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lying these foundations is broadly that the Indian
youth, whether Rajput, Sikh, Muhammadan, or
Hindu, may be trained as well as taught. In
India, whatever the sect or caste, morality is based
wholly upon religion; and bad as the results of
education without religious teaching are proving
themselves to be in the West, they are even worse
in India. English rule to-day in India is suffer-
ing as much from that one fatal error as from all
other causes put together. India is offered a
strange and unsettling education, without any
safeguards of moral discipline ; and the Universi-
ties of Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lahore, and
Allahabad, which are mere examining bodies,
with no provisions for moral or religious super-
vision, have spawned the scurrilous garrulity of
the native press, and the spurious patriotism of
the political murderer. This secular education
of a race physically and morally feeble is only
producing talkers and plotters, not doers. Eng-
land is compromising in this matter, and letting
her conscience play the fool. She is thrusting a
thin secular education upon the unprepared and
unstable, and turning out by the score weak
fanatics and silly, would-be tyrants. Even those
picked bands, the Pilgrims and the Puritans,
misunderstood freedom in the beginning, and set


up a moral, religious, and social tyranny in New
England almost unequalled in its severity. What
is to be expected from the dregs of this washed-
out Indian civilization, if such was the result
among the very flower of the moral heroism of the -
seventeenth century! The Prince Agha Khan,
who has succeeded Sir Syed Ahmad Khan as
patron of the Muhammadan College at Aligarh,
writes: "We want Aligarh to be such a home of
learning as to command the same respect of
scholars as Berlin or Oxford, Leipsic or Paris.
Above all, we want to create for our people an
intellectual and moral capital." This is ambi-
tious, but it puts the emphasis where it belongs.
We live together in our closely packed modern
society, first by virtue of our similarity of actions,
next by our similarity of moral ideals, and only
last by our similarity of intellectual development
and tastes. This means that self-control and
moral discipline are to be taught first, and book-
learning last. The ability to read and to write
is such a modern accomplishment among the
masses, that we point to it as the cross of salva-
tion in the sky: by this shall you conquer! But
it is only because it is an untried remedy. It is
working untold evil among the superficially ed-
ucated ; and even the man of letters is but a girlish
personage, unless he escapes from the tyranny of


books, and beats his learning into sword or
ploughshare upon the rough anvil of the world of
men. The freedom of libraries to the mentally
unstable is as dangerous as the freedom of the
city to the morally unsound ; and this littering of
the land with libraries will one day be looked
upon not as a charity, but as a folly; and the
liberty to do so will be as carefully restricted as
the starting of national banks.

But if we are to see anything of this many-
shaded rainbow life of India, we may not halt too
long over the discussion of these matters. We
must be off now to pay visits to His Highness
the Maharaja of Kapurthala, and His Highness
the Maharaja of Patiala. We are whisked away
from the station at Katarpur in motor-cars seven
miles to Kapurthala, the State of some six hun-
dred and fifty square miles, and three hundred
thousand people, of a native prince, who has
turned to France rather than to England, for his
training and amusements. The guest-house is
well furnished, lighted by electricity, supplied
with open fires, and stands in a park of its own,
not far from the palace. The palace where we
dine in the evening is only just finished, built on
a French model and furnished in the most luxu-
rious and finished taste. It is much the finest
modern building of its kind in India, and one of


the finest in the world, and France may well be
proud of this, her most imposing modern monu-
ment in India. I took in to dinner the famous
Spanish beauty, who is the Prince's lately mar-
ried wife. The dinner was served in European
fashion, with one dish, a Kapurthala curry, that
would have won praise from Brillat-Savarin him-
self. If I were an Indian rival to the throne, des-
tined to die, I should ask to have the diamond-
dust given me in that curry.

The next day, after a ride before breakfast, the
stables, the law-courts, the treasury are visited,
winding up with a presentation to, and a chat
with, the Maharaja's council. In the afternoon
we go to the palace for tea and tennis, and the
Maharaja proves himself no mean opponent
with the racquet.

INIy host furnishes a regiment of infantry to the
Imperial Service troops, and Colonel Asgar Ali,
his commander-in-chief, gives me a rare treat the
next day. We have a sham-fight. A distant
village is to be taken, and next to fighting your-
self, being umpire is the choice post. We gal-
loped about for hours watching the men work,
my companion suggesting and advising, the rifles
popping away with blank cartridges, and finally
a wild charge against the village defences, the
call: '* Cease firing"; and barring a few bruises,


we start back, to the music of a first-rate drum
and fife corps, none of us the worse, all of us the
better, indeed, for the vigorous exercise.

I suppose one could interest oneself in the ad-
ministration of a small far-away State like this of
Kapurthala, and keep oneself busy; but it is not
a job the average Oriental cares for. All these
States are to all intents and purposes insured by
the British, which makes for irresponsibility in
the rulers. Many of them lapse into dissipation,
and long for the change travel in Europe aft'ords.
Few of them realize that luxury is the most un-
comfortable thing in the world; indeed it is only
a few intelligent men in the West, who have dis-
covered it, and who strive to keep themselves
hard, as a mere matter of daily comfort.

Our own millionaires drape themselves in the
costly artistic spoils of Europe, and cushion their
women and themselves in over-ornamented pal-
aces, breed a few forlorn spenders; and one finds
the frayed fringes of the third and fourth gene-
rations strewn about the capitals of Europe, or
comfortably potted in club Avindows at home.
One should not be too hard upon the Oriental
princes therefore. The inequalities of wealth are
the more exasperating when they are new. Pos-
sessors of wealth without traditions, and without
responsibilities, and without distinguished mental


or moral attributes, lend themselves easily to the
onslaughts of the discontented, and of the social
and economic fanatics. We must agree that
mere spending power, unrelieved by grace or
graciousness, is a vulgar thing, and not easy to
defend; but one should not lose one's temper
over it. The most salient feature of our Ameri-
can life, to many on-lookers, seems to be our mil-
lionaires. But look at their descendants! Could
there be a more ludicrous outcome of great en-
deavor! The mountain and the mouse indeed!

One is dismayed at the lack of healthy humor in
Americans, that they do not see that the million-
aire as an individual is almost more heavily han-
dicapped than anybody else, so far as the perpet-
uation of his power is concerned. The shirt-
sleeves are hardly covered by a coat, the table-
knife introduced to a fork, the illiteracy concealed
by a layer of polite usages, before the descendants,
fatuous, foul, or foolish, are on their w^ay back to
the shirt-sleeves, the unaccompanied knife, and
the unformed manners, speech, and writing. This
phase of our civilization calls not for spiteful envy,
not even for laughter, though it is hard to re-
press it, but for pity. At any rate it gives us no
vantage-ground for criticism of the East.

His Highness the Maharaja of Patiala, who
governs a state of five thousand square miles in


area, and a |)opiilation of a million and a half, is
one of the younger princes and only lately come
to the throne. He had one wife before he came
into power in October, 1909; since then he has
exercised the privilege of his faith, and married
two more. I arrived as his guest, in time to be
present at a banquet given in the great Durbar
Hall of his capital, in honor of the birthday of
the Maharani. The hall was entirely lighted by
more than two thousand candles, in huge glass
candelabra twenty-five feet high. The meal was
served in courses, by a small army of servants,
and the very good native band played familiar
European airs, and even one or two of our darky
Southern songs, and played them well. Seated
beside the Diwan, or minister of finance of His
Highness, I asked whose birthday was being cel-
ebrated and toasted, but even he did not know
which one! There were of course no native
women present. Here as elsewhere in India no
woman of rank is supposed to show herself in
public. Indeed it is the common custom among
Hindus as well as among Muhammadans,as soon
as a man has sufficient means to enable him to
support the women of his family in idleness, to
permit them, and the women themselves are
more eager for it than the men, to adopt the Mu-
hammadan custom of Purdah, to retire to the


Zenana, or women's quarters, and only appeal-
in public with the face covered. We have a sim-
ilar custom in the West of keeping our women in
idleness; but we exploit a startling amount of
their persons, at public and private entertain-
ments, as an ornamental compensation, I sup-
pose, for their isolation from many forms of use-
ful activity. That universal prayer-book of the
West, the only prayer-book indeed loved and
pondered over by both the pious and the proud,
"The Imitation," says: "Be not familiar with
any woman; but commend all good women in
general to God."

An oflficer of the household drove me about
the capital the next day, and showed me the Ma-
haraja's jewels and treasury, and the great dia-
mond valued at a quarter of a million of dollars.
Though the Prince himself is a Sikh, this officer
was a Mussulman, and claimed that the cleavage
among the people of India, and the consequent
racial jealousies, have increased since the Brit-
ish domination. They have fostered these jeal-
ousies, he said, that the resultant antagonisms
may protect them. He agreed, as did every in-
telligent man I met in India, for that matter, that
India needs British rule, and respects British
rule, but dislikes the arrogance, selfishness, and
coldness of the Englishman.


The State of Patiala supplies a force of nearly
two thousand men to the Imperial Service troops,
and one day they were marched out and put
through their paces, and finally marched past
for me to review. Young Prince Hitendra of
Kooch Behar, who was also a guest at this time,
and who had his string of polo ponies with him,
mounted me on Straight Shot — one remembers
the name even, of so good a mount as that — and
we had a fine day with the troops. One may go
far to find smarter light cavalry than these Sikh
lancers of Patiala. A long row of lancers gal-
loped up, dismounted, pulled their horses to the
ground where they lay stock still. Another and
then another galloped up behind and performed
the same manoeuvre; as each man dismounted
he lifted his horse's near fore-leg, then tightened
the right rein, and down he went, and there he
stayed without a motion ; looking carefully I saw
not a single horse rebel. At the sound of a whis-
tle they rose together, and were off like a flight
of birds.

The next day I had another of the days in In-
dia to be marked with a white stone. We were
driven in motor-cars out to a wide plain, with
clumps of trees dotted about, but the whole sur-
rounded by dense woods. On our arrival we
were greeted by what I took to be a whole vil-


lage. There were elephants, camels, biillock-
carts, five hundred mounted troops, and an army
of beaters on foot. Their task was to form a ring
around the wide open space, and to drive the
wild boars out into the open. We mounted, I
was given a long spear, and told briefly how to
use it, and what dangers to avoid, and off we
trotted : His Highness, one or two native officers,
the Resident, Major ]Molyneux of the Imperial
Service troops. Prince Hitendra, and I.

I remember when I first saw fat pheasants,
walking about in their preserve on a large estate
in England, that I thought pheasant-shooting
must be an easy game enough. I also remember
that when I began shooting, as they came like
bullets over the tree-tops, high in the air, that I
revised completely my estimate of the skill re-
quired in that sport.

When you are mounted on a fast thorough-bred
pony, with six feet of steel-pointed spear in your
hand, and set out for the first time to go pig-
sticking, you feel rather sorry for the pig. But
when two or three hundred pounds of wild boar,
with a hide like a rhinoceros, curling tusks, and
muscles of wire and rawhide, shoots by in front
of your galloping pony, turning, twisting, charg-
ing across you, and even at you, here again the
game in reality is far different from what your
ignorance had pictured.


It was not long before, blown, hot, and tired,
I felt no compunction about sticking a pig, if I
could get near one, and all sympathy w^as for my-
self. To part company with your saddle, and to
fall near these erinaceous brigands, is to be ripped
from thigh to chin by their sharp tusks before
there is time for rescue. This happens now and
again, and probal)ly if it did not happen no one
would go pig-sticking. You think of that when
you are still cold in the saddle; just as the stone
walls, and mud fences, and ditches of Tipperary
County, Ireland, seem formidable before you
get warmed up, and then you either take them
with your horse, or in a "voluntary" without him,
but never with much thought of their size. So
too you forget their tusks, and thick hides, and
their unparalleled ability to "buck the line," and
their awe-inspiring dentition, Avhen you have
speared over, and under, one or two of these wild
boars ; and you shut your teeth, and take another
grip of your spear, and settle yourself more firmly
in your saddle, and swoop down upon another
boar scuttling away, as though his death were a
patriotic demand, or the ideal of some high
though ferocious standard of duty.

I took things quietly at first, watching the old
hands at the game, and then I tried my hand,
once, twice, three times, and failed. It w^as no
fault of the pony who followed these bristling.


dodging, and ferocious polo balls as though they
were only wooden; he knew the game well
enough, and perhaps deserves more credit than I
for the pig I finally brought down.

As I am telling the story, I might properly
enough enlarge upon this pig, as he was the first
and last, and probably the only one, I shall ever
spear. He w as not one of the largest killed that day,
but he was the only one that went down from one
spear thrust, not to rise again. He ought to have
had the spear behind the shoulder, but he got it
behind the left ear ; like so many neophytes I ap-
peared more skilful than I was. At this game the
man who gets his spear into the pig first is by
courtesy his slayer, but it is rare that one, or even
half a dozen spear thrusts, are enough. They
keep going until the steel reaches a vital part, and
they give and take no quarter. His Highness
presented me with my spear at the close of the
day's sport, and both spear and boar's head are
here to look up at on the wall as years go by ; and
by the time the grandchildren are old enough
to ask what it is, that boar will have grown to be
a very large, and a very fierce boar indeed ! When
we returned to the motor-cars we found a large
square tent carpeted with rugs, furnished with
chairs and tables, and a hot luncheon ready for
us. Tents go up and come down in India as


easily apparently as we open and shut an um-

But that is but a Tent wherein may rest
A Suhan to the reahn of Death addrest;

The Sultan rises, and the dark Ferrash
Strikes and prepares it for another guest.

The Imperial Service troops date from 1888,
when the native chiefs offered to share in the de-
fence of the Empire. The irregular and undis-
ciplined forces of the native states w^ere organ-
ized into smaller bodies, to be trained under the
supervision of British officers, who now number
twenty-one. The strength of these bodies of
troops amounts to tw^enty thousand men of whom
two thousand eight hundred belong to the trans-
port trains. The polo-playing and horse-loving
Maharaja of Jodhpur furnishes a regiment of
lancers; the desert state of Bikaner, a camel-
corps which has seen service in Africa and China ;
I spent a morning looking over the train of trans-
port carts of the Jaipur state; Kapurthala fur-
nishes infantry, and Patiala light cavalry; and all
of these corps are officered and commanded by
men of their own neighborhood, with the Maha-
raja in each case as commander-in-chief.

Once a year the athletic contingents from these
corps come together for the annual athletic meet-



ing. The meeting of 1910 was held in the native
state of Her Highness Sultan Begum, the present
Nawab of Bhopal, who rules over an area of
seven thousand square miles and a population
of six hundred and seventy thousand. It was
through the good offices of Major-General F.
H. R. Drummond, the hard-working Inspector-
General of these Imperial Sei'vice troops, that I
was invited by Her Highness to be her guest
during the week. Her Highness, and Queen
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, are the only
women ruling States in the world to-day. Far
apart as are the Muhammadan Begum and the
Protestant Queen, they are equally respected
and beloved. My crust of provincial ignorance
was badly cracked, when at my first interview
with the Begum, covered from head to foot, and
with only the shine of her eyes visible through
the two slits in her head-covering, she discussed
with me the comparative value of tutors, schools,
or kindergarten methods for her grandchildren;
and on the other hand averred solemnly that
the illness of one of her sons was undoubtedly
due to the comet, of which there was much talk
at the time. She had made the pilgrimage to
Mecca and when her party was attacked in the
desert, by a roving band of Arabs, she took com-
mand of her own forces and drove oft' the attack-


ing party with loss to them. I was presented
with several volumes written by her, with her
autograph on the title-pages; and the census,
and the vital and other statistics of her State are
admirably compiled, as the volume before me as
I write confirms.

To arrive at your host's railway station after
midnight is awkward for both host and guest as
a rule ; but not so here. Hundreds of troops, and
their officers, and forty to fifty European guests
were received and taken care of for this week;
and when I appeared upon the platform at Bho-
pal, I was at once taken in charge by an officer,
who handed me an addressed envelope, telling
me where my quarters were, the hours for meals,
the times of the arrival and departure of mails
and trains, and a programme of the week's do-
ings and entertainments. The Germans could
not have done it better. I was undeservedly
honored by having luxurious quarters in the
bungalow of the Inspector-General.

It was a jolly crowd of officers and their wives
when we met at luncheon and dinner ; but it was
a hard-worked lot of men who supervised, um-
pired, and directed the sports, which went on
hour after hour from daylight till dark. Polo,
hockey, running-races, broad and high jumping,
obstacle races, and exercises on the horizontal


and parallel bars, and other games and sports
were included in the programme. When it is
considered that the track was by no means as per-
fect as ours, these records are not bad : Hundred
yards, lOf seconds; mile, 4:50| minutes; three
miles, 15:451 minutes; high jump, 5 ft. 4 in.
As for the obstacle race, it was the severest test
of the kind I have ever seen or heard of. It in-
cluded among other things rope-climbing, in and
out of the windows of a house, a terrible bit of arti-
ficial jungle, a tent to go through, a wooden wall
fifteen feet high, a broad and deep water-jump, and
a long run home. I doubt if our best men at this
game would have a chance against these Indians.

There are men from as far north as Kashmir,
and men from the south, east, and west, and you
realize the vastness, and the differences of races
of India, when you see them here together. Ev-
erything goes smoothly, not a hitch that I saw;
but it must entail a tremendous amount of work
for the British officers, who train the men, super-
intend the meeting, teach fair-play, and whose
cheery authority keeps the peace, without which
there would surely be a dozen riots a day between
these rival bands of different races.

On the last afternoon of the games Her High-
ness presented the prizes, and great was the ap-
plause as the various winners appeared. ^Mien


the winning polo team was called, there was some
delay and running about, and at last only two of
the four presented themselves. I learned after-
wards that the other two were at their prayers
when they were called, and refused to be dis-
turbed even by this great honor of receiving prizes
from a Muhammadan ruler. Some of us perhaps
take our devotions thus seriously, but not many,
I fear!

On the last day of the meeting we were in-
vited to the palace for a garden-party, and enter-
tained with music, shooting at clay pigeons, at a
target with the rifle, a sumptuous tea, and pre-
sented when we left with gold and silver tissue
garlands hung round our necks by the hostess,
and atta and ])(^in^ the mark of Oriental courtesy,
consisting of sweetmeats and the sprinkling of
our handkerchiefs with perfume. After our final
dinner the Begum drove over with an escort of
lancers, and read us a graceful little speech of
congratulation and farewell.

The next visit to Colonel Daly, the Resident in
charge of the native chiefs of central India, at
Indore, brought the unique pleasure of finding
that my hostess was an American. This proved
a busy centre of activity, and I had the good fort-
une to arrive in time for a meeting of the native
chiefs, interested in the building and management


of the Daly Chiefs' College, named after the
present Resident's father. The masters are care-
fully chosen from the English public schools and
universities; and here too they are l)ulwarking
education, with training by example, in character
and self-discipline.

The energetic physician of this district, with his
hospitals, dispensaries, training-school for nurses,
bacteriological laboratory, and his students, made
the remark, which I quote as conveying by an apt
illustration my own general impression of Indian
intellectual ability. "The Indian students are
quick and clever," he said; "they have memory.
If told a man has pneumonia, they can rattle
off the symptoms, but if told certain symptoms,
they cannot as readily name the disease. They
are poor diagnosticians." They lack the cour-
age which welcomes responsibility, and the con-
fidence which names because it knows, here as
in other departments in which they serve. The
Englishmen are the real vertebrse of India, and
you see it well illustrated here at Indore, at Bho-
pal, and elsewhere.

The Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar Bahadur of
Indore, a neighbor of Colonel Daly, gave me a
day's shooting for black buck; and I have a
twenty-one inch head as a companion for the
wild boar from Patiala. But it is terril^lv hot on


the plains around Indore where the black buck
roam. Owing to the fact that a rifle went wrong,
and kept missing fire, I was delayed and did the
bulk of my hunting between the hours of eleven
and two. First a motor-car took me out to the
plains, there the Maharaja's shikari met me with
ponies, and after a few miles on the ponies we
mounted a bullock-cart, which is less likely to
frighten the game. First the rifle missed, and

Online LibraryPrice CollierThe West in the East from an American point of view → online text (page 19 of 29)