Pre-1801 Imprint Collection (Library of Congress).

A vocabulary of such words in the English language as are of dubious or unsettled accentuation, in which the pronunciation of Sheridan, Walker, and other orthoepists, is compared online

. (page 1 of 18)
Online LibraryPre-1801 Imprint Collection (Library of Congress)A vocabulary of such words in the English language as are of dubious or unsettled accentuation, in which the pronunciation of Sheridan, Walker, and other orthoepists, is compared → online text (page 1 of 18)
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'::;V ^- ''■:! .-, 'X:.^^r -^^-? ^"^X^^^- I Digitized by VjOOQIC

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IM THE V >* -'






^. H E R I D. A N, W A L K E ft.






Printed for F. andC. Rivincton, G. and T Wilkie, L. B. Seeley, and
GoADBY, Lerpinxere, and Lanooon.


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P ft £ F A C' ]S.


.Obrmg inta one view the (everal ways, in which
a niunber of words, in the Englifli language, are pro^
DOittnced by good {pe^ers^ and our beft orthoepifts, is
the objeft of the following work^ Thofe^ who are the
mod capable of fettling thefe differences, would not
choofip to wafte their time in fuch a laborious collation j
fcut when paee the variatioils are collefted, it is hoped
that it wili at Itfaft be the caufe of bestowing more con-
fideration on the iiibjcft, if it do not ultimately tend to
file a complete ftaodard of pronunciation^

Though, it Ciantiot be denied, that there is fiilllomf?
iSifkrehce in our orthography^ owning to the affe£iatioii
of writers stnd capride of printers; yet it is obfervable^
that, fince t^iel publication of Dr. Johnfon's Diftionary,
and particularly the laft edition, lefs variation is found;
aod as it is much for the credit of a language that its
orthography fliould be fixed and immutable, it wottld bd
highly to the honour of printers to infill on their com-*
ipofitors iniplicitly following the text of that gre^Jrt man^
In afB cafes, unlefs particularly ordered to the contrary j
fpr, fince it is admitted that,to alter the fpelliiigof wordsy
fo as to correfpond With the pronuitciation, would he xm-^
poffibte with our prefent alphabet, it furely is ^ compli*


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jpent we pw^ tp the memory of Pr. Johnfon to abide, ip
prthography at leaft, by the ftandard he has given us.

But in propunciatioi^i we unfortunately ^ave no fuch
ftandard to refer to. With our great lexicographer, the
found of words feems to have been only a fecondary
confideration ; and in this, even Mr. Sheridan's Dicr
tjonary is by many thought faulty. The latter has at
leaft the merit* however, of being the firft who marked
the vowels in an intelligible manner ; and as it is of mucK
more confequence that pronunciation fliould be eertam
than what that pronunciation is, it would have been ft)r-
tunate had the publick determined to eleft him diftator.
His being an Irifliman, no doubt, has always been one ob-
jeftion to his decifion ; but his indifcriminate abufe of
the clergy in his leftures, and treating them as a parcel
of fchool boys, which confequently drew on him the
hatred of that numerous body, who did every thing in
their power to ridicule his oratory and ftigmatize his
work, is a more probable caufe of failure. His merit,
potwithftanding, was unqueftionably great; and, from
the beft accounts, his brogue was perceptible, only by the
^ar of prejudice,

Mr. Nares, in his Orthoepy, has ihown fuch an exten-
five acquaintance ^with pronunciation, that it is much
to b^ wifhed he would extend his obfervations, Mr,
Walker's Djftioiiary is yndoubtedly a valuable worki>
and though I have the misfortune fo.metimes tp differ
from him, yet this generally proceeds from his facrificing
puftom to anajogy ; but the affiftance which \ hfive re-


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C ill ]

(Ccived from his book, notwithftanding, cannot b^ toa
much nor tpo oftea acknowledged,

Let it not be thought, however, that I mean to advance
arrogant opinions of pronunciation ; in a cafe of fuch
difficulty, where men of the firft talents difagree, far be
it from me to prefume to decide ; but the feeming ne*?
ceffity of giving a preference has often led me to declare
my fentiments. Wherever a rhy r.e or couplet has oc^
purred in fupport of this choice, it has been- given ; but
many words muft nec^flarily remain without fuch ^u
illuftration. ' ^

The manner of founding the vowels has been copied
from Mr. Sheridan 5 and the fcheme is placed at the head
of each page, like Mr. Walker. Some words have
efcaped obfervgtion which ought to have been noticed
poffibly ; and the difference between others, which are
inferted, may be thought by many too trivial. But which *
ever of thefe defeats prevails, it is hoped the work will
prove, notwithftanding, a ufeful companion to every
4i^ioJ^ary of the Engljfh language.

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Such Words iii the Englifli Language




The Figures over the Letters Jhou\ that the Vowels are founded likt "
thofe io which they refer in the Words at the Top of the Page^



H4t; hite; hall. Bit; bear; belr. Fit; fight; field.
Not; n&te; no6fe. But; bufli; blue. Love-ly; lye. TAin; THis.

ABDICATIVE, 4b.d5k'-
kLtiv. A. [from abdi-
cati6, Lat.] That which
caufes or implies ao abdication.

Dr. Johnfon, Dr. Afh, Mr.
Bailey, and Mr. Walker, place
the accent on the firft fyllable of
this word ; Mr. Sheridan lays
. the ftrefs on the fecond, "which
I prefer.

S. [abfcijio, Lat.J The aft of
cutting off; the ftate pf being
cut off.

I have preferred Mr. Wal-
ker's pronunciation of this word,
as I think he is fupported by the
beft ufage. Mr. Sheridan mark$
it ab-fis'-fliuh. Double J, ncT
doubt, is generally pronounced
(harp and hiffing ; yet, as Mn
Walker juftly remarks, when a
(harp s precedes, it feems more
pleafing to the ear to pronounce
the fucceeding s flat. Thus,
though the termination ition is
always (harp, yet becaufe the s
in tranjition is neceffarily fharp,
the t goes into the flat found, as
if written tranjzhion,


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Hat; hate; hall. Bet; bear- be^r. Fit;'fight; field.

ACADEMY, i-kad'-d^-my,
S,\academie, Yv.academia^ Lat.]
An affembly or fociety of men,-
uniting for the promotion of
foiiie art ; the place where fci-
ences are t^iught ; a place of edu-
cation, in contradiftinftion tothe
univcrfities or publick fchools.

Dr.^ Johnfon obfervcs, that
this word was formerly and pro-
perly accented on the firfl fylla-
ble, thougli now frequently on
the fecond. He has himfcif
laid the ftrefs on the firft fy lia-
ble, and fo has Dr. Alh. Mr.
Sheridan, Mr. Walker, Mr.
Bailey, and Mr. Entick, place
the accent on the fecond fylla-
ble, and this feems to be the bcfl.

tabl. A. [acceptable^ Fr. from
the Lat.] Grateful ; pleafing.

*' This woxnan. whom thou mad'fl to be

*' my hflp,
" And gav'il me as thy perfefr gift, fo good,
* So fit, fo aueptuble, fo divii.c
" Ihnt from her liaiid I could expc6l no

"ill." '


Dr. Johnfon, Dr.Afli, and
Mr. Bailey, lay the Itrefs on the
fecond fy liable of this word ;
Mr. Entick, Mr. Sheridan, and
Mr. Walker, accent it on the
iirft, which I regard as the beft
ufage. Tlie. latter fays, *' the
accent of this word has, within
thefe twenty years, fhifted from
the fecond to the firft fy liable."

ACORN, a'-korn. S. [^cepn,

Sax.] The feed or fruit born by
the oak.

** Content with food which nature frtely

" bred,
'* On wildings and on fttawberries they

" fed :
" Cornels and bramble-berries gave the

»' reft,
" And falling acorns fumifti'd out a feaft."

I have marked this word like
Mr. Walker;^ Mr. Sheridan
pronounces it ak'-korn.

ver'-tiz-ment. S. [avertiJJ'ement ^
Fr.] Intelligence, information ;
notice of any thing publifhed in
a paper of intelligence.

*' Then, as a cuiming prince that uftth
*' Ipics,
"If they return no news, doth nothing
" know ;
*• But if tlicy make advertijement of
" lies,
*' The prince's counfel all awry do go.**
Sir John Davis.

Mr. Bailey accents this word
on the fecond fyllable; Mr.
Entick and Dr. Afh on the firft ;
Dr. Johnfon, Mr. Sheridan,
and Mr. Walker, both on the
penultima and antepenultima,
and the two former without fay-
in.^ wliich they prefer. Mr.
Walker, howe\'er, very pro-
perly leans to the latter, and this
undoubtedly is the beft ufage.

AGISTMENT, aj-ift'-ment.
S. [IxoiTigite^ Fr. a bed or rett-
ing place.] Compofition or
mean rate.

The accent is placed on the
firft fyllable of this word by Mr.
Sheridan and Mr. Entick ; and


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NAt; n6te; no6fe. But; buft;^blue. Love-ly; lye. Tk'in; thIs.

on the fecond by Dr. Johnfon,
Dr. Afh, Mr. Bailey, and Mr.
Walker. I have preferred the

To ALLY,'. V. A.
\jillier^ Fr.] To unite by kin-
dred, friendfliip, or confederacy ;
to make a relation between two
things. S. One united to fome
other by marriage, frieudfliip, or

" Wants, frailties, palTions, cloU'v ftill ally
** The common iiit'reft, or endear the tie.'*

** Loyalty fix'd on His* alter'd (hore,
•* A ftranger long, but llranger now no

" more, *»

'* Shall- pitch her tabernacle, and with eyes,
** Brimtul of rapture, view her new allies.''


Mr. Sheridan pronoiinces this
word, when a verb, as I have.
marked it ; but, when a fub-
ftantiye, he founds it al-ly' (not
like alley, however, a walk in a
garden, with the accent on the
firft fyllabie, as ungcneroully
reprefented by .a certain cri-
tickj ; but all the other orthoe-
pifts pronounce b6th verb and
fubflantive alike, as here given.

ALMOND, ' a'-mimd. S.
{amande^ Fr.] The nut of the
almond tree.

" Mark well the flow 'ring abnonds iii the

*' wood ;
" If od'rous blooms the bearing branches

" load,
'* The glebe will anfwerto the fylvan rc'^n,
** Great heat will follow, and large crops

** of grain,"


Mr. Walker and Mr. She-
ridan agree in pronouncing this
word as I have marked it ; but

the / is often (improperly)

ALOES, al'.ozc. S. [abnn,
Heb.} A precious wood ufed in
the eaft for perfumes, of which
the bell fort is of higher price
than gold; a tree which, grows
in hot countries ; a. medicinal
juice extrafied from the com-
mon aloes tree.

The kbove is the manner in
which this word is pronounce^
by Mr. Walker, Dr. Kenrick,
Mr. W. Johnfon, MV. Scott,
and Mr. Perry ; Mr. Sheridan
divides it • into three fyllables,'
al'-o-ez, and {o do medical men,
but then they found the e like c
in beer,

AMBROSIA, am.brS'.zh5.

S. [fltf/^fof/^, Gr.] The iii^a-

ginary food of the Gods ; the

name of a plant.

'* A wreath of tow'rsadom'd herrev'rend

'* hf-td,
*' Mother of all that on Ambrojia fed.'*

Waller, ••

I have divided this word into
three fyllables, after Dr. Ken-
rick and Mr. Sheridan, and
have pronounced it like- the for-
mer, as Mr..Sheridhn, inftead of
giving the s the flat afpiration
like zA, marks it am-brS'^fha,
Mr. Walker divides it into four
fyllables, pronouncing the word
am-br6'-(he.a, (the a in the ffrll
fyllabie like a in JaU, and the o
like in mox}€ or noafej.

- AMEN, Adv. [roM^
A 2 Heb.J

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Hit; hite; hill. Bct^ blar ; bc^r. Fit; fight; field.

Hcb.] A term ufed in devotions,
by which, at the end of a prayer,
we mean, fo be it ; at the end of
a creed, fo it is.

*< One cries, God blefs us ! and amen ! the

*» other.
** As they had feen me with thefe hang-

** man's hands.
<' Liftcning their fear, I could not fay

" amen,
** When they did fay God blefs uV."


I Ihould not have noticed this
word, had not Mr. Walker re-
marked, it is the only one in the
language that has neceflarily two
accents (cimevl )^ a neceuity I
can by no means perceive, un-
lefs we are to adopt the pro-
nunciation of a parifh clerk.
All the other orthoepifts lay the
ilrefs on the laft fy liable.

ANATHEMA, In.nhhl'l.
ma. S, [«tVtf^«f*dt, Gr.] A curfe
pronounced by eccleftailical au«

•* Who have but jailors of your holes
** And dungeons, where you clap up fouls ;
•* Like uncfcr-keepers. turn the kfeys
•♦ T' your mittimus Anathema's.'*


Dr. Johnfon, Mr. Entick,
Dr* Aih, Mr. Sheridan, Mr., and Mr.- 3ailey, ac-
cent this word on the fecond
fy liable ; but it is fometimes im«
properly founded with the ftrefs
on the peaultima.

This word is accented on the
third fyllable by Dr. Johnfon,
Mr. Entick, and Mr. Bailey ;
on the laft by Dr. Alh ; and on
the fecond by Mr, Sheridan and
Mr. Walker, I believe the
latter to be the bcft ufage.

ANiiROGYNUS, an-drog'-
y'-nus. S. [from «'t/H£ and >t/'^»3
A hermaphrodite.

naM'-e-m4-tize. V. A, [from
fcvet^i(44t^ Gr.] To pronounce
accurfed by . ccclefiaftical aur-
thority, ^ ,

I have made the g hard in this
word like Mr. Sheridan ; Mr.
Walker founds it an-drpdje-

ANEMOSCOPE, 4n'-?.mAf.
kope, S. [ct'rfc/u®- and fl-xor®-]
A machine invented to foretel
the changes of the wind.

I have accented this word on
the firft fyllable, after Dr. Afh,
Dr. Johnfon, and Mr. Sheridan; .
Mr. Walker lays the ftrefs on
the fecond.

ANTIPODES. 4n-tlp'-i-
dez.S. [antipodes ^l^t,'] Thofe
people, who, living on the other
fide of the globe, have their
feet direftly oppofite to ours.

*' So {hines the fun, thb' hence remav'd, at

»' clear
'^ When his beams warm th' antipodes, as

*« here."


Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Walker,
Dr. Johnfon, Mr. Bailey, Mr,
Entick, and Dr. Afh, agree in
placing the accent on the fecotid
fyllable of this word ; but not-
withft.anding thefe high autho^
rities^therc arQ many advocatt;s


Digitized by




, Not; nite; i\o6fe.-But; bifli; blue. Love-lJ';. l^e. TAin; THis.

for founding it anHipodc^s^ with
the accent on the firft fyllable,
as if it rhymed with abodes.
The word, however, is pure

. Latin ; and when we adopt fuch
words into our languages, we too
rarely change the accent. In-
deed, were the fingUlar of this
word in ufe, like Satellite^ we
ought to form the plural re-
gularly, and pronounce it in
three fyllables only ; but as it
is conftantly ufed in the plural,

^ and is perfeft Latin, cuftom de-
mands that it fhould be pro-
nounced in four.

APOSTLE, ^a-pif'-tl. S.
[apqfiolus, Lat. «V(xoA©-, Gr.]
A perlon fent with mandates,
particularly applied to them de-
puted by Jefus Chrift to preach
the gofpel.

We often hear this word, in
the pulpit, as if divided into
a-poJlU; the fepond fyllable
like the firft of poet. No writ-
ten authority, however, have I
been able to difcover to fupport
it ; and both Mr. Sheridan and
Mr. Walker make it rhytne
vfiihjojlle, throjlle, &c. Thofe
abettors of this affefted pronun-
ciation would do well to alter
t^pif.tle into e.pi.Jlk, the fecond
fyllable like pie^ that their rea-
foning and praftice may agree,

k^-tik-tlhur, S. [architeSlura,
Lat..] The art or fcience of
building ; the cffcft or pcrfor.

mance of the fcience of build-

" Our fathers next in archite^ure ikill'd,
«* Cities for ufe, and forts for fafety build ;
** Then palaces and lofty domet arofe,
" Thefe ibr devotion, and for pleafure
»* thofe."


Dr. Johnfon accents , this
word on the third fyllable ; Dr.
Afli, Mr. Bailey, Mr. Entick,
Mr. Sher jdan, and Mr, Walker,
on the firft, which I have fol-
lowed. The two latter agree
in founding the chi as I have
marked it fkij^ but difagree in
the pronunciation of the laft
fyllable, Mr. Sheridan found-
ing the u fhort as in bur, cur^
&c. and Mr. Walker lengthen-
ing it as in cure, lure, &c.
Though the latter is pleafed to
regard Mr. Sheridan's pronun-.
ciation in this inftance as vul-
gar, yet as the defign of this
work is not fo much to point out
what Jhould be as^ what is the
prevailing accent, I am led to
prefer the former as being moft
ufual. All the authorities ac«
cord, however, in giving the chi
the found of ki, though it is
very common to hear the word
pronounced as if written artchu
teBur. But I recolleft only
two inftances where arch, fol-
lowed by a vowel, has not the
found of ark ; and thefe are
Archipelago an^i Archibald, the
former of which, indeed, Mr.
Walker pronounces Arkipelago^
though, I am led to think, con-
trary to the beft ufage. If arch
be followed by a confonant, it
is invariably founded fo as to
6 rhyme

Digitized by




Hat; hite; hill. B^t ; bear ; be^r. Fit ; fight ; field.

rhyme with march, as Archcka.
con, Arckbijhop, &c.

[arduus, Lat*] Lofty, hard to
climb ; difficult.

•* High on P^raaflfus* tqp her fons flic

** (how'd,
*» And pointed out thofe arduous paths they

»« trod."


I have marked this word after
Mr. Sheridan ; Mr. Walker
pronounces it ar'-ju-us, and lays
it down as a rule, that when d
comes after the accent, and is
followed by the diphthongs ie,
io, ia, or eou, it Aides into gzh,
or the confonant 7.

To ARIETATE, a.ri'J-
V. N. \arieto, Lat.] To
butt like a ram.


Dr. Afh and Mr. Sheridan
place the accent on theiirft fyU
lable of this word ; Dr. John-
fon, Mr. Bailey, and Mr. Wal-
ker, on the fecond, which I have

ASPARAGUS, af-par'-a-gus.
S. The name of a plant.

Mr. Walker fays this word is
vulgarly pronounced Sparrows
grajs ; but I rather think Spar,
rowgrafs to be the' proper Eng-
}ifh name of the plant, than a
corruption of the Latin Af^
paragus ; and in this I am fup-
ported by Miller in his Gar-
dener's Diftioiiary. Mr. Wal-
k(jr, however, h^s accented it as

above, and, in this, he coincides
with Mr. Sheridan.

ASYMPTOTE, af'-fim^
t&te. S. [from*, priv. aw^ with,
and •T?©'^, to fall.] Afymptotes
are right lines, which approach
nearer and nearer to fome curve,
but which would never meet.

Dr. Afh, Mr. Bailey, apd
Mr. Sheridan, lay the ftrefs on
the fecond fyllable of this word.;
Dr. Johnfon and Mr. Walker
accent it on the firft, which I
have followed.*

AUTHORITY, i-Mor'-i.
ty. S. [auBoritas, Lat.] Legal
power; influence, credit; power,
rule; fupport, countenance; tef-
timony, credibility.

*' I know, ray lord,
"If law, authority, and pow'r deny not,
" It will go hard with poor Antonio."

Some pronounce this word as
if it were written autority.
This affefted accentuation »has
been traced to a gentleman, who
was one of the greateft orna-
ments of the law, as well as oncL
of the politeft fcholars of the
age. No wonder then that
fuch an authority fhould .in-
fluence the bench and the bar,
though infufficient to corrupt
the aftors of Drury-lane and
Covent-garden, who may jufl:ly
be confidered as the heft ftan-
dards of pronunciation. Both
Mr. Sheridan and Mr. Walker
give the th the acute or fharp
found ; and the latter obferves.

Digitized by




Not; riSte; no6fe. But; bu{h;blue. Love-ly;^ lye. Thin; this.

in fupport of it^ " I know k
will be faid that authoritas is
latter Latin, that the ^ purer
Latin never had the h ; and that
our woi*d, which is derived from
it, ought, on that account, to
omit it. But it may be ob-
ferved, that, according to the
bell Latin criticks, the word
.oifghtto be written au&oritas^
and that, according to this rea-
foning, we ought to write and
pronounce auBority anAauBor ;
but this, I prefame, is farther
than thefe innovators would
choofe to go. The truth is,
fuch fingularities of pronuncia-
tion fhould be left to the lower
order of criticks ; who, like
coxcombs in drefs, would be
utterly unnoticed if they were
not diftinguiflied by petty de-
viations from the reft of the


flfde'. V. N. [from
and Slide,'] To fall off.


Mr. Walker, Dr. Johnfon,
Mr. Entick, and. Mr. Bailey,
place the accent on the laft fyl-
lable of this word, which I have
followed. Dr. Afh and Mr.
Sheridan lay the ftrefs on the

BALM, ba'm. S. \_Bau7ne;
Fr.] The name of a plant.

** Now what reward for all this grief «nd

" toil ?
," But onCf a female friend's endearing toil ;

*' A tender fmile, our forrow's only balr^,
*« And, in life's tempeft, thV fad failor's
*' calm."


All the authorities coincide in
leaving out the / in the pronun-
ciation of this word, as likewife
in alms, calm, palm, pfalm^
qualm, Jhalm ; though we often
hear it founded by the vulgar.
No fooner, however, is the m de-
tached from the / by beginning
another fyllable, than the / be-
comes audible, as in haLmy, paL
my, pfaLmiJl, pfaLmody, and
paLmeftry. Calmer and its rela-
tives are an exception to this
rule and have the / mute.

BANNIAN, ban-yW. S. \_In.
^zflw.J Aman*s qndrefs or morn-
ing gown, fuch as is worn by
the Bannians in the Eaft Indies.

Dr. Johnfon and Dr. Afh
have Ihe accent on the firil fyl-
lable of this word ; Mr. Bailey,
Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Walker,
and Mr. Entick, on the laft,
which is the beft uTage.

BARRIER, bar'-ryer. S.
[Barriere, Fr.] A barricade, an
entrenchment ; a fortification,
or ftrong place ; a ftop, an ob-
ftruftioif-^ a bar to mark, the
limits of any place ; a boun-

" Safe in the love of Hcav'n an ocean flows
a bajritr from the

*' Around our realm,
*• foes."


This word is often very im-
properly^ pronounced with the
accent on the laft fyllable ; Dr.

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Online LibraryPre-1801 Imprint Collection (Library of Congress)A vocabulary of such words in the English language as are of dubious or unsettled accentuation, in which the pronunciation of Sheridan, Walker, and other orthoepists, is compared → online text (page 1 of 18)