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and objects are existing, thou canst have thy enjoyments by
thy desii'e alone, as truly as thou hast them with our aid.^®'
If, again, thou deemest thy power over our objects to be al-
ways complete, do thou then seize color by the nose, and taste
by the eye.-* Do thou also take smells by the ear, and sen-
sations of touch by the tongue. Do thou also take sounds by
the skin, and likewise touch by the understanding."^ They
that are powerful do not own tlio dominion of any rules.
Rules exist for those only that are weak. Do thou seize en-
joyments unenjoyed before; it behoves thee not to enjoy what
has been tasted before (by others)."* As a disciple repairs to a

* The correct reading is 'cha' after 'artlifm' and not 'twam' after it.
Hence, the Senses any that 'without ourselves and withoat tliose which
are oin' ohiccts, thou caubt not have thv J'joympiito.' — T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 61 '

preceptor for the sake of (acquiring) the Crutis, and then,
having acquired the Crutis, dwells on their import (by obeying
their injunctions),^* even so dost thou regard as thine those
objects which are shown by us, past or future, in sleep or in
wakefulness.'''^ Of creatures, again, that are of little intelli-
gence, when their mind becomes distracted and cheerless, life
is seen to be upheld upon our objects discharging their func-
tions.*^® It is seen also that a creature, after having formed
even innumerable purposes and indulged in dreams, when
afflicted by the desire to enjoy, runs to objects of sense alone.f ^
One entering upon enjoyments depending on mental purposes
alone and unconnected with actual objects of sense, always
meets with death upon the exhaustion of the life-breaths, like
an enkindled fire upon the exhaustion of fuel.'" True it is
that we have connections with our respective attributes ; true
it is, we have no knowledge of one another's attributes. But
without us thou canst have no perception. Without us na
happiness can come to thee ! — ' "^**

Section XXIII.

"'The Brahmana said, — In this connection, O blessed lady
is cited the ancient story of what kind the institution is of
the five sacrificing priests.* The learned know this to be a
great principle that Prfma and Apana and Udana and Samana
and Vyana are the five sacrificing priests. — *

" 'The Brahmana's wife said, — That naturally there are seven
sacrificing priests is what was my former conviction. Let the
great principle be declared to me as to how, verily, the number
is five of the sacrificing priests. — *

" 'The Brahmana said, — The wind nursed by Prana after-
wards takes birth in Apana. The wind nursed in Apana then
becomes developed into Vyana.* Nursed by Vyana, the wind
is then developed into XJdrum,. Xursed in Udana, the wind

* Thus creatures may exist through us, even though mind may be
out of order. — T.

- t Both mental purposes, and dveam.^ having failed lo gratify him.— T,

G2 MvJ[\BHA.RvT\ [Ahufjitci

19 then generated as Samana.^ Those good beings in days of
yore asked the first-born Grand.sire, .sayiiig, — Do thou say v/ho
amongst us is the foremost ! He (whom thou wilt indicate)
will be our chief ! — *

" ' — Brahman said, — He upon whose extinction all the lifc-
l)reaths become extinct in the bodies of living creatures, he
upon whose moving they move^ is verily the foremost (among
you). Do ye go where ye like ! — "^

'" — Prana said, — Upon my extinction all the life-breaths
become extinct in the bodies of living creatures. Upon my
moving they once more move. I am (therefore) the foremost.
Behold, I go into extinction ! — ^

'■ 'The Brahmana continued, — Prana then became extinct
and once more moved about. Then Saraana and Udana also,
O blessed one, said these words,® — Thou dost not dwell here,
pervading all this, as we do* Thou art not the foremost
amongst us, Prana ! (Only) Apana is under thy dominion !
— Prana then moved about, and unto- him Apana spoke. — ^^

" ' — Apana said, — When I become extinct, all the life-winds
become extinct in the bodies of living creatures. When I
move about, they again move about. I am, therefore, the
foremost. Behold, I go into extinction ! — ^^

" 'The Brahmana continued, — Unto Apana who said .so,
both Vyana and Udana said, — Apana, thou art not the fore-
most. (Only) Prana is under thy dominion.^" — Then Apana
began to move about. Vyana once more addressed him, say-
ing, — I am the foremost of all (the life-winds). Listen, for
what reason.'' When I become extinct, all the life-winds be-
come extinct in the bodies of living creatures. When I move
about, they once more move about. I am (therefore) the fore-
most. Behold, I go into extinction ! — ■"*

" 'The Brahmana continued, — Then Vvana went into ex-
tinction and once more began to move about. At this, Prana
and Apana and Udana and Samana addressed him, saying,'" —
Thou art not the foremost among us, O Vyana ! (Only) Sa-
mana is under thy dominion. — Vyana then began to move
about and Samana said unto him," — I am the foremost of you
all ! Listen, for what reason. When I become extinct, all

SarVV..] HCWAMEDIIA. parva.^ ^3

the life-winds become extinct in the bodies of living creatures
When I begin to move about, they once more move about,
Hence, I am the foremost. Behold, I go into extinctioii :^^—
Then Samana began to move about. Unto him Udana said,—
I am the foremost of all the life-winds. Listen, for Avhafc
reason.^^ When I become extinct, all the life- winds become
extinct in the bodies of living creatures. When I move about
they once more move about. Hence, I am the foremost. Be-
hold, I go into extinction !^^ — Then Udana, after having gone
into extinction, began to once more move about. Prana and
Apana and Samana and Vyana said unto him, — O Udana,
thou art not the foremost one among us. (Only) Vyana is
under thy dominion ! — ^°

" 'The Brahraana continued, — Unto them assembled to-
gether, the Lord of creatures, Brahman, said, — Ye are all
foremost and not foremost. Ye are all endued with the attri-
butes of one another.'^ All are foremost in their own spheres,
and all possess the attributes of one another ! — Thus said unto
them, that were assembled together, the Lord of all creatures.**
— There is one that is unraoving, and one that is moving. In
consequence of special attributes, there are five life-winds.
My own self is one. That one accumulates into many forms.'*
Becoming friendly unto one another, and gratifying one an-
other, depart in peace. Blessings to ye, do ye uphold one
another !— ' "^*

Section XXIV.

" 'The Brahraana said, — In this connection is cited the
ancient story of the discourse between Narada and the Bishi

" ' — Devamata said, — What verily, comes first into exist-
ence, of a creature that takes birth ? Is it Prana, or Apana,
or Samana, or Vyana, or Udana? — ^

" ' — Nclrada said, — By whatever the creature is created,

that first comes unto him which is other (or separate from

him). The life-winds are to be known as existing in pairs,

viz., tho^e that move transversely, upwards, and downwards. — *

B* , iTAiTAinixiuTA. [Anuglta

" ' — Devamata said, — By whom (among the life-winds) is a
creature produced ? Who (amongst) them comes first ? Do
thou tell me what the pairs are of the life-winds, that move
transversely, upwards, and downwards. — *

" ' — Narada said, — From Sankalpa (wish) arises Pleasure.
It also arises from sound. It arises also from taste ; it arises
too from color.^ From the semen, united with blood, first
flows Prana. Upon the semen being modified by Prana, flow3
Apana.® Pleasure arises from the semen as well. It arises
from taste also. This is the form (effect) of Udana. Pleasure
is produced from union.' Semen is generated by desire. From
desire is produced the menstrual flow. In the union of semen
and blood, generated by Samana and Vyana,^ the pair that
consists of Prana and Apana, enters, moving transversely and
upwards. Vyana and Samana both form a pair that moves
transversely.^ Agni (fire) is all the deities. Even this is the
teaching of the Veda. The knowledge of Agni arises in a
Brahmana, with intelligence.^" The smoke of that fire is of
the form of (the attribute called) Darkness. The attribute
that is known by the name of Passion is in its ashes. The
quality of goodness arises from that portion of the fire into
which the oblation is poured.*^** They that are conversant
Avith sacrifices know that Samana and Vyana are from the
attribute of Goodness. Prana and Apana are portions of the
oblation (of clarified butter). Between them is the Fire.^*
That is the excellent form (or seat) of Udana, as the Brah-
manas know. Listen as I say which is distinct from the
pairs.^^ Day and Night constitute a pair. Between them is
the Fire. That is the excellent seat of Udana as the Brah-
manas know." The existent and the non-existent form a
pair. Between them is the Fire. That is the excellent seat
of Udana as the Brahmanas know.^* First is Samana. Then
Vvana. The latter's function is managed through it {viz.,

*■ The reading 'sarvam' in tlie second line is incorrect, though Nila-

kantha adopts it. The different portions of the fire are indicated as tlie

ditforent attributes. The smoke is of the form of ]~)arkness (Tamas) ;

theadiesare the attribute of Passion; while the blazing flame, that

nto which the oblation is thrown, is the attribute of Goodness. — T.

Farva.] acwamedha parya. 65

Samana). Then, secondly, Samana once more comes into
operation.-^^ Only Vyana exists for tranquillity. Tranquillity
is eternal Brahma. This is the excellent seat of Udana as the
Brahmanas know.* — ' "^®

Section XXV.

"'The Brahmana said, — In this connection is recited the
ancient story of what the institution is of the Chaturhotra
(sacrifice).^ The ordinances are naw being duly declared of
that in its entirety. Listen to me, amiable lady, as I de-
clare this wonderful mystery.- The instrument, the action,
the agent, and Emancipation, — these, beautiful lady, are the
four sacrificing priests by whom the universe is enveloped.*
Hear in its entirety the assignment of causes (relating to this
topic).* The nose, the tongue, the eye, the skin, the ear
numbering the fifth, the mind, and the understanding, — these
seven should be understood as the causes of (the knowledge of )
qualities. Smell, taste, color, sound, touch, numbering the fifth,^
the objects of the mind, and the objects of the understanding,
— these are the seven causes of action. He who smells, he who
eats, he who sees, he who speaks, he who hears, numbering
the fifth,^ he who thinks, and he who understands, — these
seven should be known as the causes of action. Possessed of
qualities, these enjoy their own qualities, agreeable or dis-
agreeable.f^ As regards the Soul, that is destitute of quali-
ties. These seven are the causes of Emancipation. With
them that are learned and possessed of sufficient understand-
ing, the qualities, which are in the position of deities, eat the
oblations, each in its proper place, and agreeally to what has
been ordained. The person who is destitute of learning, eat-
ing diverse kinds of food, becomes seized with the sense of

* I give a close rendering of these Verses, without encleavoiiring to
bring out the sense as explained by the Commentators. The printed
texts are not correct. The text adopted by Nilakantha differs from that
of Arjuna Misra. The very order of the verses is not uniform in all the
texts.— T.

t 'These' refers to action, agent, and instrument. The qualities of
which they are possessed are goodness, paseion, and darkness.— T.

[ 9 ]

66 mahabharata; [AnugitS

mineness.*®'® Digesting food for himself, he becomes ruined
through the sense of mineness. The eating of food that should
not be eaten, and the drinking of wine, ruin him.^° He des-
troys the food (he takes), and having destroyed that food, he
becomes destroyed himself The man of learning, however,
being possessed of puissance, destroys his food for reproduc-
ing it." The minutest transgression does not arise in him
from the food he takes. Whatever is thought of by the mind,
whatever is uttered by speech,^^ whatever is heard by the ear,
whatever is seen by the eye, whatever is touched by the (sense
of ) touch, Avhatever is smelt by the nose,^^ constitute obla-
tions of clarified butter which should all, after restraining the
senses with the mind numbering the sixth, be poured into
that fire of high merits which burns within the body, viz.,
the Soul.+^* The sacrifice constituted by Yoga is going on as
regards myself The spring whence that sacrifice proceeds .is
that which yields the fire of knowledge. The upward life-
wind Prana is the Stotra of that sacrifice. The downward
life-wind Apana is its Sastra. The renunciation of everything
is the excellent Dakshina of that sacrifice.-^^ Consciousness,
Mind, and Understanding, which are all Brahma, are its
Hotri, Adhwaryyu, and XJdgatri. The Pra^astri, his Castra,
is truth.+ Cessation of separate existence (or Emancipation)
is the Dakshina.-^® In this connection, people conversant with
Narayana recite some Richs. Unto the divine Narayana
were animals offered in days of yore.S^^ Then are sung some

* What is stated in thesp two Verses is this : it is the Senses that
enjoy ; and not the Soul. This is well known to those that are learned.
On the other hand, those that are not learned, regard this or that to be
theirs, when in reality they are different from them. They are their
selves, and not their senses, although they take themselves for the latter,
ignorantly identifying themselves with things which they are not. — T.

t What is stated here is this : Kestraining the senses and the mind,
the objects of those senses and the mind should be poured as libations
on the sacred fii*e of the Soul that is within the body. — T.

j /. e., truth is the Castra of the Pragfistri. — T.

S 'Narayana' is taken by Nilakantha to stand here for either the
Veda or the Soul. The animals offerred up to Narayana in days of ilJ
J were the senses offered up as sacrifices. — T.

Farva.] acwamedha parya. 67

Samans. On that topic occurs an authority. timid one,
know that the divine Narayana is the soul of all ! — ' "^®

Section XXVI.

" 'The Brahmana said, — There is one Ruler. There is no
second beside him. He that is Ruler resides in the heart. I
shall speak now of him. Impelled by Him; I move as directed,
like water along an inclined plane. ^ There is one Preceptor.
There is no second beside him. He resides in the heart, and
of him I shall now speak. Instructed by that preceptor, all
snakes in the world are always endued with feelings of ani-
mosity." There is one kinsman. There is no second beside
him. He resides in the heart of him I shall now speak. In-
structed by him, kinsmen become possessed of kinsmen, and
the seven Rishis, O son of Pritha, shine in the firmament.®
There is one dispeller. There is no second beside him. He
resides in the heart. Of him I shall now speak. Having
lived with that instructor under the proper mode of living
with an instructor, Cakra attained to the sovereignty of all
the worlds.** There is one enemy. There is no second be-
side him. He resides in the heart. Of him I shall now speak.
Instructed by that preceptor all snakes in the world are always
endued with feelings of animosity.^ In this connection is
cited the ancient story of the instruction of the snakes, the
deities, and the Rishis by the Lord of all creatures.® The
deities and the Rishis, the snakes, and the Asuras, seated
around the Lord of all creatures, asked him, saying, — Let
that which is highly beneficial for us be declared !^ — Unto
them that enquired about what is highly beneficial, the holy
one uttered only the word Om, which is Brahma in one
syllable. Hearing this, they ran away in various directions.^
Amongst them that thus ran in all directions from desire
of self-instruction, the disposition first arose in snakes of
biting.^ Of the Asuras, the disposition, born of their nature,
for ostentations pride, arose. The deities^ betook themselves to

* 'Crota' here means preceptor or dispeller of doubts. 'Amaratwam'
is the statua of the immortal head of all,— T,

68 MAHABHARATA. [Anugitci

gifts, and the great Rishis to self-restraint.^" Having repair-
ed to one teacher, and having been instructed (refined) by
one word, the snakes, the deities, the Rishis, and the Dana-
vas, all betook themselves to diverse different dispositions."
It is that one who hears himself when speaking, and appre-
hends it duly. Once, again, is that heard from him when he
speaks. There is no second preceptor.*^" It is in obedience
to his counsels that action afterwards flows. The instructor,
the apprehender, the hearer, and the enemy, are placed with-
in the heart.^^ By acting sinfully in the world, it is he that
becomes a person of sinful deeds. By acting auspiciously in
the world, it is he who becomes a person of auspicious deeds."
It is he who becomes a person of unrestrained conduct by be-
coming addicted to the pleasures of sense, impelled by desire.
It is he who becomes a Brahmacharin by always devoting
himself to the subjugation of his senses." It is he, again,
that casts off vows and actions and takes refuge on Brahma
alone. By moving in the world, identifying himself the while
with Brahma, he becomes a Brahmacharin.^^ Brahma is his
fuel ; Brahma is his fire ; Brahma is his origin ; Brahma is his
water ; Brahma is his preceptor ; he is rapt in Brahma."
Brahmacharyya is even so subtle, as understood by the wise.
Having understood it, they betook themselves to it, instructed
by the Kshetrajna If—' "^«

Section XXVII.

" 'The Brahmana said, — Having crossed that impassible
fastness (the world) which has purposes for its gadflies and
mosquitoes, grief and joy for its cold and heat, heedlessness
for its blinding darkness, cupidity and diseases for its reptiles,^
wealth for its one danger on the road, and lust and wrath its
robbers, I have entered the extensive forest (of Brahma) !— "

* I think Telang is not correct in his rendering of this verse. What
is stated here is plain, viz., that it is He who is the preceptor and the
diaciple. 'Ayara §rinoti,'— 'prochyamfuiam grihnfiti,'— 'tat prichcchatah
ato bhuyas anye grinanti,' is the grammar of the construction. The con-
clusion then comes — 'gururanyo na vidyate'. — T.

+ One who understands the truth.— T.

Parva.] acwamedha parva. 69

" 'The wife of the Brahmana said, — "Where is that fore-
most, thou of great wisdom ? What are its trees ? What
its rivers ? What its mountains and hills ? How far is that
forest ?— *

" 'The Brahmana said, — There exists nothing that is sepa-
rate from it. There is nothing more delightful than it. There
is nothing that is unseparated from it. There is nothing more
afflicting than it.* There is nothing smaller than that. There
is nothing vaster than that. There is nothing minuter than
that. There is no happiness that can resemble it.^ Regene-
rate persons, entering into it, at once transcend both joy and
sorrow. They (then) never stand in fear of any creature, nor
does any creature stand in fear of them.^ In that forest are
seven large trees, seven fruits, and seven guests. There are
seven hermitages, seven (forms of) Yoga concentration, and
seven (forms) of initiation. Even this is a description of that
forest.*^ The trees which stand filling that forest, produce
excellent flowers and fruits of five colors.^ The trees which
stand there filling that forest, produce flowers and fruits that
are of excellent colors and that are, besides, of two kinds.'
The trees which stand there filling that forest, produce flowers
and fruits that are endued with fragrance and that are, be-
sides, of two colors.-^" The trees which stand there filling that
forest, produce flowers and fruits that are possessed of fragrance
and that are, besides, of one color.^^ The two trees which
stand filling that forest, produce many flowers and fruits that
are of unmanifest colors.-*" There is one fire here, possessed
of a good mind. That is connected Vith Brahman. The five
senses are the fuel here. The seven forms of Emancipation
flowing from them are the seven forms of Initiation. The

* The seven large trees are the five senses, the mind, and the under
standing. The fruits are the pleasures and pains derived from or
through them. The guests are the powers of each sense, for it is they
that recieve those pleasures and pains. The hermitages are those very-
trees under which the guests take sheltex". The seven forms of Yoga
are the extinctions of the seven senses. The seven forms of initiation
are the repudiation, one after another, of the actions of the seven
senses. — T.

70 MAHABHARATA. [Anugiti

qualities are the fruits, and the guests eat those fruits.^*
There, in diverse places, the great Rishis accept hospitality.
When they, having been worshipped, become annihilated, then
another forest shines forth.^* In that forest, Intelligence is
the tree ; Emancipation is the fruit ; Tranquillity is the shade
of which it is possessed. It has knowledge for its resting
house, contentment for its water, and the Kshetrajna for its
sun.^^ Its end cannot be ascertained upwards, downwards,
or horizontally." Seven females always dwell there, with
faces downwards, possessed of effulgence, and endued with the
cause of generation. They take up all the different tastes
from all creatures, even as insconstancy sucks up truth." In
that itself dwell, and from that emerge, the seven Rishis who
are crowned with ascetic success, with those seven having
Va^ishtha for their foremost.^^ Glory, effulgence, greatness,
enlightenment, victory, perfection, and energy, — these seven
always follow this same like rays following the sun." Hills
and mountains also exist there, collected together ; and rivers
and streams bearing waters in their course, — waters that are
born of Brahma.'" And there happens a confluence also of
streams in the secluded spot for sacrifice. Thence those that
are contented with their own souls proceed to the Grandsire."^
They whose wishes have been reduced, whose wishes have been
directed to excellent vows, and whose sins have been burnt off
by penances, merging themselves in their souls, succeed in
attaining to Brahma.^- Tranquillity is praised by those who
are conversant with the forest of knowledge. Keeping that
forest in view, they take . birth so as not to lose courage.^*
Even such is that sacred forest that is understood by Brah-
manas, and understanding it, they live (in accordance with
the ordinance), directed by the Kshetrajna. — ' "^*

Section XXVIII.

"'The Brahmana said, — I do not smell scents. I do not
perceive tastes. I do not see colors. I do not touch. I do
not likewise hear the diverse sounds (that arise). Nor do I
entertain purposes of any kind.^ It is Nature that desires

Parva.] acwamedha PARVAi 71

such objects as are liked ; it is Nature that hates such objects
as are disliked. Desire and aversion spring from Nature, after
the manner of the upward and the downward life-winds when
souls have entered animate bodies.^ Separated from them are
others ; in them are eternal dispositions ; (these as also) the
soul of all creatures, Yogins would behold in the body. Dwell-
ing in that, I am never attached to anything throguh desire and
wrath, and decrepitude and death.^ Not having any desire
for any object of desire, and not having any aversion for any
evil, there is no taint on my natures, as there is no taint of a
drop of water on (the leaves of ) the lotus.* Of this constant
(principle) which looks upon diverse natures, they are incon-
stant possessions.* Though actions are performed, yet the assem-
blage of enjoyments does not attach itself to them, even as the
assemblage of rays of the sun does not attach to the sky. In this
connection is recited an ancient story of a discourse between an
Adhwaryu and a Yati. Do thou hear it, glorious lady !^"*
Beholding an animal sprinkled with water at a sacrificial
ceremony, a Yati said unto the Adhwaryu seated there these
words in censure, — This is destruction of life T — Unto him the
Adhwaryu said in reply, — This goat will not be destroyed.
The animal (sacrificed) meets with great good, if the Vedic
de3laration on this subject be true.' That part of this animal
which is of earth will go to earth. That part of this one

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