowledge, only store delusion by acts. Freedom from acts,
again, is incapable of being attained in this world for even a
moment.'' From birth to the attainment of a different form,
action good or bad, and accomplished by acts, mind, or speech,
exists in all beings.^ Those paths (of action) which are
characterised by visible objects (such as Soma-juice and ghee
for libations) being destroyed by Rakshasas, turning away
from them I have perceived the seat (of the soul) that is in
the body, with the aid of the souLf^ There dwells Brahma
transcending all pairs of opposites ; there Soma Avith Agni ;
and there the urger of the understanding, {viz., Vayu) al-
ways moves, upholding all creatures.^^" It is for that seat
that the Grandsire Brahman and others, concentrated in Yoga,
worship the Indestructible. It is for that seat that men of
learning and excellent vows, of tranquil souls, and of senses
completely vanquished, strive.^" That is not capable of being
smelt by the sense of smell ; nor tasted by the tongue : or
touched by the organs of touch. It is by the mind that that

* I follow Nilakantha. Telang adopts the views of Arjuna Misra
and renders the first line as 'whatever acts are seized (by the touch,, or
?een, or heard, &e.' 'Grahyara,' according to Nilakantha, implies those
acts, like Diksha, &c., which are adopted with the aid of others. — T.

t This seat, says Nilakantha, is called Avimukta and lies between
the eyebrows and the nose — T.

J Nilakantha interprets this mystically. By 'Soma' he understands
the artery or duct called Ida, and by 'Agni' the duct called Pingalii.
'Dhira' is 'Budhipreraka ;' 'vyavayam' is 'sancharara.' 'Dhirobhutani
dharayan nityam vyavayani kurute' is the order of the words. The
sense is this : in this spot is seated Brahma ; there Ida and Pingala
meet ; and there also is Vayu which urges the understanding and up*
holds all living creatures.— T.

tT 'Icatra' is not to be taken as a locative here. It is equivalent to
syatah' or for which.— T. ... • ,

Bi MlHABHARATl. [A7lUgita

is attained." It is incapable of being conquered by the eye.
It transcends the sense of hearing. It is destitute of scent,
taste, touch, and form as attributes.^* It is that from which
proceeds the well-ordained universe, and it is that upon which
it rests. The life-breaths called Prana and Apana and Samana
and Vyana and Udana,** flow from it, and it is that into
which they again enter. The breaths Prana and Apana move
between Samana and Vyana.^^ When the soul sleeps, both
Samana and Vyana are absorbed.* Between Apana and
Prana, Udana dwells, pervading all.^* Hence, Prana and
Apana do not desert a sleeping person. In consequence of it.s
controlling all the life-winds, the controlling breath is so called
Udana.-^^ Hence, utterers of Brahma undergo penances which
have myself for their goal.-f- In the midst of all those life
breaths that swallow up one another and move within the
body, blazes forth the fire called Vaigwanara made up of
seven flames. The nose, the tongue, the eye, the skin, the
ear which numbers the fifth,^^"^^ the mind, and the under-
standing, — these are the seven tongues of that Vai^wanara'a
flame. That which is smelt, that which is seen, that which is
drunk, that which is touched, as also that which is heard,'"*
that which is thought of, and that which is understood, —
these are the seven sorts of fuel for me. That which smells,
that which eats, that which sees, that which touches, that
which hears, numbering the fifth ;" that which thinks, and
that which understands, — these are the seven great oflBciating
priests.^^ Behold, O blessed one, learned sacrificers duly cast-
ing seven libations in seven ways in the seven fires,^' viz., that
which is smelt, that which is drunk, that which is seen, that
•which is touched, as also that which is heard, that which is
thought of, and that which is understood, create them in their

* 'Tasrain' is taken, by Nilakantha as 'Ap^na sahite Prane.'— T.

t 'Utkavshena anayati,' hence 'Udana,' says Nilakantha. The sense
of the whole passage seems to be this. Worldly life is regulated by the
life-breaths. These are attached to the Soiil and lead to its individual
manifestations. Udana controls all the breaths. Udana is controlled
by penance. It is penance, then, that destroys the round of rebirths
and leads to abborption into Brahma.— T.

Farva.] icwamedha parta." S»

own wombs.* Earth, "Wird, Ether, Water, and Light number-
ing as the fifth,^* Mind, and Understanding, — these seven are
called wombs (of all things). All the attributes which consti-
tute the sacrificial offerings, enter into the attribute that is
born of the fire f° and having dwelt within that dwelling
become reborn in their respective wombs. Thither also, viz.,
in that which generates all beings, they remain absorbed
during the period for which dissolution lasts.''* From that is
produced smell, from that is produced taste, from that is pro-
duced color, and from that is produced touch f from that is
produced sound ; from that arises doubt ; and from that is
produced resolution. Thus is what is known as the sevenfold
creation."* It is in this very way that all this was compre-
hended by the ancients. By the three full and final libations,
the full become full with light.—' "^^

Section XXI.

"'The Brahmana said, — In this cannection is cited the
following ancient story. Do thou understand, of what kind
the institution is of the ten Hotris (sacrificing priests).-' The
ear, the skin, the two eyes, the tongue, the nose, the two feet,
the two hands, the genital organ, the lower duct, and speech, —
these, beautiful one, are the ten sacrificing priests.'^ Sound
and touch, color and taste, scent, speech, action, motion, and
the discharge of vital seed, of urine, and of excreta, are the
ten libations.^ The points of the compass, wind, Sun, Moon,
earth, fire, Vishnu, Indra, Prajapati, and Mitra, — these, O
beautiful one, are the ten (sacrificial) fires.* The ten organs
(of knowledge and action) are the sacrificing priests. The
libitions, beautiful one, are ten. The objects of the senses
are the fuel that are cast into these ten fires,i* ° as also the

* The meaning seems to be this : they who renounce sensuous objecta
can create them when they like. One casting off smell that has earth for
its object can create earth when he likes.— T.

t What is stated in this passage is, shortly, this r^^the ear, &c., are
the ffotris or sacrificing priests who are to pour libations on the sacri-
fi« al fire. The peieeptions ajid functions ofthoae organs constitute the


mind, which is the la.lle, and the wealth (viz., the good and
bad acts of the sacrificer). What remains is the pure, highest
knowledge. We have heard that all this universe was well
differentiated (from Knowledge).' All oVijects of knowledge
are Mind. Knowledge only perceives {i. e., discovers the Mind
without being attached to it). The Knower (or Jiva), encased
in subtle form, lives within the gross body that is produced by
the vital seed.'^ The bearer of the body is the Garhapatya
fire. From that is produced another. Mind is the Ahavaniya
fire. Into it is poured the oblation.^ From that was produced
the Veda (or Word) ; (then was born Mind) ; Mind (desirous of
creation) sets itself on the Veda (or the Word). Then arises
form (or color) undistinguished by particular colors. It runs
towards the Mind.* — ^

" 'The Brahmana's wife said,— Why did Word first arise
and why did Mind arise afterwards, seeing that Word starts
into existence after having been thought upon by Mind ?^'*
Upon what authority can it be said that Mati (Prana) takes
refuge in Mind. Why, again, in dreamless slumber, though
separated from Mind, does not Prana apprehend (all objects) ?
What is that which restrains it then ?t — "

Havi or libations that are to be pourerl. The points, wind, &c., are the
Agni or sacred fires on which they are to be poured. These statements
are recapitulatpd in Verse 5. The objects of the senses, the same as
tliose in Verse 3, are the fuel, before described las Havi or libations,
Which are to be burnt off by being cast into the fires.— T.

* The -Hridaya' or heart is the 'Garhapatya' fire. From it is pro-
duced another fire, the 'Ahavaniya,' viz., the mind. 'The heart was
pierced. From the heart arose mind, for the mind arose Chandramas,'
is the declaration of the Cruti cited by Nilakantha. The Ahavaniya
fire or mind is the mouth. 'Asyamahavaniya' is the Cruti. 'Annamayam
hi Somyamaiia.*, apomayahprfmah, tejomayivak' is the Cruti that bears
tipon this. Food or fire, poured into the mouth, develops into speech
or word. 'Vachaspati' implies the Veda or word. First arises the
word, the mind sets itself upon it, desirous of creation. This corres-
ponds with the Mosaic Genesis. 'God said let there be light, and there
was light.' The Wor<l was first.— T.

t The last question seems to be this : in dreamless slumber, the mind

disappears totally. If it is the mind upon which Prana rests, why does

,BOt rruiia al^o it i. .eeu to sep^iratf it^ell from uand,

Parva.] acwamedha parva.' 57

"'The Brahniana said>-— The Apana breath, becoming tha
lord (i. e., bringing the Prana under its control), in con-
sequence of such lordship over it, makes it identical with itself.
That restrained motion of the Prana breath (which lor the
time becomes identical with that of the Apana) has been
said to be the motion of the mind. Hence the mind is
dependent upon Prana, (not Prana upon the mind. There-
fore, in dreamless slumber, upon the disappearance of mind,
Prana does not disappear). ^^ But since thou askest me a
question about word and mind, I shall, therefore, relate to
thee a discourse between them.^^ Both Word and Mind,
repairing to the Soul of matter,* asked him, — Do thou
say who amongst us is superior. Do thou, puissant one,
despel our doubt !" — On that occasion, the holy one made
this answer, — The mind undoubtedly (is superior) ! — Unto
him Word said, — I yield to thee the fruition of all thy
desires !-|- — ^^

" 'The Brahmana said, — Know that I have two minds, im-
movable and movable. That which is immovable is, verilv.
with me ; the movable is in your dominion.:}:^*' That mind is

for it continues to exist while mind does not exist. If so, t. e , if exist-
ing, as it must be admitted to do, why does it not apprehend objects ?
What is it that restrains its powers of apprehension ? — T.

* 'Bhutatmanara' is ordinarily i Prajapati. Nilakantha takes it to
mean here individual Jiva or self. — T.

t It is, through words that desirable fruits, visible and invisible,
are acquired. Of course, word means both ordinary speech and Vedic
Mantra*. — T.

X The speaker is the Brahmana, which Nilakantha explains to mean
the Brfihmana named Manas or Mind.' Instead of such a learned in-
terpretation, we may take it as implying that the Brahmana is repeating
the answer which Bhutatman, i. c, Prajapati or Jiva, made to Word.
The Brahmana is the real speaker. He recites the words of Jiva. 'Im-
movable,' aecordint; to Nilakantha, means 'that which is seizable by
the externil senses;' and 'movable,' that which is beyond the ken of
the senses, sxich as heaven, &c. The external world being only a mani-
festation of the mind, it is spoken of here as identical with it. So,
the idea'^ in the mind whicli are not due to the senses, are only the mind.
This is tlie movable mind. That mind depends on word or the scrip-
ture,.— T.

[ 8 1


verily called movp.ble which, in the form of Mantra, letter, or
voice, is referrible to your dominion. Hence, thou art su-
perior (to the other mind which concerns itself with only the
external world)." But since, coming of thy own accord, O
beautiful one, thou enterest into the engagement (about the
.fruition of all wishes), therefore, filling myself with breath,
I utter thee I'**^^ The goddess Word used alwaya to dwell be-
tween Prana and Apana. But, O blessed one, siiddng into
Apana, though urged upwards, in consequence of becoming
dissociated from Prana, she ran to Prajapati and said,— Be
gratified with me, O holy one !^® — Then Prana appeared, once
more fostering Werd. Hence, Word, encountering deep ex-
halation, never utters anything.''^^ Word always flows as en-
diroil with utterance or unendued with it.f Amongst those
two. Word without utterance is seperior to Word with
utfeerance.^^ Like a cow -endued with excellent milk, she
(Word without utterance) yields diverse kinds of meaning.
This one always yields the Eternal {viz., Emancipation), speak-
ing of Brahma."" O thou of beautiful smiles, W^ord is a cow,
in consequence of her puissance which is both divine and not
divine. Behold the distinction of these two subtle forms of
Word that flow '4—^^

" 'The Brahmana's wife said, — What did the goddess of
Word then say, in days of old, when, though impelled by the
wish to speak, speech could not come out ? — '^

" 'The Brahmana said, — The Word that is generated in the
body by Prana, then attains to Apana from Prana. Then
transformed into Udana and issuing out of the body, envelops
all the quarters, with Vyana."" After that, she dwells in

* Telang gives a different version of this Verse. 1 offer a verbal
rendering, witnont attempting to explain it. — T.

t /. e., as noisy or noiseless — T.

I 1 have given as close a verbal rendering of the passage as possible.
The sense, however, is not very intelligible to me. Tiie gloss of Nila-
kantlia is as unintelligible as the text. Telang also has given a verbal
rendering which differs frorathe above slightly. His foot-notes do not,
I think, bring out the meaning at all As regards the two vernacular
versions, both are useless. — T.

Farvcu] acwamedhi parva. 59

Samana. Even in this way did Word formerly speak. Hence
Mind, in con.sGquence of being immovable, is distinguished,
and the goddess Word, in consequence of being movable, is
also distins[uished. — ' "'^

Section XXTI;

"'The Brahmana said.. — In this connection is cited the
ancient story,. O blessed one, of what the institution is of tJi<i
seven sacrificing priests.^ The nose, the eye, the tongue, the
skin, and the ear numbering the fifth, the mind, and the
understanding, — these are the seven sacrificing priests stand-
ing distinctly from one another.- Dwelling in subtle space,
they do not perceive one another. Do thou, O beautiful one^
know these sacrificing priests that are seven by their nature !^
" 'The Brahmana's wife said, — How is it that dwelling, in
subtle spxce, these do not perceive one another..? What are
their (respective) natures, O holy one? Do thou, tell me. this,
Olord!— *

" 'Tlie Brahmana said, — Xot knowing the qualities (of any
object) is ignorance (of that object) ; while knowledge of the
qualities is (called) knowledge (of the object which possesses
those qualities). These seven never succeed in apprehending
or knowing the qualities of one another." The tongue, the eye-
the ear too, the skin, the mind, and the understanding, do
not succeed in apprehending smells. It is the nose alone that
apprehends them.^ The nose, the eye, the ear too, the skin,
the mind, and the understanding, never succeed in apprehend-
ing tastes. The tongue alone apprehends them.^ The nose,'
the tongue, the ear also, the skin, the mind, and the under-
.standing, never succeed in apprehending colors. It is the eve
alone that apprehends them.® The nose, the tongue, the eve
too, the ear, the understanding, and the mind, never succeed
in apprehending sensations of touch. It is the skin alone
that apprehends them.® The nose, the tongue, the eye, the
skin, tlie mind, and the understanding, never succeed in appre-
hending sounds. It is the car alone that apprehends them.^"
The nose, the tongue, the eye, the skin, the ear. and the

GO maHabilaKxta. [Anuf/ita

understanding, never succeed in apprehending doubt. It is
the mind that apprehends it.^^ The nose, the tongue, the eye,
the skin, the ear, and the mind, never succeed in apprehend-
ing determination (certainty in respect of knoNvledge). It is
the understanding alone that apprehends it.-*^ In this connec-
tion, is cited, O beautiful lady, this ancient narrative of a
discourse between the senses and the mind.^*

The mind said, — The nose does not smell without me.
(Without me) the tongue does not apprehend taste. The eye
does not seize color, the skin does not feel touch,** the ear
does not apprehend sound, when deprived of me. I am the
eternal and foremost one among all the elements.*^ It always
happens that destitute of myself, the senses never shine, like
habitations empty of inmates or fires whose flames have been
quenched.*^ "Without me, all creatures fail to apprehend
qualities and objects, with even the senses exerting themselves,
even as fuel that is wet and dry (failing to ignite a fi?e) ! — *^

Hearing these words, the Senses said, — Even this would be
true as thou thinkest in this matter, if, indeed, thou couldst
enjoy pleasures without either ourselves or our objects.**^ If,
when we are extinct, there be gratification and support
of life, and a continuation of thy enjoyments,! then what
thou thinkest would be true ;*^ or, if, when we are absorbed

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