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1. THE "FISHERMAN'S KNOT" FOR ATTACHING "DROPPERS."
2. FOR ATTACHING GUT TO AN EYED FLY.
3. SINGLE SLIP KNOT FOR FASTENING LINE AND CAST TOGETHER.
4. DOUBLE SLIP KNOT FOR FASTENING LINE AND CAST TOGETHER.
5. THE TAPERED KNOT FOR JOINING BROKEN CAST OR LINE.
6. A KNOT FOR A CAST.
7. SAME KNOT TOLLED TAUT.
MODERN IMPROVEMENTS IN ANGLING
GEAR, WITH INSTRUCTIONS ON
TACKLE -MAKING FOR THE AMATEUR
WITH SEVENTY-SEVEN ILLUSTRATIONS
THE "BAZAAR, EXCHANGE & MART" OFFICE
1 REUBEN HEATON & SONS, LTD.
Established 1857 H<
NEW STREET, ASTON, BIRMINGHAM
FISHING REEL MAKERS |
FOR HOME AND EXPORT
Every Reel Guaranteed. Reel Specialists.
We do not make Rods, Lines, Bait Cans, Fish Hooks, etc., K
but we make all Metal Work required for Repairers.
Exchange and Mart"
offers exceptional facilities to the private person who,
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the articles for which you have no further use.
what you want through the journal that has been
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something you have for something you want.
Published Thursday and Saturday, 3d.
To be obtained from all Newsagents.
Specimen copy can be had post free from the Offices
WINDSOR HOUSE :: BREAM'S BUILDINGS :: E.G. 4.
INTRODUCTION FISHING TACKLE : ITS USES
AND ABUSES I
I. RODS - 3
II. FERRULES AND FITTINGS - 12
III. ROD-MAKING - 2O
IV. FLIES - - 28
V. THE MAY FLY - - 35
VI. SALMON AND SEA TROUT FLIES - 37
VII. FLY-TYING - 4O
viii. HOOKS - 47
IX. LINES - 53
X. REELS - - 57
XI. GUT AND GUT SUBSTITUTE - - 65
XII. BAITS - - 69
XIII. LANDING GEAR NETTING - 75
XIV. BAGS, CREELS, FLY AND TACKLE CASES, WADING
GEAR - 83
XV. LEADS, SINKERS, SWIVELS, FLOATS AND
FLOATING PREPARATIONS - - QO
XVI. PATERNOSTERS, TRIMMERS AND SUNDRIES - 95
INDEX - - 103
THE MOST POPULAR ROD
IN THE WORLD TO-DAY.
/^\WES its superiority to its
extraordinary strength and
casting power, combined with
lightness and perfect balance.
A combination difficult to obtain
in any but a Diamond Ribbed
Its fame has been maintained
in all climates and countries
throughout the world under
most exacting conditions.
Complete as Illustrated
O : .;
Illustrated Quide and
Catalogue post free 6d.
LIST OF PLATES
AMATEUR ROD-MAKING - 23
EYED FLIES FOR TROUT AND GRAYLING - ' 2 9
HOW TO DRESS ARTIFICIAL FLIES - - 43
NET- MAKING - - 79
REPAIRING YOUR ::
RODS, REELS, & TACKLE
Should your Fishing Rods, Reels, and Tackle
need repair, and you intend doing the
work yourself, then be sure they are worthy
of your time and trouble.
Ensure this by obtaining your requirements
Tne World's Angling Specialists
"Hardy's" specialities are made of the
highest quality materials, by the most
skilled workers, under the supervision of
the " Hardy " angling experts. " Hardy's"
are actual manufacturers and supply
anglers direct. Save the dealers' profit
and obtain full value for your money.
Anglers' Guide and Catalogue, post free, Is.
HARDY BROS. LTD., Alnwick, Eng.
BRANCHES LONDON : 61, PALL MALL, S.W.
MANCHESTER: 12, MOULT STREET.
EDINBURGH: 101, PRINCES STREET.
FISHING TACKLE: ITS USES AND
THE pride of the angler in his outfit is unparalleled
in the world of sport, because lures and baits exist in
such infinite variety that on the wisdom of his choice
the result of the day's sport will chiefly depend. Almost
as much pleasure may be derived from the care and
rigging up of the tackle as from the actual sport itself,
and many happy hours may be spent, when fishing is
"off," in refitting tackles to a nicety, gauging their
strength, and generally overhauling the rod, reel and
line, so that when the supreme moment arrives and
the big fish is on in deadly earnest the wielder of the
rod .may know exactly the strain his outfit will with-
stand and just what latitude he can allow the monster
battling for life in the depths.
Great progress has been made during recent years
in the manufacture of fishing tackle so much so that
it is just as unthinkable for an angler to set out with
old-fashioned gear as it is for a golfer to do himself
justice on the links with an old gutta ball and clubs of
the shape used when the game was in its infancy.
To set out with untested gut, perhaps old and
brittle, and a line that has been left wet on the reel
some weeks previously and will assuredly break like
2 FISHING TACKLE
a chain at the weakest link, is just as culpably blame-
worthy as for a motorist to set out with petrol tank
unexamined and unfilled.
The uncertainty of the weight the fish run is a
factor which adds keen zest to the sport, for there is
always the possibility of a record specimen being
hooked, and the tackle therefore should be capable of
holding larger fish than the average run of fish usually
Few sporting weapons have to stand the same
exposure to the elements as fishing tackle, or such
constant immersion in water, and it is thus easily
understood that by neglect it will speedily deteriorate.
Nevertheless, owing to skilled craftsmanship in the
making of the tackle, its strength and yet slender
diameter is often a source of wonder to those un-
initiated in the art of fishing.
THE modern rod is a scientific production and has
now reached a high pitch of perfection. Year by year
the craftsman adds improvements to keep pace with
the march of progress.
The angler is constantly clamouring for lighter and
yet more powerful casting mediums, but lightness
and strength do not go hand in hand; yet, to the
credit of the manufacturers be it said, difficulties are
constantly being overcome, until a 9-feet fly rod can
be built to-day weighing only 4^ ounces and yet
capable of throwing a 25-yard line and of landing fish
A MODERN FLY ROD.
of from 3 to 5 pounds, if skilfully handled. In fact, it
will be generally admitted that the present-day fly rod
has no equal in any other weapon or appliance used
in sport for a combination of delicacy and strength.
There is considerable scope in the material of which
rods may be constructed, and each has its own indi-
Built or split cane is foremost in every branch of
fishing. This is not to be wondered at when it is
4 FISHING TACKLE
realised that the strength of a tall bamboo-tree, which
will withstand tremendous wind pressure in its natural
state, is concentrated into a small fishing rod. All the
hardest portions are worked up, not excluding the
hard external natural enamel -of the cane, which should
never be pared off to make up for faulty building.
A hollow cane from i inches to 2| inches in
diameter is split up and built together again, prefer-
ably by hand, in six triangular-shaped sections, fitting-
together like the sections of an orange in a hexagonal
form. The sections are cemented together with the
desired taper with such unerring skill that it is almost
TRANSVERSE SECTION OF CANE, SHOWING SECTIONS
CUT FOR BUILDING.
impossible to see the joins, and each piece is solid to
the core when completed, the soft, pithy, internal
portion of the cane being discarded in the building.
Nor is this sufficient, for the canes are thoroughly
dried and hardened, both over a furnace and by
chemical treatment, before being finally cemented
Rods of this type can be made by machinery, but
are not to be recommended, as the machine passes
over minute imperfections, and thus there is always
an element of doubt with a machine built rod. All
the best rods are therefore hand built throughout,
and only workmen who make it their sole life occupa-
tion can be relied on to carry out this work skilfully.
The addition of the tapered, tempered steel centre
is considered by many experts to be a great improve-
ment to the casting power and action of the rod. This
steel centre also knits the sections together, so that
fractures are extremely rare. One firm has patented
buttressed terminals to the steel centre on the prin-
ciple of "tie rods" used on houses.
No matter for what purpose the rod is required, be
it trout, salmon, bottom fishing, pike or sea fishing, or
for use against the giant tuna, mahseer, tiger or sword
SECTION OF DOUBLE BUILT STEEL-CENTRED ROD.
fish, the built cane rod is an ideal weapon for strength,
striking power, sharpness of recovery, durability and
lightness in weight.
Next in order of superiority for the purpose of rod
construction comes greenheart, a hard and closely-
grained wood of great " steeliness," and whose only
equal in natural growth is washaba. This latter wood
is very similar to greenheart, but darker and heavier;
it is very hard indeed, but nowadays is practically
unobtainable. It is no uncommon thing to hear of an
angler who has used a little greenheart rod for
twenty years or more and landed heavy fish quite
beyond the normal purpose for which the rod was
made, and yet it still remains straight and true and
the action unimpaired. Others may have been less
fortunate in their choice. Seasoning and age play no
small part, and the timber varies in respect of whether
it is new or old growth and whether taken from the
centre or the bark of the tree. On the straightness of
the grain depends the rod's strength. The piece of
greenheart used should be rent and not sawn if an
ideal and straight-grained wood is to be obtained.
This is a timber that will withstand any climate and
last a lifetime.
Whole cane is now greatly in favour for the manu-
facture of rods on account of its lightness in weight
and its natural quickness of recovery. The canes to
be used should be thoroughly dried and hardened
beforehand. Both Tonking and East India canes are
largely used. Japanese yellow bamboo is not in
The terminations of the joints beneath and a little
beyond the ferrules should always be plugged for 3 or
4 inches in order to reinforce the cane where the chief
strain falls. However, there is as a set-off to the
advantage in the matter of weight one drawback
which has kept the built cane variety to the fore and
that is that whole cane is liable to become over-
strained if misused, and therefore rods of this descrip-
tion are occasionally to be met with slightly bent on
one side, and the action weakened, though all rods
have an inclination in this direction, but in a lesser
degree. There is no permanent cure for this malady
except a patent process called " ribbing." Nothing
has tended so much to bring about the present-day
popularity of whole cane rods as this application of
plaiting or wire lacing. It consists of flat steel or
phosphor bronze plated wire (which is rustless) plaited
8 FISHING TACKLE
on the rods at a high tension, thus imparting strength,
backbone and stiffening qualities. The more severe
the strain or bend put on the rod the greater will be
the resisting power of the ribbing, and therefore, as
a preventive of -overstrained joints, ribbing has no
equal, while for weakened and old rods it imparts a
new lease of life. This opinion has been endorsed by
such eminent authorities as Mr. R. B. Marston, Mr.
J. E. Pritt, the late Mr. A. Jardine, Mr. J. T. Emery
and many others. The process was introduced and
patented by Messrs. Foster Brothers, of Ashbourne,
several years ago, and they alone undertake the
Roach and bottom fishers usually prefer light reed
canes, which are made up in rods varying from 9 to
20 feet roach poles.
From the point of view of cost, there is con-
siderable advantage to be derived from the use of
whole cane rods, which are less expensive as a rule
than greenheart or built cane.
Light cane sea rods with greenheart tops are great
favourites for pier fishing, though for casting from
rocks an East India cane rod with a nicely-tapered
East India cane top cannot, in the writer's opinion, be
improved upon. Practically all pike rods are con-
structed of whole cane with greenheart tops.
Among other woods put to the use of rod building,
hickory stands pre-eminent. Selected growths are
strong and not unduly heavy, and they very seldom
break, but hickory is not so stiff when finely tapered,
as greenheart, and is unsuitable for fly tops. Great
care is required in its selection. Only white hickory,
sun dried, dead stiff, and straight grained should be
used. For any of the thicker butts, joints or very
thick tops it does excellently. Salmon rods of the
balanced handle variety were at one time almost solely
made of this material, but they are generally con-
sidered on the heavy side for modern requirements.
Lancewood is a light, closely-grained wood not
unlike beech in appearance; it is useful for light
bottom rod tops, but has not the same degree of
stiffness or quickness to strike as greenheart.
Blue mahoe is a greyish rod timber of considerable
utility. It has the advantage of being light and fairly
stiff, but has not quite the requisite " steeliness," and
therefore it is usually built up a little thicker in
diameter than would be the case with other woods.
Ash, beech and hazel are still occasionally used for
butts of rods, but home-grown timber does not seem
to adapt itself quite so well for angling purposes as
the harder South American and tropical growths.
Hazel was largely employed by our forefathers, and
made very useful rods. The writer once had a hazel
salmon rod with the natural bark still intact, which
was something of a curiosity.
The action and qualities of the perfect rod are
not easily definable. Not infrequently theories are
advanced concerning the point of balance so many
inches from the butt end and so on. But these rules
do not work out satisfactorily in practice. The
balance can only be correctly gauged when the reel
and line are on the rod and part of the line is out as in
fishing 4 . Then an idea can be gained of the balance
and leverage on the wrist. Therefore it is important
that the reel should be of suitable weight and the line
of such a thickness as will balance the outfit and not
throw undue strain upon the rod in casting.
Mechanical tesjts have been applied from time to
io FISHING TACKLE
time, such as that introduced by Mr. W. Baden-Powell
of fixing the butt end in a vice or holder and then
putting the rod through various tests by fixing
weights at the end, with the rod at different angles.
But this method again fails, because the true test of
the rod is when in action in the hand. Rod-gauges
have also met with indifferent success, and attempts
have been made to formulate a definite taper for
certain classes of rods.
Some very interesting experiments were carried out
this year by Mr. H. G. Baker to calculate the stresses
on the section at each foot of the length and to chart
these out in relation to the diameters. This would
show the bending curve of the rod and indicate its
weakness or strength. Over twenty rods were tested
in the first batch, and as a result of these experiments
as far as they went, there were found so many un-
known factors, especially in the case of cane which is
homogeneous, that it is impossible to lay down any
fixed or definite shape fora rod for any given purpose.
No two lengths of wood or cane are exactly alike,
and therefore the manufacture of the ideal rod largely
depends on the skill of the builder, and machine built
and standardised '.rods can therefore never be a
It is only safe to generalise, but in the choice of
the ideal rod the following attributes should be
sought : It should have ample power. A weak-
backed one, or, as a wag aptly put it, " a rod like a
yard of pump water," is useless for all practical
purposes. A fishing rod should combine strength,
lightness and casting power. The weight should be
gauged by the lightness or feel of the rod in the
hand rather than in the scale. It must be stiff enough
to cast a long distance with accuracy and precision,
and yet sufficiently pliant to make a short cast with
delicacy. The rod should be quick to respond to each
desired movement as though it were part of the
FERRULES AND FITTINGS
HAVING chosen a rod of suitable timber, the next
consideration is the ferruling. Fishing rods, in the
main, are in either two or three parts, connected by
ferrules, interlocking, and on the way in which the
ferrules are fitted is going to depend the strength of
the rod, for nine times out of ten when a rod breaks
it is fractured at the termination of one of the ferrules.
This is the reason why all rods of the better type have
the ends of the ferrules serrated or toothed, in order
to distribute the strain which falls on the timber
immediately after the straight length of tubing, and
on no account should the rod timber be undercut or
reduced in diameter to take the ferrule sufficiently to
cause weakness, but the ferrule should be made to fit
The short tongue or projection called the tener has
its object in distributing the internal strain or end
play of the counter-ferrule and preventing a swelled
or buckled joint. In the case of built cane rods this
tener is often let into a solid brass socket inside the
ferrule, which preserves the sections inside the ferrule
from wet or damp, for if once wet g'ets inside the
ferrule the moisture is rapidly absorbed by the cane
and travels down the fibre below the ferrule, and in
the case of a built cane rod causes the sections to
become uncemented. Should your rod set up a faint
creak at each movement, you may safely diagnose the
FERRULES AND FITTINGS 13
trouble and attribute it to the above-mentioned cause.
It should be remedied without delay, or it will spread
rapidly, to the detriment of the rod.
The plainest type of joint is the suction pattern,
usually fitted with small " hitches " in order that the
joints can be tied together and so prevent throwing
out. But the waterproof cap suction joint is now very
popular, for besides keeping the rain out of the joints
the overlapping cap increases the suction grip. An
accurately fitting joint of this type is almost as useful
as the locking pattern.
The types of lock joints introduced have been many
and various, but most of them have had a short life.
The outstanding pattern is the " Universal " or
" Bayonet " and " Standard " fitting, consisting of a
small projection on the male ferrule, which engages
with a slot in the top of the female ferrule, either by
a spiral turn or by a straight thrust and then a turning
Perhaps the most popular joint is the "Spiral" or
" Perfect " joint, the principle of which is a projecting
tongue brazed on the counter-ferrule, which engages
with an external spiral worm or thread on the female
ferrule. Anglers should be warned against patterns
of lock joints having internal screw threads or lock-
ing attachments that are not easily accessible and
therefore cannot be cleaned or kept free from
No matter what the ferrule or for what type of
fishing the rod will be used, the angler should make
sure that the joints are secure. The writer has very
vivid recollection of his first boyhood fishing experi-
ence when he borrowed an old-fashioned four-jointed
rod in order to try his hand on a small perch pond.
u 5 1
i n n * >
hi n I-
L 1 U u U
SPIRAL LOCK JOINT, SHOWING SERRATED END.
FERRULES AND FITTINGS 15
After an afternoon's fishing he came away with the
butt joint only; the remaining joints were sticking
point downwards in the middle of the pond. The last
bit of the joint next the butt could be seen standing
out clear of the water, alas! out of reach though
The reel fittings on most rods are satisfactory and
adapted to their requirements. But for light-bait
casting and various branches of spinning, and on
some bottom rods, movable fittings on a parallel grip
are of very great advantage, as the reel can be moved
to a required position above or below the hand and
can be adjusted to suit the balance of the rod on
the wrist. The strength of the reel fitting must be
governed by the weight of the reel it is required to
carry. When a heavy 5 or 6 inch reel is used, it is no
use relying on four small screws to hold the reel in
position. Screw-grip reel fittings, having the reel
band moving on a screw thread, are well adapted for
sea fishing from a boat, as the reel band cannot work
loose and the danger of losing the reel at a critical
moment is averted.
Most rods are fitted with cork handles, as cork has
been found to give the best grip when dry or wet,
and does not raise blisters on the hands in a long
da/s fishing. The cork may consist of sheet cork,
cemented on the handle, which is the commonest type,
and is quite satisfactory; unless the rod is put away
in a wet cloth cover, when the cork sometimes peels
off. Or, in the case of sea rods, the spray sometimes
gets beneath the cork after long exposure. For that
reason a cord-bound handle is most durable for sea
fishing. Solid cork handles are fitted to lightweight
rods and to fly rods, in which it is desirable that the
16 FISHING TACKLE
action should continue down the handle to the hand.
Cork composition is too porous and is not to be
Butt ends are usually provided with a detachable
rubber or pneumatic button, which comes in contact
with the body and protects the groin from undue
pressure. In the case of those who find sport among
the giant fish, and where the weight of rod and tackle
is heavy and the strain in playing a monster is excep-