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which is born of water, will enter into water.^ His eye will
enter the sun ; his ear will enter the different points of the
horizon ; his life- winds will enter the sky. I who adhere to
the scriptures incur no fault (by assisting at the killing of
this aninial). — -^^

" ' — The Yati said, — If thou beholdest such good to the
goat in this dissociation with (his) life-winds, then this sacri-
fice is for the goat. What need hast thou for it ?" Let the
brother, father, mother, and friend (of this goat) give thee
their approval in this. Taking him (to them) do thou consult
them. This goat is especially dependent.^^ It behooveth thee
to see them who can give their consent in this. After hearing



* The correct reading is 'bliavantyanityak' and 'vahuswabhavan'. — T.



72 MAHABHARATAi [Anugltl

their consent, the matter will hecorae fit for consideration.'^
The life-winds of this goat have been made to return to their
respective sources. Only the inanimate body remains behind.
This is what I think. ^* Of those who wish to enjoy felicity
by means of the inanimate body (of an animal) which is com-
parable with fuel, the fuel (of sacrifice) is after all the animal
hiraself.^^ Abstention from cruelty is the foremost of all
duties. Even this is the teaching of the elders. We know that
that action should be done which is not fraught with cruelty."
Even this is the proposition, viz.,— "No slaughter (of living
creatures.— If I say anything further, (it will then appear
that) diverse kinds of faulty actions are capable of being done
by thee.^^ Always abstaining from cruelty to all creatures is
what meets with our approbation. We establish this from
what is directly perceptible. We do not rely on what is be-
yond direct perception. — ^^

«' « The Adhwaryu said, — Thou enjoyest the properties of

smell which belong to the earth. Thou drinkest the tastes
which appertain to water. Thou seest colors .which belong to
lighted bodies. Thou touchest the properties which have their
origin in wind,'^ Thou hearest the sounds which have their
origin in space (or ether). Thou thinkest thoughts with the
mind. All these entities, thou art of opinion, have life.-'^
Thou dost not then abstain from taking life. Really, thou
art engaged in slaughter There canjbe no movement with-
out slaughter. Or, what dost thou think, regenerate



one !•



« ' — The Yati said, — The Indestructible and the Destructi-
ble constitute the double manifestation of the soul. Of these
the Indestructible is existent. The Destructible is said to be.
exceedingly non-existent.*" The life-wind, the tongue, the
mind, the quality of goodness, along with the quality of pas-
sion, are ail existent. Of him that is freed from these existent
objects, that transcends all pairs of opposites, that does not
cherish any expectation,"^ that is alike to all creatures, that is
liberated from the idea of meum, that has subjugated his self,

* 'Swabliava' ib explained by Nilakantlia as 'sutaram abhav^'.— T.



Parva.] acwamedha. parva. 73

and that is released from all his surroundings, no fear exists
from anv source !* — ^*

"* — The Adhwaryu said, — foremost of intelligent n^en,'
one should reside with those that are good. Hearing thy
opinion my understanding shines with light.-® illustrious
one, I come to thee, believing thee to be a god ; and I say
I have no fault, regenerate one, by performing these rites
with the aid of Mantras If — ^*

" 'The Brahmana continued, — With this conclusion, the
Yati remained silent after this. The Adhwaryu also proceeded
with the great sacrifice, freed from delusion."'' The Brahmanas
understand Emancipation, which is exceedingly subtle, to be
of this kind ; and having understood it, they live accordingly,
directed by the Kshetrajna, that beholder of all topics. — ' "^^



Section XXIX.

" 'The Brahmana said, — In this connection is cited the
ancient story, O lady, of the discourse between Karttaviryya
and the Ocean.^ There was a king of the name of Kartta-
viryya- Arjuna who was endued with a thousand arms. He
conquered, with his bow, the Earth extending to the shores
of the ocean .^ It has been heard by us that, once on a time,
as he. was walking on the shores of the sea, proud of his might,
he showered hundreds of shafts on that vast receptacle of
waters.^ The Ocean, bowing down unto him, said, with joined

— ■ _ . — " ■ ■ — ^

* The sense seems to be this i the life-winds indicate the operations
of the several organs of action : the tongue, which stands here for all
the organs of perception, of the sensual perceptions ; the mind, of all
the internal operations ; the quality of goodness, of all pleasure ; and
the quality of passion, of all kinds of pain. These, therefore, include
the whole external and the internal worlds. He that is free from these,
transcends sin, for sin is destroyed by freedom from these, knowledge
being the means of attaining to that freedom. — T.

t 'I have no fault &c.' — The sense seems ito be that by doing these
rites with the aid of Mantras I have done that which has been approved
from ages past by those who have always been regarded wise. My eyes'
however, have now been opened by thee. 1 should not be held responsi-
ble for what I did while I was ignorant,— T.

[ 10 ]



74 MA1I4BH4R&TA. [Auugitdl

hands, — Do not, O hero, shoot thy shafts, (at me) ! Say,
what shall I do to thee !* With these mighty arrows shot
by thee, those creatures which have taken shelter in me are
being killed, O tiger among kings ! Do thou, lord, grant
them security ! — ^

« ' — Arjuna said, — If any wielder of the bow exists that is
equal to me in battle, and that would stand against me in the
field, do thou name him to me ! — ®

" ' — The Ocean said,^-If thou hast heard, king, of the
great Bishi Jamadagni, his son is competent to duly receive
thee as a guest/ — Then that king proceeded, filled with great
■wrath. Arrived at that retreat, he found Rama himself.®
With his kinsmen he began to do many acts that were hostile
to Rama, and caused much trouble to that high-sou led hero."
Then the energy, which was immeasurable, of Rama blazed forth,
burning the troops of the foe, lotus-eyed one !^° Taking up
his battle-axe, Rama suddenly put forth his power, and hacked
that thousand-armed hero, like a tree of many branches.^'
Beholding him slain and prostrated on the earth, all his
kinsmen, uniting together, and taking up their darts, rushed
at Rama, who was then seated, from all sides.^^ Rama also,
taking up his bow and quickly ascending on his car, shot
showers of arrows and chastised the army of the king.*' Then,
some of the Kshatriyas, afflicted with the terror of Jama-
dagni's son, entered mountain-fastnesses, like deer afflicted by
the lion." Of them that were unable, through lear of Rama,
to discharge the' duties ordained for their order, the progeny
became Vrishalas owing to their inability to find Brahmanas.**"^
In this way the Dravidas and Abhiras and Pundras, together
with the Cavaras, became Vrishalas through those men who
fead Kshatriya duties assigned to them (in consequence of their
birth), falling away (from "those duties)." Then the Kshatri-
yas that were, begotten by the Brahmanas upon Kshatriya



* Kshatriyas always require Brahmanaa for assisting them in their
acts. These particular Kshatriyas, through fear of Rama, fled to the
forests and mountains. They could not, accordingly, find Brahmanas
for assisting them. Their children, therefore, fell away from the ttatus
of Kshatriyas and became Vrishalas or Cudras. — T.



Parva.] ,a.cwamedha parva. 75

women that had lost their heroic children, were repeatedly
destroyed by Jamadagni's son.*'^ The slaughter proceeded one
and twenty times. At its conclusion, a bodiless voice, sweet
and proceeding from heaven, and which was heard by a*ll
people, spoke to Rama,^^ — Rama, O Rama, desist ! What
merit dost thou see, O son, in thus destroying repeatedly
these inferior Kshatriyas ?*** — In this way, blessed dame,
his grandsires, headed by Richika, addressed that high-souled
one, saying, — Do thou desist !^° — Rama, however, unable to
forgive the slaughter of his sire, replied unto those Rishis,
saying, — It behooves you not to forbid me !" — The Pitris then
said, — foremost of all victorious men, it behooves thee not
to slay these inferior Kshatriyas! It is not proper that thy-
snlf, being a Brahmana, should slay these kings ! — ' ""



Section XXX.

" ' — The Pitris said, — In this connection is cited this old
history. Having heard it, thou shouldst act according to it,
O foremost of all regenerate persons !* There was a royal sage
of the name of Alarka endued with the austerest of penances.
He was conversant with all duties, truthful in speech, of high
soul, and exceedingly firm in his vows.'' Having, with his
bow, conquered the whole Earth extending to the seas, and
thereby achieved an exceedingly difficult feat, he set his mind
on that which is subtle.^ While sitting at the root of a tree,
his thoughts, thou of great intelligence, abandoning all
those great feats, turned towards that which is subtle ! — *

" ' — Alarka said, — My mind has become strong. Having
conquered the mind, one's conquest becomes permanent.
Though surrounded by foes, I shall (henceforth) shoot my arrows
at other objects.^ Since in consequence of its unsteadiness, it
sets all mortals to accomplish acts, I shall shoot very sharp-
pointed shafts at the mind ! — "



* n



'Kshatriyas-bandhu' always implies low or inferior Kshatriyas,.
as 'Brahma-baxidhii' implies low or inferior Brahamanas. The eipres-
i'lon, rery probably, is similar to Brahman-sangat' in current Bengali,
It does not, turely, mean 'kinsmen of Kshatriyas'.— T.



76 MAHABHARATA. • [AnugitS

" ' — Tte mind said, — These arrows, Alarka, will never
pierce me tiirough. They "will pierce only thy own vital parts.
Thy vital parts being pierced, thou shalt die 'i^ Do thou look
out for other arrows with which to destroy me ! — Hearing
these words and reflecting, upon them, he said as follows.^

" ' — Alarka said, — Smelling very many perfumes, (the nose)
hankers after them only. Hence I shall shoot whetted arrows
at the nose ! — ®

" ' — The nose said, — These arrows will never cross through
me, O Alarka ! They will pierce only thy own vital parts, and
thy vital parts being pierced, thou shalt die.^*' Do thou look
for other arrows with which to destroy me !' — Hearing these
words and reflecting upon them, he said as follows."

"' — Alarka said, — This one (viz., the tongue), eryoying
savoury tastes, hankers after them only. Hence I shall shoot
whetted shafts at the tongue ! — ^^

«' ' — The tongue said,— These arrows, Alarka, Avill not
cross through me. They will only pierce thy own vital parts
and thy vital parts being pierced, thou shalt die.^^ Do thou
look for other arrows with which to destroy me ! — Hearing
these words and reflecting upon them, he said as follows."

" ' — Alarka said, — The skin, touching diverse objects of
touch, hankers after them only. Hence, I shall tear off the
skin with diverse arrows equipt with the feathers of the
Kanka !— ^^

" '—The skin said,— These arrows will not, Alarka, cross
through me. They will pierce thy own vital parts only, and
thy vital parts being pierced, thou shalt die.^® Do 'thou look
for other arrows with which to destroy me ! — Hearing these
words and reflecting on them, he said as follows.^''

«' — A.larka said, — Hearing diverse sounds, (the ear) hankers
after them only. Hence, I shall shoot whetted shafts at the



ear. — ^^



" ' — The ear said,— These arrows will not, O Alarka, cross
through me. They will pierce thy own vital parts only, and thy
vital parts being pierced, thou shalt die.^^ Do thou then look
for other arrows with which to destroy me ! — Hearing these
words and reflecting upon them, he said as follows.-^



Parva.] acwamedha parva. 77

«' — Alarka said, — Seeing many colors, the eye hankers
after them only. Hence, I shall destroy the eye with sharp-
pointed arrows ! — ^^

'" — The eye said, — These arrows will not, Alarka, cross
through me at all. They will pierce thy own vital parts only,
and thy vital parts being pierced, thou shalt die." Do thou
then look for other arrows with which to destroy me 1 — Hear-
ing these words and reflecting upon them, he said as follows.-*

" ' — Alarka said, — This {viz., the understanding) forms
many determinations with the aid of ratiocination. Hence, I
shall shoot whetted arrows at the understanding ! — '^*

'« ' — The understanding said, — These arrows will not, O
Alarka, cross through me at all. They will pierce thy vital
parts only, and thy vital parts being pierced, thou shalt die.
Do thou then look for other arrows with which to destroy

t

me ! — -^

" 'The Brahmana continued, — Then Alarka, employing
himself, even there, on penances difficult to perform and ex-
ceedingly austere, failed to obtain, by the high power (of his
penances) arrows for casting at these seven.^® Endued with
puissance, he then, with mind well concentrated, began to,
reflect. Then, O best of regenerate ones, Alarka, that fore-
most, of intelligent men, having reflected for a long time,
failed to obtain anything better than Yoga. Setting his
mind on one object, he remained perfectly still, engaged in
Yoga.*^''"^^ Endued with energy, he quickly slew all the
senses with one arrow, having entered by Yoga into his soul
and thereby attained to the highest success.'^^ Filled with
wonder, that royal sage then sang this verse : Alas, it is a,
pity that we should have accomplished all acts that are ex-
ternal !^° Alas, that we should have, endued with the thirst



* The vocative, 'O foremost of regenerate ones* applies to Jamadagani's
son. The narration is that of the Pitris. All the copies, however, re-
present this as the Brahmana's speech to his -wife. Indeed, the Brah-
mana is only reciting to his wife the speech of the Pitris to Eama.
The Yoga here spoken of is, as Nilakantha explains, the Raja-Yoga.
Previously, Alarka had been bent upon Hatha- Yoga which frequently
ends in the destruction of th e person practising it. — T.



78 MA.HABn\iiATA. . [Anugitd

for er>pfri\er\t, courted (the pleasures of ) sovereignty before
now ! I have leanit this afterwards ! There is no happiness
that is higher than Yoga !*^ — Do thou know this, O Rama !
Cease to slay the Kshatriyas I Do thou practise the austerest
of penances ! Thou wilt then attain to what is good.^' — Thus
addressed by his grandsires, Jamadagni's son practised the
austerest penances, and having practised them, that highly'
blessed one attained to that success which is difficult to
reach.—' ""



Section XXXI.

'"The Brahman a said, — There are three foes in the world.
They are said to be ninefold, agreeably to their qualities. Ex-
ultation, satisfaction, and joy, — these three qualities apper-
tain to Goodness.*^ Cupidity, wrath,, and hatred, these three
qualities are said to appertain to Passion. Lassitude, pro-
crastination, and delusion, these three qualities appertain to
Darkness.^ Cutting these with showers of arrows, the man
of intelligence, free from procrastination, possessed of a tran-
quil soul, and with his senses under subjection, ventures to
vanquish others.f In this connection, persons conversant
with (the occurrences of ) ancient cycles recite some verses
which were sung in days of old by king Amvarisha who had
acquired a tranquil soul.* When diverse kinds of faults were
in the ascendant and when the righteous were afflicted, Amva-
risha of great fame put forth his strength for assuming sover-
eignty.:!:^ Subduing his own faults and worshipping the
righteous, he attained to great success and sang these verses."



* 'Praharsha,' rendered 'exultation,' is ex^^lained by Nilakantha as
the joy that is felt at the certainty of attaining what is desired. 'Priti'
is that satisfaction which is felt when the object desired is attained.
*Ananda' is what arises while enjoying the attained object. — T.

t The sense seems to be this. Having first conquered the internal foes
mentioned, the man of intelligence, bent on effecting his deliverance,
should then seek to vanquish all external foes standing in his way. — T.

I Nilakantha explain* that 'dosha' here refers to attachment, cupidity
and the rest ; while 'Sadhu' implies n«t men but the virtues of tranquil-
lity and the rest. — T.



Parva.] acwamedha parva. 79

— I have subdued many faults. I have killed all foes. But
there is one, the greatest, vice which deserves to be destroyed
but which has not been destroyed by me !^ Urged by that
fault, this Jiva fails to attain to freedom from desire. Afflicted
by desire, one runs into ditches without knowing it.® Urged
by that fault, one indulges in acts that are forbidden. Do
thou cut off, cut off, that cupidity with sharp-edged swords !*
From cupidity arises desire. From desire flows anxiety. The
man who yields to desire acquires many qualities that apper-
tain to Passion.-^® When these have been acquired, he gets
many qualities that appertain to Darkness.^^ In consequence
of those qualities, he repeatedly takes birth, with the bonds
of body united, and is impelled to action. Upon the expira-
tion of life, with body becoming dismembered and scattered,
he once meets with death which is due to birth itself.*^'*
Hence, duly understanding this, and subduing cupidity by
intelligence, one should desire for sovereignty in one's soul.
This is (true) sovereignty. There is no other sovereignty here.
The soul, properly understood, is the king.^^ Even these were
the verses sung by king Ambarisha of great celebrity, on the
subject of sovereignty which ho kept before him, — that king
who had cut off the one foremost fault, viz., cupidity.' "^*



Section XXXII.

" 'The Brahmana said, — In this connection is cited the old
narrative, lady, of the discourse between a Brahmana and
{king) Janaka.'^ I^ing Janaka (on a certain occasion), de-
sirous of punishing him, said unto a Brahmana who had be-
come guilty of some offence, — Thou shalt not dwell within
my dominions !* — Thus addressed, the Brahmana replied unto

* I think Telang renders this verse wrongly. 'Satnhatadehaban-
■dhanah' does not mean 'with bodily frame destroyed' but 'with bodily
frame united.' If 'samhata' be taken as destroyed, the compound
'bhinna-vikirna-dehah' in the second line would be a useless repetition.
The meaning is that with bodily frame or the bonds of body united, h«
takes birth. Wh«n he dies, that frame become* dismembered and
scattered — T.



80 MAHABHARATA. [Amigitfi

that best of kings, saying, — Tell me, O king, what the limits
are of the territories subject to thee !' I desire, O lord, to
dwell within the dominions of another king. Verily, I wish
to obey thy behest, O lord of Earth, agreeably to the scrip-
tures !* — Thus addressed by that celebrated Brahmana, the
king, hearing repeated and hot sighs, said not a word in
reply.^ Like the planet (Rahu) overwhelming the Sun, a
clondedness of understanding suddenly overwhelmed that king
of immeasurable energy as he sat plunged in thought.^ When
that cloudedness of understanding passed away and the king
became comforted, he spoke after a short while these words
unto that Brahmana/

«" — Janaka said, — Although a (large) inhabited tract is
subject to me within this ancestral kingdom of mine, yet I
foil to find my dominion, searching through the whole Earth."
When I failed to find it on the Earth, I then searched Mithila
(for it). When I failed to find it in Mithila, I then searched
for it among my own children." When I failed to find it even
there, a cloudedness of understanding came over me. After
that cloudedness of understanding passed away, intelligence
came back to me.^*' Then I thought that I have no dominion,
or that everything is my dominion. Even this body is not mine,
or the whole Earth is mine." At the same time, best of
regenerate persons, I think that that is as much mine as it is of
others. Do thou, therefore, dwell (here) as long as thy choice
leads thee, and do thou enjoy as long as thou pleasest ! — ^^

" ' — The Brahmana said, — When there is a large inhabited
tract in thy ancestral kingdom, tell me, depending upon what
understanding, has the idea of meum been got rid of by
thee !^^ What also is that understanding depending upon
which thou hast come to the conclusion that everything con-
stitutes thy dominion ? What, indeed, is the notion through
which thou hast no dominion, or everything is thy dominion ?"

«' '—Janaka said,— All conditions here, in all affairs, have
been understood by me to be terminable. Hence, I could not
find that which should be called mine.*^^ (Considering)



♦ The conditions referred to are affluence and indigence, as explained
bv Nilakantlia.— T.



Pa7'Va.] ACWAMEDHA PARVA. 81

whose is this, I thought -of the Vedic text about anybody's
property. I could not, therefore, find, by my understanding,
what should be (called) mine.*" Depending upon this notion,
I got rid of idea of mineness. Hear now what that notion is
depending upon which I came to the conclusion that I have
dominion everywhere.^^ I do not desire for my own self
those smells that are even in my nose. Therefore, the earth,
subjugated by me, is always subject to me.-}-^^ I do not de-
sire for my own self those tastes that exist in contact with
even my tongue. Therefore, water, subjugated by me, is
always subject to me.^® I do not desire for my own self the,
color or light that appertains to my eye. Therefore, light
subjugated by me, is always subject to me.-° I do not desire
for my own self those sensations of touch which are in contact
with even my skin. Therefore, the wind, subjugated by me,
is always subject to me."^ I do not desire for my own self
those sounds which are in contact with even my ear. There-*
fore, sounds, subjugated by me, are always subject to me."^
I do not desire for my own self the mind that is always in
my mind. Therefore, the mind, subjugated by me, is sub-
ject to me.-^ All these acts of mine are for the sake of the
deities, the Pitris, the Bhutas, together with guests.^"* — The
Brahraana then, smiling, once more said unto Janaka, — Know-
that I am Dharma, who come here today for examinig thee !"^
Thou art verily the one person for setting this wheel in mo-
tio}),— this wheel that has the quality of Goodness for its



* This is, ratber, obscure. Nilakantha observes that the Vedic text
referred to is 'Do not covet anybody's property.' What Janaka saya
seems to be this: Thinking of this prohibition about coveting other
people's property, I thought liow could it be ascertained what belongs to
others.— T.

t The sense seema to be this : the property of smell attaches to
earth. I do not desire smell for my own enjoyment. If it is perceived,
it is perceived by the organ of smell. The earth, therefore, is subject
to me, not I to the earth. I have transcended my sensations, and, there-
fore, the objects to which they inhere. The whole world represents
ouly the objects of the sensations. The latter being mastered, the
whole world has been mastered by me. — T.

I /. e., I live and act for these and not ray own self. — T.

[ 11 J



82 M4Tt\BHA.iiiTA [Anugitci

circumference, Brahma for its nave, and the understanding
for its spoKes, and which never turns back !* — ' "*•



Section XXXIII.

" 'The Brahmana said, — I do not, timid one, move in
this world in that manner which thou, according to thyt own
understanding, censurest. I am a Brahmana possessed of
Vedic knowledge. I am emancipated. I am a forest recluse.
I am an observer of the duties of a house-holder. I observe
vows.^ I am not what thou seest me in good and bad acts.
By me is pervaded everything that exists in this universe.*
Whatever creatures exist in the world, mobile or immobile,
know that I Am the destroyer of them all even as fire is (the
destroyer) of all kinds of wood.' Sovereignty over the whole
Earth or over Heaven (on the one hand), or this knowledge
•(of my identity with the universe). This knowledge is my
wealth.-f** This is the one path for Brahmanas, by which
they who understand it proceed to house-holds, or abodes in
the forest, or residence with preceptors, or among mendicants.t^
With numerous unconfused symbols, only one knowledge is



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