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Journal of Philology.



Pto/esspr of Greek in ike yokns Hopkins University.



Nfew York and London: Macmillan & Co.

Lsipsic: F. A. Brockhaus.



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•-• •-.


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No. I.


Editorial Note, i

I. — A/xat inrh avfifioXuv and Sikgi avfi^dXauti, By W. W. Goodwin, of

Harvard University, 3

II. — Two German Scholars on one of Goethe's Masquerades. By Frank-
UN Carter, of Yale College, 12

III. — Geddes' Problem of the Homeric Poems. By L. R. Packard, of

Yale College 32

IV. — Encroachments of /i^ on ov in Later Greek. By the Editor, . . 45

Noixs: . 58

The Dionysion at Marathon. (By Thomas Davidson.) II B. 318, 319.
(By A. C. Merriam.) The word weasand, (By Albert S. Cook.)
Varia: Korinna, p. 20. — Aristot. Met. A 7 p. 1072, b 2. (Bekk.) —
Paus. I 26, 5. (By Thomas Davidson.)

Reviews AND Book Notices: 68

Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar — Clough's Hexameter and Latin Rhythms
— Vincent and Dickson's Hand-Book to Modern Greek — Wheeler:
De Alcestidis et Hippolyti Interpolation ibus — Tyler's Lyric Poets —
Hewett's Frisian Language.

Reports : 75

Revue de Philologie — Anglia — Revue Archeologique — Hermes — Athe-
naion — Fleckeiscn's JahrbUcher — Mnemosyne — Romania.

List OF Periodicals, ' 117

Recent Publications 119

No. II.

I. — Etymological and Grammatical Notes. By F. D. Allen, of Yale

College, 127

II. — Recent Investigations of Grimm's Law. By H. C. G. Brandt, of

Johns Hopkins University. 146

III. — Principles of Orthography of French Verbs ending in ^/^rr and tter.

By B. F. O'Connor, of Johns Hopkins University, . . > . 161
rV. — Xenophon's Oeconomicus. By C. D. Morris, of Johns Hopkins

University, 169

V. — The Fourth Play in the Tetralogy. By M. W. Humphreys, of

Vanderbilt University, 187

** Note: 197

The so-called " Subjonctif Dubitatif," Je ne sac fu pas. By Samuel

■* Garner.

'^ Reviews akd Book Notices: 203

Skcat's Etymological Dictionary of the English Language — Mallery's.
Sign Language of the North American Indians — Recent American

^ Publications in Romance Philology and Literature.

- Reports: 211

Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft — Journal
Asiatique — Germania — Englische Studien — Revue de Philologie —
Zeitschrift fUr Romanische Philologie — Rheinisches Museum — Phi-

Lanx Satura, 241

Recent Publications, 245


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No. Ill,


I. — Verrius Flaccus I. By H. Nettlkship. Corpus Prof, of Latin, Oxford, 253

II. — The History of Coincide and Coincidence, By H. E. Shepherd, Balti-
more, . . . * 271

III. — The 'Ablaut' of Greek Roots which show Variation between E and

0. By Maurice Bloomfield, of Johns Hopkins University, . . 281

IV. — Logical Consistency in Views of Language. By W. D. Whitney,

of Yale College, 327

Reviews and Book Notices: 344

Catalogue of the Spanish Library . . . bequeathed by George Ticknor
to the Boston Public Library — Recent Publications in the Field of
Indian Antiquities — Richard Hentley's Einendationen zum Plautus —
Murray's Origin and Growth of the Psalms.

Repori s : 361

Mnemosyne — Anglia — Revue de Philologie — Neue Jahrblicher fUr Phi-
lologie u. Paedagogik — Hermes.

Lanx Satura, 381

Recent Publications, 383

No. IV.

;I. — The Neapolitanus of Propertius. By Robinson Ellis, of Trinity Col-

jlege, Oxford, 389

II. — A proposed Redistribution of Parts in the Parodos of the Vespae.

By F. G. Allinson. of Haverford College, 402

III. — Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive in the Roman Folk-Speech.

By E. A. Fay, of National Deaf Mute College 410

IV. — Prol?lems of General Semitic Grammar. By C. H. Toy, of Harvard

University, 416

V — Notes on, the Agamemnon of Aeschylus. By Lewis Campbell, of the

University of St. Andrews, North Britain, 427

VI. — Keltic and Germanic. By J. M. Hart, of the University of Cin-
cinnati, 440

Notes: 453

Varia. (By M. W. .Humphreys.) On rrmp as an Adjective. (By F. G.
Allinson.) On Je ne sachepas, (By A. Lodeman.)

Reviews AND Bo<?K Notices: 463

G. Meyer's Griechische.Grammatik — Roby's School Latin Grammar —
Butcher and Lang's Odyssey — Merriam's Phaeacians — Heilprin's
Historical Poetry of the Hebrews — Dunbar's Concordance to the
Odyssey -Braune's Gotische Grammatik — Weinkauflf's De Tacito
Dialog! auctore— ^Knapp's Lecturas de clase.

Reports: 476

Mnemosyne'^Archaeoloeische JZeitung — Hermes — Anglia — Zeitschrift
der deutschen morgenTttndischen Gesellschaft — Paul u. Braune's Bei-
trtlge — Alemannia— Zeitschrift fUr Orthographic — Romania.

Necrology: 511

F. E, Anderson — S. S. Haldeman.

Lanx Satura, 514

Recent Publications, . . . , 516

Index, 529

Digitized by VjOOQIC


Vol. I. No. i.


The establishment of some such medium of intercommunication
as this journal hopes to become has long been thought desirable
by the foremost scholars of the country. The project was mooted
several ^ears ago at the meeting of the American Philological
Association, held in Easton, and the plan has never been wholly
lost sight of by its advocates. More recently, in yet other quarters,
an effort has been made to set such a journal on foot, and indica-
tions of the ripening .purpose have not been wanting in different
sections of the Union, so that I was but giving expression to a
widespread conviction when I said in my address as President of
the Philological Association at its meeting in Saratoga (July, 1878) :
" It certainly betokens great supineness on the part of our scholars
that a country which boasts a Journal of Speculative Philosophy,
should not have even a solitary periodical devoted to a science
which counts its professed votaries by hundreds, if not by thousands,
and that our professors and teachers should be satisfied with con-
signing an occasional paper to the slow current of a volume of
transactions, or with exposing a stray lucubration to struggle for
notice amidst the miscellaneous matter of a review or the odds and
ends of an educational magazine.^' This statement of the need
was, however, in no sense an engagement to supply the demand,
but when it became apparent that the same liberality which had
sustained the American Journal of Mathematics and had aided the
American Chemical Journal, would not be wanting to an American
Journal of Philology, it seemed a duty to the cause of my department,


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a» well ail a proper recognition of the generous s{Mrit in which
th^ Truttccft of the Johns Hopkins University had Volitated my
upcrcial woiic, that I should at all events make an earnest effort to
i'jAxry out the project But before making any public announcement
I c<ins(ilted s<^me of the leading scholars who represent the vari-
mrn departments of philological study in the great sections of the
a>untry, and the answers received were so cordial, the confidence
In my plans so flattering, and the pledges of cooperation so satis-
factory, that in the latter part of May, 1879, 1 gave wide circulation
to a prospectus, which brought still further assurances of support
and 8 comparatively long list of subscribers, representing most of
the institutions of note in thirty States of the Union. Thus encour-
aged, I made arrangements for the printing of the Journal, and
though the appearance of it has been somewhat delayed by the
intervention of vacation, which scattered the friends of the enter-
princ, and then by the opening session, with its arduous labors,
which have left some of the prominent contributors little time for
the preparation of the articles promised, still the Journal comes out
within a reasonable time afler the announcement of the project ;
and while it has not been possible to secure a perfect baUnce at
first, and to some the Greek element may seem suspiciously pre-
pondcnmt, those who know the spirit in which this work has been
undertaken will not suspect any undue bias on the part of the
nlilor, and to all others the titles of the reports and the list of
|>eriiHllcttls will show that there is an earnest desire to represent
a* fairly as may be the whole cycle of philological study. A .
vu\ity i>l' managoment seemed necessary, in view of the responsi-
bility i^* the diitor to those who made this undertaking possible,
bvU the Journal has been so fortunate as to secure the coopera-
tiiM\ of svholars eminent for their attainments in Comparative
iirauunan in the Oriental, the Romance and the Teutonic Ian-
^ua^jett. a^ well as the aid of speciiilists in Latin and Greek and the
^rnrial discipline* of classical study: and it is hoped that the
vht^ivtU dejvuttnents will all fiini their reprt^>entati\*es zealously
av^tivtr in the sevtiv^n ol^ ofigiivAl cv^ntnbutions. Reviews of new
Kx^ks >^iU Iht iutr\isted to spevi^iilists. so tu- as possible, and the
iwme vx«' th^' rvvte^er. except in rar^ cases* will be gi\-eQ as the
^\WArai*.te< v^f the thv^rvHt^hi>e:s? and h.^nest>- ot* the review. Notices
v^ schvxv bvx^* dc^ n^^ prvH>?r!y ull w;th:a the rro\iace of this
NHitv.viv. b<it as a :na:^vT ot dut>- to teachers ard to the" public at
U:\:e. iN> hes::aron w;" be ^:':t in gi\ini: ^.xu r.nie K* C:ntf soch


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frank statements as are eminently necessary in the present condi-
tion of American criticism.

With the help of the most active and enterprising scholars of
America, with a large storehouse of European periodical literature
for the quickening and enriching of our own work, with a generous
support accorded in advance by the munificence of our new univer-
sity and by the fraternal spirit of fellow-workers through the
length and breadth of the land, the Journal enters upon a career
that is full of hope. To be found not wholly unworthy of this |
I I trust is henceforth one of the highest aims of my professional life, i
and it is not unnatural that with this conviction I should again
and again invoke the earnest efforts and hearty aid of all the friends^
of s ound learning in Americ a.



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The words of the Athenian orator in Thucydides, I. 77: ««}

iXaatfo*}pLt>ot jap h ral^ ^o/tploJLaiaiq ^po^ roy? ^op.;^dj[vo^ oUaz^^ are a

£uniliar puzzle^ and any new attempt to discuss them is apt to
excite a smile. The opinion of recent editors of Thucydides b
nearly or quite unanimous in considering ^Uat ^u^ipolaiat here the
same as SUat dTzd ^ofiftokur^. The latter name, which originally meant
treaty -suits between citizens of different states, tried in the courts
of either state according to the provisions of treaties («f w/jt^oxa), was
(it is affirmed) made to include, by a remaricable "euphemism,"
the suits which Athens compelled her subject allies to bring in her
own courts during the time of her maritime empire. The same
view is taken by Curtius* and in Liddell and Scott's Lexicon.'
A significant protest, however, was raised against this interpreta-
tion by Boeckh and Grote; but their objections have generally
been answered by triumphantiy quoting Bekker's Anecdota, p. 436,

I : ^AOrj'/atoc aTTo ^Ufit3oXai> idixaZ»> Tol^ UTn^xoot^' ourto^ ^ApurroriAr^q,

Three questions must be answered here : First, to what extent
were the allies of Athens required to bring their lawsuits to Athens
for trial ? Secondly, what were the dixat 0.7:0 ^ufjL,S6Aw>^ apart fix>m
any supposed allusion to them in Thucydides ? Thirdly, are the
^u/ifioAatac dtxac of Thucydides identical with the ^txac drrd aufifiokwv ?

I. The jurisdiction of the Athenian courts over the subject allies
is fully discussed by Boeckh* and Grote,* and it is sufficient to refer
to them for the ancient authorities on this subject All are agreed
that the tributary subjects of Athens, the onyjxoot^ ^6pou tiroreier^,
who were deprived of their military force and often had Athenian
troops quartered on them, and were held to their allegiance by the
presence of Athenian overseers (^^rtVxoroe) and other officers, were
deprived of most of their independent jurisdiction in civil causes
and compelled to sue and be sued in the courts of Athens. With

* Griech. Gesch. II. p. 184. and p. 691 (note 37). *s. v, avfi^T^v.

» StaaUhaushaltung dcr Athcner, I. pp. 528-539 (Book III. § 16) : sec especially
note on pp. 529-531.

* History of Greece, VI. pp. 48-63 : for a discussion of Boeckh's views, sec
note on pp. 57-59*


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Jixou dnb aufJL^6Xwv AND Aixcu aofi^dXcucu, ^

regard to the independent allies, the adrdvo/xot, od^ unoreXei^ ^6poo^
the extent of the Athenian jurisdiction is more doubtful, as no
ancient writers touch this point. We can assume, at all events,
that their obligation to use the Athenian courts was not compul-
iory, and did not exclude (at least originally) some reciprocity on
the part of Athens. This question will be discussed again below
(p. 15). So far as this jurisdiction of Athens applied to civil suits
between citizens of different states within the alliance, it was hardly
a piece of oppression, as it secured an even administration of jus-
tice throughout the Athenian dominions. It is in some respects
analogous to the necessity by which citizens of different states in
the American Union are often compelled to bring suits in United
States courts, sometimes even in the Supreme Court at Washington.
Nor could it have been thought oppressive that Athens should
insist on having all suits between Athenians and citizens of the
subject states tried at Athens. The real hardship was felt when
the subject allies were obliged to bring to Athens all the civil suits
between citizens of the same state, in which neither Athens nor
the confederacy as a whole had any direct interest.* We do not
know how far the jurisdiction of Athens extended ; it is absurd to
suppose that none was left to the local courts of even the least
favored states, although even there Athenian officers may have
presided or judged, and it is likely that such courts were limited
to cases which involved only small sums of money. As to criminal
suits, we have litde definite knowledge beyond the fact that sen-
tence of death could be imposed pnly by an Athenian court or by
the authority of Athens (not 2v«o "AeTjvatatv), The oration of Anti-
phon de Caede Herodis was written for a citizen of Mytilene
charged before an Athenian court with the murder of Herodes,
who was probably an Athenian, resident as xlr^pahx**^ in Mytilene.*
The speech says that even a state (obviously meaning a state in
the position of Mytilene after its revolt in 428 B. C.) has no power
to inflict the death penalty without the authority of Athens^ We
may infer from the tone of this remark that less important criminal
trials were not carried to Athens. One other instance of a public

' To thU compulsion Xenophon alludes, Dc Rep. Ath. I. f6: roi^c ervfi/idxovc
ovayKdHicmt irXttv hrl diKag *A6ijvaCe. So Athcnacus, IX. p. 407 B : xaff 6v S^
Xo6vov BaXaatJOKparovvTe^ 'A&r^valoi av^ov eif 6xmj ra^ vrtauarucaq SIko^,

•Jebb, Attic Orators, I. p. 56; Blass, Attische Beredsamkeit, I. p. 163.

* Antiph. Caed. Herod. § 47 : & ov6k ir6Xei l^etntv, &vtu 'AOrrvaUrv wdkva Bav&T(^



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suit brought against a foreigner in an Athenian court is the amus-
ing case of the Thasian writer of parodies or burlesques, H^^emon.
Though the offence charged is not mentioned, the use oiypoiifopsvo^
and yp^^ shows that it was a public suit Its importance can be
inferred from the story told by Athenaeus, that H^emon collected
a crowd of "theatrical artists" to support him, and implored the
help of Alcibiades, who encouraged a literary man in distress by
going with the crowd to the record oflSce and rubbing opt the
entry of the suit with his wetted finger, while the authorities stood
by in peaceful amazement and the plaintiff took to his heels.* If,
as Boeckh' supposes, the case was one of yp^<pr^ ufipea^, this was
an iywv rinjirdq and might lead to a capital sentence. * The suits
in which the " island-summoner and sycophant" in Aristophanes
proposes to use his wings are plainly civil, not criminal, as appears
fi'om the use of lyx€xkfix6(;^ which like eyxXy^fia is used chiefly of
private prosecutions, and fi'om the plan for seizing the defendant's
property when he was de^ulted by his tardiness.*

II. What now were dUac di:6 irufifioXwv, in the ordinary sense of
the expression? lu^oXa, in the only sense admissible •here, is
thus defined by Harpocration : (rufifioXa, r<ic <Tuvdi^xa<; 5c ay al icdXtt^
dXXijXat^ 0i/jLe>ai rdrrtiKn rotq izoXirat^ m<nt dtddvat xai Xafifidvttv rd
fiixai(]L* treaties, therefore, which independent states make with each
other to define the conditions under which citizens of either may
sue or be sued in the courts of the other. The most distinct
account of such treaties is given in the oration on Halonnesus,
from which it appears that Philip, shortly after the peace of Philo-
crates (346 B. C), sent an embassy to Athens to arrange <Fo/ifioXa
between Athens and Macedonia, making the condition, however,
that the decisions given under the treaty should not be valid until
they had been confirmed by himself, thus (the orator says) mak-
ing a judicial decision of Athens liable to be carried on appeal to
the king of Macedon.* The nature of such treaties appears when
the orator speaks of the earlier times, when there was much

» Athcnacui, IX. 407 C. ' Staatsh. I. p. 532 (note).

» Meier and Schumann, Att. Proc. p. 326. * Aristoph. Av. 1420-1460.

* Harp. J. V. (H'fjipohi. The same definition is found (essentially) in PWius,
Suidas, and the Etymologicum Magnum.

• Tairra Si Kipin iaeaOai ovk hreiSav h t^ diKaoTrjpltfi t^ nap' vfiiv Kvpdd^^ Cxm-ep
6 vdfioc KeXeicij &?lX* ineid^v 6g iavrbv knaveve^fitfy it^iffifiov Tt^ nap* vfiuv yevofthnpf
yvoaiv tig iavrbv nowifievog, [Dem.] Halon. § 9 (p. 79). A defence of the
interpretation of these words here given will be found below (pp. 10-12).


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Jixau dTtb ffu/i^oXiop AND dixm aofi^oXattac. 7

greater intercourse between the two countries and less facility for
settling disputes, and yet it was not thought profitable to make
evfifioXa and for Macedonians to sail to Athens dsid/or Athenians
i0 sail to Macedonia to obtain justice, but Athenians brought suits
in Macedonian courts and the Macedonians in Athenian courts in
the ordinary way.* In Pseudo-Andocides in Alcibiad., § i8, it is
said : 'xpd^ /liv rd^ &Xka^ itdXet^ iv ro?? <rufifi6Xot^ truvrtOifjuOa ^lt) i^iJvat
pij(t cf/i^ac pL7JT€ d^cai rdv iXtodspov^ from which it appears that the
ifOftfioXa might secure the citizens of one state, especially a power-
ful one like Athens, from certain treatment and special penalties in
the courts of the other. Athens would naturally be anxious to
protect Athenians from many indignities to which other states sub-
jected their citizens without scruple.'

We find many allusions to a afy of appeal^ t:6Xi% IxxX-r^roq^ to the
courts of which any one who felt himself aggrieved by a judgment
in another state could carry his case on appeal. In Bekker's
Anecdota we find : cxxAiyro^ 1:6X1^ i<n\)f 7}v ixxaXtXrai ri^ tl^ t6 xptvat
ain^ ayrnvd rrvci, df^Xov 8ri fptttyatv nyy np<un^v w^ i^pd^ I^Bpav ^ X^P^^
xp{vooirav,* PoUux mentions under ^fpt<rt<;, appeal y one ditb dtxacrmv
ix\ S^vcxdv dixatmjpcov/ As we cannot believe that in any suit
between two Athenians there was ever an appeal from the Athenian
courts to a foreign tribunal of any kind, the words of Pollux, are
naturally referred to cases in which a foreigner, feeling himself
aggrieved by the decision of an Athenian court in the ^ixat ditd
^oftfidXwv, carried his case by appeal to some foreign court. This
is strongly confirmed by the words in Bekker's Anecdota which
follow those just quoted : i^fiv di toU ^i>ot^ iidXuna ixxaXsJ<r0ac, Toi<;
di itoXirat^ ^zf<rra. A more unqualified statement is found in the
Etymologicum Magnum : i^r^v Si t«?<; /ih ^ivoc<; ixxaXtUOat Tz6Xtv
SXXj^v, Totc ^^ noXirat^ obx(ri. It would, pf course, be chiefly or

' a}X hfiu^y (TwJfvdf TouArrov ivroCy r&re ovk kXvatri^ei aififioXa frottfoaftivovc ofrr*
€K Moittdovia^ irXelv *AO^va^e SUac XrpffOfjUvovg oW vfiiv ei^ MoKeSoviaVy &Xk'
i/uic re tcA^ ixet vofupoic itutvol re roic frap* i}/«v t^ dUac k^p^avov. [Dcm.]
Halon. § 13 (p. 79-)

' With the same object many nations now make treaties with certain states.
Thus the United States have a treaty with Japan, providing that the U. S. con-
sular courts in Japan shall have jurisdiction in all offences committed by
American citixens against Japanese, while the Japanese courts shall try offences
of Japanese against Americans ; but allowing Japanese creditors to bring civil
suits against Americans in the U. S. consular courts, and American creditors
against Japanese in the Japanese courts.

' I. p. 347, 30. * Onomasticon, VIII. 63.


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only foreigners who would find it for their interest to appeal from

Online LibraryProject MuseAmerican journal of philology → online text (page 1 of 60)