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The following pafTage contains fome ^nnadverfions on certain,
grievances experienced by dilTenters.

*" Truth and candor jjiuft allow that liberty is not completely
pofTeflcd by diflenters in this country^ It is irue^ the Icgi*
ilaturc allows them to worfliip in their own way, but at the
fame time it la^ s them under feveral diliibilities. I hope 1 (hall
be pardoned for faying, that, according to my beft views of the
fubjc6b, difl^nters of charaiEler, talents, and propert), are as cli«
gible to offices of truft and inflijcnce in the liate,, ^s churchmei*.
of the fame defcription. — And I alfo believe farther, that diflcn-
ters have, in nature and reafon, as much right to marry amon^
fhcmfclveSy as the^'^ ha»ve to tranfatSt their own- bufiuefs on the
exchange or in the counting houfe — as much- as to buy and fell"
in their own fliops, or to cultivate and restp the pi-oduce of their
own fields. Were this right allowed utiivcrfaWy, there Would be
a greater appearance of con^ftency among us than there now is,
for that worthy and refpeftable fet of people called c][uaker8, do
as they ought, enj.oy this privilege; and Roman catholics alfo-
are permitted to exercife it, while to all the diflentcrs in the king-
dom bcfidc, it is forbidden.

* I am not btinder to thefe things thaa others ; but I wiih not
to contend about them. At the fame time, 1 confider the con*
du<5l of many of the members of the eflablifliment as being highly
imprudent, in taking fuch fteps as tend unnecelTarily, and im-
reafonably, to wound the feelings of their neighbours who dif*
fcnt from them. If any churchman is offended with me becaufe
I am a diiTenter^ 1 have as much, right and reafon to be offended
V^ath him bccaufc he is a churchman ; and a Roman catholic
might ftep in thirdly, and quarrel with us both, becaufe we are
not papifls.'

'Art. Till. A Charge ginftrt to the grand Jury of tl/e Hundreds of
Kirton and Skirbeck^ in the Parts of Holland^ in the County of
Lincoln^ at Epiphany SeJJions^ held at Bojlon^ \^h of January^
1793, concerning t^>e Standard Mcafure of Com ^ and concerning
fiditious Publications. By Samuel Partrid^Cy CL. M^ a. Chairman
of the faid Selfions. With an Admonition to the Keepers of
Inns and Alehoufes. Printed for the Benefit of the French
Refugee Clergy. Svo. 32 pages. Price is. Nicol. 1793-

AViTK rcfpe*!^ to the former of the t^o objcds of this charge
mentioned in the titlc» the learned chairman dates the purport of
the molt material afts of parliament for eftablifhing one mcafure
of corn throughout the kingdom, and. recommends that each pa-
riHi be provided with a bufliel fealed as the adU direct. On the
I fecond

Digitized by


Trefent State of the Britijb Gfnfiitutlon. 5 If

Ibcond pointy the prevention of fedition, he advifes the reduc-
tion of the number of ale-houfes, as * the deplorable fource of
*nioft of the difordcrs and tumults, vices and crimes, poverty and

rr rates, in the kingdoir?.* Mr. P. concludes the ciiarge, as ufual,
^ contrafting the condition of France with that of Great Britain,
^nd exhorting the inhabitants of this country to a peaceable and
^cheerful fubmiHion to the laws.

Art. IX. The prefent State of the Britijb Conftitution^ deduced from
FaBs. By an Old Whig. 8vo. 28 pages. Price 6d. Jordan*

»793- ...

This ' old whig* introduces himfelf to the reader by a long
4ind elaborate difpiay of the theoretical beauty and pcrn;6tion of
our conftitution.

' * But [adds he] while theory informs us that we are free, and
in confirmation of her dodrine points to three eftates fo happily
•equipoifcd, and forming fo goodly a fyftcm of mutual counter-
aAion, experience anfwers that there is a baneful difeafe called
.influence^ which has unaccountably crept in, and which, after
having gradually deftroyed the vigour of our conilitution, is
inow actually preying upon its vitals. Hence the majority of the
commons aie no longer freely chofen by the fuffrages of the
people ; a borough is transferred with as much publicity, and as
little ceremony, from one proprietor to another, as a commoa
freehold ; the price of a feat in parliament is as well known, and
3A arithmetically calculated, as the value of land ; and even men
who have relpedable cha rafters to lofe, are not afliamed to em-*
ploy the moft fordid arts of venality without the pains of con-
cealment in the ignominious traffic. And what is ftillworfe, this
xronfederacy is far more pernicious to civil liberty, than evert
thofe of Poland and Venice, fince there ^ in cafe ot any violent
abufe of power, the people have the remedy of bringing their
oppreflbrs to julHce from their notoriety ; but in a country where
the criminality is divided among many, is fanftioned by cuftom,
is fortified by prejudice, and operates without the rifk of refpon*
fibility, the condition of the bulk of the nation is indee^

After thefe, and other fimilar obfcrvations, the author pro-
ceeds to examine the compolition of the two houfes of parlia-
ment, and begins with the houfe ot peers, which he contends to
be very different from what the conilitution intended, viz. * a con-
trolling and judicial aflcmbly.' He affcrts the following to be a
juft ilatement :

Peers holding offices at pleafurc - - - 34.

Biil^ops hitherto capable of tranllation - ' 2^

Admirals in H. of L. - - . - 4 '

Generals, and colonels - - • - 18

Two thirds of thcfe are reckoned the ileady fupportcrs 1

of miniflry , . - - j ^

J3edu(ft 66 from 259, remainder — 193.

N n 3 'Though

Digitized by VjOOQIC

5iS roLiTics.

f Though the remaining; 193 peers cannot be fiiid to follow zmf
profelfion, yet when we view the long liib of eoTernments, era?
bailies, fleets, regiments, rgpgerihips, flars, and garters for tliemr
felves— t)ie pods of lady of the bedchamber, maid of honour,
feropilrefs, or dearr^^archer for their wives and daughtersr-»th«
ftire promotions in the army, navy, and offices of fi^vernment
for their fons— the comfonabLe appointments they aim at for a.
pimping valet, or a caft oflf mifirels — we may perhaps, without
siny confiderablp r^hneft, exped that no very violent degree of
^ppofition will be met with from two thirds of the number*
' Dedu^ one third of 193, remainder • 120

placemen, bilhops^ ^c. r ? * * 66

Dedudt 195 from 259, remainder— 64.
* Froni the whole ilatement I conclude, that in the houfe of
peers, the minifler may at all times ezpea a majority of inoro
jhan three to ope*

Our author }|i(ifts too, that the * pdepiible placets' enjoved hj
members of the houfe of commons (roauy of which are held at
pleafure) are upwards of 90 ; that the penfions on the civil lift
^unount to 100,000 1. a year ; that out of 558, more than 409
are returned in England alonp for rotten boroughs, or for placet
under the patronage of individuals, and that * of the mutilace4
reprefentation with which Scotland is infulted, the condition i$
even worfe/ It is impoi&ble to perufe thefp calculations Twhicl^
Wc hope arp foqacwhat exaggerated) without the mod poignant
"grief. ',.'['

We fliall conclude this article with ap. * ii^ftance* (quoted, ia
order to cvipce * the nature of the ciyjl lifl:-*<ifiie.of the
(daughters of George the fccond, it is fajd, fcquefEed her father*f
permiilion to have fccr apartment papered. Thc^ kipg anfwered.
** he could not, afford it» ** ijot afbrd it ! the ezpence could
not exceed ten pounds." " That might be (r^turn^d the king J
in the cafe pf a common pcrfop, but I a0ure you it would c5^
pie one thoufand."

* The articles of the account might probably fland thui :
f To A. B. Efq. M. p. for the borough of C^ furveyor "

of the princeifes apartment - • - -
To Mr. J. D- deputy furveyor of the princeifes apart-
ment for himfelf and two clerks



To Mr. F. If • chipf papcr^r - • * . ^ ij^

Deputy papcrcf - - - - • - *• 50
To R*. W.Efq. member for the county of N. comptroller I

of the works in the princeifes apart^ient, for himfelf j ^^

Board wages for twelve fervants'for a month' • • 40

^aper, pime, and a workman for four days - -> • 10

Total 1000

4et. X. Jm ApUal to Af«r, mgninfi ?ahuU Rhhtt of Mam. In fm
Farts ; by WilHam Lcwclyn, Diflenting Mimfter at Leominftcrl
Fart the ift, |yd. 95p»gc». Price is* Evans, i793,

.1 . ^ ' .. • -^g

Digitized by


. ,Mif9 H. Moire's Fillage Politks. SI9

^E m told^ tkat Mr. P. iias advanced principles, in his boolc en.
titled * the Rights of Man/ at once * immoral and ruinous.' It is
aHb afletfed««»i. that mixed goN'crnment, anicing monarchy, ariHocracy,
and rqH»btican priociplet and influences together, is the only true
^vcninieot; — and, 2« that no other can exilt.

The following will perhaps be confidered as a curious palTage:

*' Yob <eU us, [fays he, addrefling himfetf to Mr. lP.,j that the
yocabutafy of Adam contains no fuch animal as a duke.— ^Animal!
O iiel— •-"-gieat finnerl none foch to be found there! AftonifhingI
Where have you been ? What vocabulary have you read ? I can find
many dukes there, and can Ihew you how to do the fame. Trace the
line of Adam down to Genefis icventeenth chapter, and you will iind
it fiud l^ the Creator, that Abraham ihould be the father of kings :
that his fon lihmael fliould be the father of twelve princes : and in
chapter thirty-fix, that hisgraiMUbn Efau, bad a ytty numerous family
4>f dukes, t^Egiftered by their nanbes : and there had been many duket
i;i Seir before he fettled there.' Is this ignorance real pr affeded \ You
Uy that no ideas of any fort cooned themfelves with thefe titles in tht
mind. How can you fey fo? Every one whh the word king, con-
pc^ the idea of one who holds the reins of government, and fits af
the helm to diidil the nootions of the ftate. Prince and duke, botl^
iigcify leaders and condudors of others. |^rd fignifies hetdfbip, an4
>fuperintendency. But I need Aot inform, for you do, and muft ktK>v
ihcfc things.* Having riven one quotation, by way of anfwer tg Mi;
P.'sdoannc, in rcfpoS to titles, we Ihall conclude tbiaartide witk
another concerning equality.

« Equ^Muy* ^ ^ word, is a wild and wicked thought, publifhed
and founded to fometit tumult and rage; and is a thing impofliblejn
nature; For if Adam and Eve had been equal, there would have been
neither huiband nor wife : for (he that is equal to her hufband, is na
wife ; and her hufband is no hu(band. If the father ai)d fon are equals
theie it neither father nor fon. If the matter, and the apprentice, and
&rvant are equal, then there,is neither ina(ler» apprentice, nor fervant.
And if the officer and foldier are equal, there is neither officer nor fol*
dier. Equality is unavoidably tbetcfore, the diflfolution, and abolition
of human fociety. Thus much about repubiicanifm at founded u^
pan's equality.*

Art. x^, 4 Letfer to Cithign Paint, 8fo, 16 pages. Price ti.
Williams, Strand. ^793,
Much ridicule is here attempted to be thrown upon * citizen
vPaine,' for difcovering to our nation and the whole world, ' that wt,
ihou^h happy, and nominally free, are in icality flaves.'

fiXr. XII. Village Politki. Addrijffed to all the Meehanns, jMrmtjfn
. men, a»d Day Labourers in Great Britain. By William Chijp, t

Country Carj^nter. izmo. 7th Edit. 24 pages. Eric« ao. Of

2$ for 3s. Rivingtons. i793t

Th^s is a dialogue (written by Mift Hannah More) between jftcjc
Afivil the blackfmith, and Tom Hod the mafon. Tom, w^ Wa^ts
^ Ubem^» cquiEty, and the rights of man/ ii^ liKS imny of his coun,.

Digitized by



trymen> impatient for fome beneficial change in behalf of the laborioos
and incluftriouspart of the commuoity.

On the other hand, his adverfary, who is {ooxciivats hard pm^d for
an aAfjvcr, fays « that. we have a king fo loving, that he wou'd not
hurt the people if he cou'd ; andy& kept i«,that he cou'd not hurt the peo-
ple if he wou'd. Wc have as much liberty as can make us happy, and
more trade and riches than allows us to be good. We have the bcft
laws in the world, if they *were morejiri^ly enforced ; and the bcft reli-
gion in the world, \f it were but better follat^ed. While old England
18 fafe, ril glory in her, and pray for her,, and when (he is in danger,
I'll fight for her, and die for her.'

Art. XIII. The Cafe of the Sugar Cohmiei. 8vo. 97 pages. Price
.25. Johnfon. 1792.
After Columbus had difcovered the Weft India Archipelago, to-
wards the clofe of the fifteenth century, the immediate objeft of the firft
adventurers was gold, which they expeded to find in great abundance.
The more flow, but certain means ot acquiring wealth, by agricalturcA
were entirely overlooked until about the year 1 Si^^ when fome natives
of England and France took poffeffion of the ifland of 5t. Chriftopher,
^nd fct about planting tobacco, ginger, cotton, &c.

It was not however until 1 660, that the fugar cane began to be culti-
vated in Surinam, whence it was foon after tranfplantcS to Barbadoes^
and, fuddenly enriching the planters, became a favourite objeft of cul-
ture, and the' ftaple product of the iflands. Yet, notwithftanding this,
all the fugar annually raifed in our colonies did not exceed 3000
hogftieads m the reign of Charles 11. of .which, one third only were
confumed in England, and the remainder exported to foreign countries.
- * But the ufe of negro (laves, who were introduced into the iftands
by the inconfillent zeal of Da Cafas, becoming more extended, we find
towards the clofe of that century the produce augmented to 40,000
hogfheads, one half of which were confumed in Britain ; and from that
time to the prefent, fo great has been the increafe of the national prof-
perity, that though above 1 56,000 hogfheads are now imported annu-
ally into this country and Ireland, not more than 1 2,000 are re-exported
to foreign parts. <

* In order to encourage the enterprifes of our own fubjedh, and of
courfe to advance the profperity of the mother country, the produce of
the Britifti iflands alone, nas been allowed to be confumed in England y
for if that of foreign plantations has not been formally excluded, the
excefs of duties widi which it is charged, has, as it was intended to do,
a^ed fo powerfully as to occafion its virtual prohibition ; and tb^
Britifti iflands have been left in the undifturbed poffeffion of the fupplj
pf the Britifti market fox the fpace of near a century and a half.'
. It is lamented by our author, that, after fo long an enjoynacnt of an
^xclufive trade, which is thought to have grown mto a right by pre^
fcripti9n, a feries of meafures fhould have been lately adopted, u-hich
feem to indicate a difpofition in this country, adverfe to the intercft
of the colonies, while principles have : t the fame time been advanced,
that intimate a defign to annul the fyftem on which the Weft India
ifianda' wt^re. firft fettled, and by the continuance of which, it is \^
' alTcrted, they can alone flourifli,

• ■ ■■ , • : \K

Digitized by


Remtirks tn the Sugar Bill. 521

Itk alfo comcnded, that an article in «he treaty of commerce with
France, relative to the importation of brandy, is highly prejudicial
to the colonies, bat neither this, nor certain heavy duties, bear any
proportion to the danger apprehended from fpeculatiV'C writers, who
nave preached up not only an abfHnence from fugar, but an entire abo-
lition of the flave trade. In addition to this, it has become the favourite
plan of the prefent day, to encourage the culture of the cane in our
oriental poiTeilions, and to import its produce into Europe, a meafure
that would infallibly ruin the manufadurc of fugar in tne Weft India
colonies, which is here confidercd * to l^ to all intents and purpofes, as
much a national manufadture asthofe of Birmingham, Manchefler, or
Nor^ ich.'

Art, XIV. Remarks on the Ne^w Sugar-Bill, and ox the National Com*

fads re/feding the Sugar Trade ^ and Slave Trade. 8vo. 1 06 pages*

Price 2s, Johnfon. 1792.

It is enafted by the late bill, which paflTed the houfe of commons
in May 1792, and was foon after converted into a law, that whenever
the average price of raw and clayed fugar, fold in the port of London,
exceeds in the fix weeks which refpt* ^lively precede either the middle of
. February, June, or O^ober, the amount of 65s. for the hundred
weight (the duty of 15s. thereon included), the draw-back on raw
fugar exported to foreign parts is immediately to ceafe during four
months, and the bounty on refined fugar to ceafe during a like terjoo,
but commencing after the interval of a month. This ftatute, which is
evident iy •founded on the f)'flem of the exifting corn-laws, is meant
merely as an experiment, and it is contended here, that the exiftence of
any regulation whatever is highly prejudicial.

Since the conclufion of the American war, and a propagation of thb
idea, that the £afl Indies can furnifh us with fugar at reduced prices*
a confiderable nun^bcr of pepfons, and among thefe, we are told, may
be included feveral members of adminiilration, have at once diiputed
the utility of the fugar iflands, and Parted doubts as to their claims.
Notwithftanding this, it is ftrenuoufly contended, that a compa6t exifts
'between the mother country and the colonies, * which approaches to
the nature of that taking place between the divinity and man ; for which
there are no parchments, no wiitnefies, no fandtions, to produce, but
(imply the folemn declaration of a power having in view the haj^inefs
of the whole, and pofFefTed of all the neceOary authority for enfoic-

if ever an abolition of the flave trade be determined upon, it is infifted
that a compenfation (hould be immediately held out, and the following
regulations are fuggefted as neceff^ry to be adopted on the part of
Great Britain : i. a continuance of the monopoly of the Britifh mar-
ket; 2. an exemption from new burdens; 3. a relaxation of the laws
prohibitive of an unrertrained intercourfc with America; 4. theintro-
dudion of indented fervants.

* Europeans, for various reafons, are out of the queftion; and at pre-
fent, it may be a critical matter to attempt thefearch of indented fer-
vants or freemen in Africa ; but, witiiout ipeaking alfo of the Hindoos,
is it not pcrfe^y pradicablc to obtain a number of Chineje fit for the
punpofe ? The Cninefe are much given to expatriate j they arc an in-
^ geniouf^

Digitized by



gemooa* a Uboiioas-aod fnigal peopk; they underftaod how to rellew
the ioconveoiences aod add to the enjoyments of a hot ctimare; thef
would ferve not only as domeftic fervanu, but as tradefmen andfiipeF-
intendantt ; they are to be found in every <]uarcer of the Eaft'tmdm
fflaudsf wherever an European fiidory is eftabhihed ; they are not afraid
pf croffing the fea» which they frequent in the company's ferrice ; and
before many years dapfe, it will be found eafy perhaps to have pre-
vailol upon an amount of one or two hundred tnoufand of them* of
^fierent fexes, to migrate to our iflands*'

« 5. The iflands may be eflentially ierved» alfo» l^ the introduction
of various plants. ' The bread fruit will be a noble prefent, and the
various fpice trees, a pollcic one : the feveral fpecies of bam1x# will
not be without their uie ; and the introdudion of eaftem fruits might
add to the temptation in favour of refideftce in the iflands. Perhaps
it might not b^ fuperfluous to make trial of a new fpecies of the/v^ar
taitft of which there are feveral afcertained, though one only is known
|o our iflands ; the whole flock of what we poffefs (if we are to
pay attention to learned botanifls) being to be confidered as vanotM
"parts of one identical plant, in confequence of having been propagated
from flems. and roots, inftead of feeds.

« 6* Among other new importations, ufeful animals fhould not be
forgotten; whether for labour as the eaJHern bullock, or for food, or
other iervtceablc purpofes. — Thefe feveral means of relief could not he
vety coflhr, but might prove highly efficacious, and contribute to the
bcaefit of othen bendes the a£lual uiflerers, as well as to the ornament
vA reputation of our age and nation. — Indemnities of a more direB
Hud^ mnft be left to the juilice and eenerofir^ of the Britifli nation,
when a proper pedo4 fluU zxn^t |or /conu^erine thit impoitaot

/^RT. X7. The Jli^Bt in the Wefi'ltutia Merchants f§ a iouhle
J^bnopoh 9f the Sugar Market of Great Britain, and the Ejfpedi^
tnce of all Monopolies exuMined. 8vo. 90 pages, Price ^s.
Debrettt 1793.

The exclufive right of the Wfcfl India planters to fupply Great
^ Britain with fugar, is here examiqed and denied.

♦ The Weft Indians [fays the author], in fad, have hitherto
reaped a greater fliare of the l>enefits of this implied contract than
the parent flate. They have held pofTeffion of the beft, and for

' fome years pad, the moft confiderable market in £urope, by
means of an almofl prohibitory duty on foreign fugars, and of a
drawback of the full duty on raw, and a ^unty equal to that
jduty on all their manufadured fugar exported to other markett,

* Under fuch encouragement can it be wondered at, that Wefl
India cultivation has been actively profecuted, a^d with fo much
fuccefs. The fugar iflands have ever been the firft anxious care
bf government, on an apprehended rupture with the maritime
powers ; their fecurity, the prominent feature in every treaty of
peace; facrifices have been made in the ea(t and elfewhere^ to
pbtain back lefs important acquifltions made from us in the Weft
Indies *• Our expeuces in defence of the latter, in time of wart

> iiif >i III I I I I It ■ ■ f I ■ ■■ Pi wu I I II % mm.

;♦ • A, Snwh, Book V,'


Digitized by


Three Letters 9H the Imp9rtati§H 9/ Bengal Sugars* 5t|-

%Mr/$ md eircr miift be enormous ; and have hithefto been ca*
prely paid for by taxes on the fubjedts at home. Our peace
isliablimments for the iflands are contiderable. The pay of lasut
jind fea foirces» and charges of floras and fortifications, arc all de-
fra>'ed by this country* » /

* But t)>e moft important advantages which the Weft Indiana
liaTC reaped from their connexion with this country, are the
4:redit aiid capitals they have borrowed from Great Biitatiu
Without thefc, ^o confiderable works could hare beeneredled ; no
cultivation of th^ir flerile rocks have been forced,, at fuch as
enormous and unnecelTary expence. ^ Without fuchaffiftance, the
fugar trafle of America, it is more th*an poflible, might have been
confined p its congenial fputhern continent, and the moil extent
five of its i(lands ; aj^d the cultivation of the cane have bees
peaceably ^rried on by the Native inhabitants of the foil, C9 xbm
^icreafe, inftcad of the deftru^on of the human race/

After rpcapitulating thp grpat obligations the planters lie un4Br
to Great Britain, it is contended, that the depei^denpes in the
£a(l and Weft Indies are equally entitled to the fofteiing care
and protection of the parent ftate, and to every aftiftance and en-

f rcate^ as yifionary ^nd chimerical, and the planters and their
friends are exhorted to ^oi^ficier the danger of enforcing thdr-
claim to a double exclufire monopoly, leit the legiflature (houl4
pe induced, t\ot pnly to cancel that of the Eaft India company^
* ^hofe very exiftpnce implies one of the moft extenfive and un«
qualified monopolies of which hiftory gives any example,* buf
f9 abolifh ^ every other, implied or chartered monopoly, which
^xifts but * to ftunt the induftry* or to cramo the capitals of th<
i^ommercial intcreli in every part of the Britilh empire/

This feems to h^ve bppi^ int^n^ed as ^n anfwcr to the tvm
former articles.


/\iRT. XVI. nree Letters addrejfed to a Friend in Jndia^ ly 4
JProprietOTy principalh on the SubjeH of in^orting Bengal Sngars
into England, 8yo. 88 pagps. Price :;s. od« Debrett. 179J5
It is contended, in thefe letters, that the India company are al-
ready in poftl^fiiQn of exclufive privileges which many deem injurious
(o the public, a|id thaf i( w<yuld be grofs impolicy to inveft then^
)vith the power qf converting the fugar trade into a monopoly.
An equalization of duties is deeiped both unneceflary and im-
politic ; f Mnnecejf^rp becaufe the £aft India company can bring
fugar$ to market with a profit fubjed to the prefent high duties^
^s lone as it can be for the general intereft of the nation, that
f hey mould fo do ; and imtoUtic^ becaufe the £aft India compan/
would totally ^\\vq, th^ W^ft India iflands if they can import

Online LibraryPre-1801 Imprint Collection (Library of Congress)The Analytical review, or history of literature, domestic and foreign, on an enlarged plan → online text (page 69 of 74)