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pub Chas. C. Chapman & Co..

History of Tazewell county, Illinois ; together with sketches of its cities, villages and townships, educational, religious, civil, military, and political history; portraits of prominent persons and biographies of representative citizens. History of Illinois ... Digest of state laws online

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Online Librarypub Chas. C. Chapman & Co.History of Tazewell county, Illinois ; together with sketches of its cities, villages and townships, educational, religious, civil, military, and political history; portraits of prominent persons and biographies of representative citizens. History of Illinois ... Digest of state laws → online text (page 14 of 79)
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Owen Lovejoy 1861-63 Anthony L. Knapp 1861-62

John A. McClernand 1861-62 William A. Richardson 1861-62

THIRTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS.

Elihu B. Washburne 1863-64 William J. Allen 1863-64

Jesse O. Norton 1863-64 Isaac N. Arnold 1863-64

James C. Robinson 1863-64 John R. Eden 1863-64



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.



169



Lewis W. Ross 1863-64

John T. Stuart 1863-64

Owen Lovcjoy 1803-64

William R. Morrison 1863-64

John C. Allen 1863-64



John F. Farnsworth 1863-64

Charles W. Morris 1863-64

Eben C. Ingersoll 1863-64

Anthony L. Knapp 1863-64



THIRTY-NINTH CONGRESS.



Elihu B. Washburne 1865-66

Anthony B. Thornton 1865-60

John Wentworth 1865-60

Abner C. Hardin .1865-66

Eben C. Ingersoll 1865-66

Barton C. Cook 1865-00

Shelby M. Cullom 1865-66

FORTIETH CONGRESS



John F. Farnsworth 1865-66

Jehu Baker 1805-00

Heury P. H. Bromwcll 1805-00

Andrew Z. Kuykandall 1865-66

Samuel S. Marshall 1865-66

Samuel W. Moulton 1865-60

Lewis W. Ross 1865-00



Elihu B. Washburne 1867-68

Abner C. Hardin 1867-68

Eben C. Ingersoll 1807-68

Norman B. Judd 1807-68

Albert G. Burr 1867-68

Burton C. Cook 1867-68

Shelby M. Cullom 1867-68



John F. Farnsworth 1867-68

Jehu Baker 1867-68

Henry P. H. Bromwell 1867-68

John A. Logan 1867-08

Samuel S. Marshall 1867-68

Green B. Raum 1867-68

Lewis W. Ross 1867-68



FORTY-FIRST CONGRESS.



Norman B. Judd 1809-70

John F. Farnsworth 1869-70

H. C. Burchard 1869-70

John B. Hawley 1869-70

Eben C Ingersoll 1869-70

Burton C. Cook 1869-70

Jesse H. Moore 1869-70



Shelby M. Cullom 1869-70

Thomas W. MeNeely 1869-70

Albert G. Burr 1869-70

Samuel S. Marshall 1869-70

John B. Hay 1869-70

John M. Crebs 1869-70

John A. Logan 1869-70



FORTY-SECOND CONGRESS.



Charles B. Farwell 1871-72

John F. Farnsworth 1871-72

Horatio C. Burchard 1871-72

John B. Hawley 1871-72

Bradford N. Stevens 1871-72

Henry Snapp 1871-72

Jesse H. Moore 1871-72



James C. Robinson 1871-72

Thomas W. McNeely 1871-72

Edward Y. Rice 1871-72

Samuel S. :Marshall 1871-72

John B. Hay .1871-72

John M. Crebs 1871-72

John S. Beveredgc 1871-72



FORTY-TUIRD CONGRESS.



John B. Rice 1873-74 Robert M. Knapp 1873-74



Jasper D. Ward 1873-74

Charles B. Farwell 1873-74

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1873-74

Horatio C. Burchard 1873-74

John B. Hawley 1873-74

Franklin Corwin 1873-74



James C. Robinson 1873-74

John B. McNulta 1873-74

Joseph G. Cannon 1873-74

John R. Eden 1873-74

James S. Martin 1873-74

William R. Morrison 1873-74



170



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.



Greenbury L. Fort 1873-74

Granville Banere 1878-74

William H. Ray 1873-74

FORTY-FOURTH CONGRESS



Isaac Clements 1873-

Samuel S. Marshall 1873-



Bernard G. Caulfleld 1875-76

Carter H. Ilariison 1875-76

Charles B. Farwell 1875-76

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1875-76

Horatio C. Burchard 1875-76

Thomas J. Henderson 1875-76

Alexander Campbell 1875-76

Greenbury L. Fort 1875-76

Richard H. Whiting 1875-76

John C. Bagby 1875-76

FORTY-FIFTH CONGRESS,

William Aldrich 1877-78

Carter H. Harrison 1877-78

Lorenzo Brentano 1877-78

William Lathrop 1877-78

Horatio C. Burchard 1877-78

Thomas J. Henderson 1877-78

Philip C. Hayes 1877-78

Greenbury L. Fort 1877-78

Thomas A. Boyd 1877-78

Benjamin F. Marsh 1877-78

FORTY-SIXTH CONGRESS



Scott Wike 1875-

W^illiam M. Springer 1875-

Adlai E. Stevenson 1875-

Joseph G. Cannon 1875-

John R. Eden 1875-

W. A. J. Sparks 1875-

William R. Morrison 1875-

William Hartzell 1875-

William B. Anderson 1875-



•74
■74



■76
■76
■76
76
76
76
76
76
76



Robert M. Rn^pp 1877

William M. Springer 1877

Thomas F. Tipton 1877

Joseph G. Cannon 1877

JohnR. Eden 1877

W. A. J. Sparks 1877-

William R. Morrison 1877

William Hartzell 1877

Richard W. Townshend 1877



William Aldrich 1879-80

George R.Davis 1879-80

Hiram Barber 1879-80

John C Sherwin 1879-80

R. M. A. Hawk 1879-80

Thomas J. Henderson 1879-80

Philip C. Hayes 1879-80

Greenbury L. Fort 1879-80

Thomas A. Boyd 1879-80

Benjamin F. Marsh 1879-80



James W. Singleton 1879

William M. Springer 1879

A. E. Stevenson 1879

Joseph G. Cannon 1879

Albert P. Forsythe 1879

W. A. J. Sparks 1879

William R. Morrison 1879^

John R. Thomas 1879

R. W. Townshend 1879-



-78
-78
-78
-78
-78
-78
-78
-78
-78



-80
-80
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CHICAGO.

"While we cannot, in the brief space we have, give more than a
meager sketch of such a city as Chicago, yet we feel the history of
the State would be incomplete without speaking of its metropolis,
the most wonderful city on the globe.

In comparing Chicago as it was a few years since with Chicago
of to-day, we behold a change whose veritable existence we should



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 171

be inclined to doubt were it not a stern, indisputable fact. Eapid
as is the customary development of places and things in the United
States-, the growth of Chicago and her trade stands without a parallel.
The city is situated on the west shore of Lake Michigan at the
mouth of the Chicago river. It lies 11 feet above the lake, having
been raised to that grade entirely by the energy of its citizens, its
site having originally been on a dead level with the water of the
lake.

The city extends north and south along the lake about ten miles,
and westward on the prairie from the lake five or six miles, embrac-
ino- an area of over 10 square miles. It is divided by the river
into three distinct parts, known as the Korth, West and South
Divisions, or "Sides," by which they are popularly and commonly
known. These are connected by 33 bridges and two tunnels.

The first settlement of Chicago was made in 1801, during which
year Fort Dearborn was built. At the close of 1830 Chicago con-
tained 12 houses, with a population of about 100. The town was
organized in 1833, and incorporated as a city in 1837. The first
frame building was erected in 1832, and the first brick house in
1833. The first vessel entered the harbor June 11, 1831; and at
the first oflicial census, taken July 1, 1837, the entire population
was found to be 4,170. In 1850 the population had increased to
29,963; in 1860, to 112,172; in 1870, 298,977; and, according to
the customary mode of reckoning from the number of names in
the City Directory, the population of 1879 is over 500,000.

Nicholas Perrot, a Frenchman, was the first white man to visit
the site of Chicago. This he did in 1671, at the instigation of M.
Toulon, Governor of Canada. He was sent to invite the Western
Indians to a convention at Green Bay. It has been often remarked
that the first white man who became a resident of Chicago was a
negro. His name was Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a mulatto from
the West Indies. He settled there in 1796 and built a rude cabin on
the north bank of the main river, and laid claim to a tract of land
surrounding it. He disappeared from the scene, and his claim was
"jumped" by a Frenchman named Le Mai, who commenced trad-
ing with the Indians. A few years later he sold out to John Kin-
zie, who was then an Indian trader in the country about St.
Joseph, Mich., and agent for the American Fur Company, which
had traded at Chicago with the Indians for some time; and this



172 niSTOKY OF ILLINOIS.

fact liad, probably more tlian any other, to do with the determina-
tion of the Government to establish a fort there. The Indians
were growing numerous in that region, being attracted by the
facilities for selling their wares, as well as being pressed nortliward
by the tide of emigration setting in from the south. It was judged
necessary to have some force near that point to keep them in
check, as well as to protect the trading interests. Mr. Kinzie
moved his family there the same year Fort Dearborn was built^
and converted the Jean Baptiste cabin into a tasteful dwelling.

For about eight years things moved along smoothly. The garri-
son was quiet, and the traders prosperous. Then the United States
became involved in trouble with Great Britain. The Indians took
the war-path long before the declaration of hostilities between the
civilized nations, committing great depredations, the most atro-
cious of which was the massacre of Fort Dearborn, an account of
which may be found in this volume under the heading of " The
War of 1812."

THE GREAT FIKE.

From the year 1840 the onward march of the city of Chicago
to the date of the great fire is well known. To recount its marvel-
ous growth in population, wealth, internal resources and improve-
ments and everything else that goes to make up a mighty city,
would consume more space than we could devote, however interest-
ing it might be. Its progress astonished the world', and its citizens
stood almost appalled at the work of their own hands. She was
happy, prosperous and great when time brought that terrible Octo-
ber night (Oct. 9, 1871) and with it the great fire, memorable as
the greatest fire ever occurring on earth. The sensation conveyed
to the spectator of this unparalleled event, either through the eye,
the ear, or other senses or sympathies, cannot be adequately
described, and any attempt to do it but shows the poverty of lan-
guage. As a spectacle it was beyond doubt the grandest as well as
the most appalling ever oflfered to mortal eyes. From any
elevated standpoint the appearance was that of a vast ocean of
flame, sweeping in mile-long billows and breakers over the doomed

city.

Added to the spectacular elements of the conflagration — the
intense and lurid light, the sea of red and black, and the spires and
pyramids of flame shooting into the heavens — was its constant and




SECTIONAL VIEW OF LA SALLE STREET TUNNEL, CHICAGO.



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.



173



terrible roar, drowning even the voices of tlie shrieking multitude;
and ever and anon — for a while as often as every half-minute —
resounded far aiid wide the rapid detonations of explosions, or fall-
ino- walls. In short, all sights and sounds which terrify the weak
and unnerve the strong abounded. But they were only the accom-
paniment which the orchestra of nature were furnishing to the
terrible tragedy there being enacted.

The total area burned over, including streets, was three and a
third square miles. The number of buildings destroyed was
17,450 ; persons rendered homeless, 98,500 ; persons killed, about
200. Not including depreciation of real estate, or loss of business,
it is estimated that the total loss occasioned by the fire was
$190,000,000, of which but $44,000,000 was recovered on insur-
ance. The business of the city was interrupted but a short time;
and in a year after the fire a large part of the burned district was
rebuilt, and at present there is scarcely a trace of the terrible dis-
aster, save in the improved character of the new buildings over
those destroyed, and the general better appearance of the city —
now the finest, in an architectural sense, in the world.

One of the features of this great city worthy of mention is the
Exposition, held annually. The smouldering ruin's were yet smok-
ing when the Exposition Building was erected, only ninety days
being consumed in its construction. The accompanying engrav-
ing of the building, the main part of which is 1,000 feet long,
will give an idea of its magnitude.

COMMERCE OF CHICAGO.

The trade of Chicago is co-extensive with the world. Every-
where, in every country and in every port, the trade- marks of her
merchants are seen. Everywhere, Chicago stands prominently
identified with the commerce of the continent. A few years ago,
grain was carted to the place in wagons; now more than 10,000
miles of railroad, with thousands of trains heavily ladened with the
products of the land center there. The cash value of the produce
handled during the year 1S7S was $220,000,000, and its aggregate
weight was 7,000,000 tons, or would make 700,000 car loads.
Divided into trains, it would make 28,000 long, heavily ladened
freight trains, wending their way from all parts of the United States
toward our great metropolis. These trains, arranged in one con-



174 ^ HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.

tinuons line, would stretch from London across tlie broad Atlantic
to New York and on across our continent to San Francisco.

In regard to the grain, lumber and stock trade, Chicago has sur-
passed all rivals, and, indeed, not only is without a peer but excels
any three or four cities in the world in these branches. Of grain,
the vast quantity of 134,851,193 bushels was received during the
year 1878. This was about two-fifths more than ever received
before in one year. It took 13,000 long freight trains to carry it
from the fields of the Northwest to Chicago. This would make a
continuous train that would reach across the continent from New
York to San Francisco. Speaking more in detail, we have of the
various cereals received during the year, 62,783,577 bushels of corn,
29,901,220 bushels of wheat, 18,251,529 bushels of oats, 133,981,104
pounds of seed. The last item alone would fill about 7,000 freight
cars.

The lumber received during the year 1878 was, 1,171,364,000 feet,
exceeded only in 1872, the year after the great fire. This vast
amount of lumber would require 195,000 freight cars to transport
it. It would build a fence, four boards high, four and one-lialf
times around the globe.

In the stock trade for the year 1878, the figures assume propor-
tions almost incredible. They are, however, from reliable and
trustworthy sources, and must be accepted as authentic. There
were received during the year, 6,339,656 hogs, being 2,000,000 more
than ever received before in one year. It required 129,916 stock
cars to transport this vast number of hogs from the farms of the
West and Northwest to the stock yards of Chicago, These hogs
arranged in single file, would form a connecting link between
Chicago and Pekin, China.

Of the large number of hogs received, five millions of them were
slaughtered in Chicago. The aggregate amount of product manu-
factured from these hogs was 918,000,000 pounds. The capacity of
the houses engaged in slaughtering operations in Chicago is 60,000
hogs daily. The number of liands employed in these houses is
from 6,000 to 8,000. Tlie number of packages required in which
to market the year's product is enormously large, aggregating 500,-
000 barrels, 800,000 tierces and 650,000 boxes.

There lias been within the stock yards of the city, during the
year 1878, 1,036,066 cattle. These were gathered from the plains



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 175

of Oregon, Wyoming and Utah, and the grazing regions of Texas,
as well as from all the Southern, Western and Northwestern States
and Territories and from the East as far as Ohio. If these cattle
were driven from Chicago southward, in single file, through the
United States, Mexico, and the Central American States into South
America, the foremost could graze on the plains of Brazil, ere the
last one had passed the limits of the great city.

Not only does Chicago attract to its great market the products of
a continent, but from it is distributed throughout the world manu-
factured goods. Every vessel and every train headed toward that
city are heavily ladened with the crude products of the farm, of the
forests, or of the bowels of the earth, and every ship that leaves her
docks and every train that flies from her limits are filled with
manufactured articles. These goods not only find their way all
over our own country but into Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa,
South America, Mexico, and the Islands of the sea; indeed, every
nook and corner of the globe, where there is a demand for her
goods, her merchants are ready to supply.

The wholesale trade for the year 1ST8 reached enormous fiirures,
aggregating $280,000,000. Divided among the leading lines, we
find there were sold of dry goods, $95,000,000 worth. The trade in
groceries amounted to $66,000,000; hardware, $20,000,000; boots
and shoes, $24,000,000; clothing, $1T,000,000; carpets, $8,000,000;
millinery, $7,000,000; hats and caps, $6,000,000; leather, $8,000,-
000; drugs, $6,000,000; jewelry, $4,500,000; musical instruments,
$2,300,000. Chicago sold over $5,000,000 worth of fruit during
the year, and for the same time her fish trade amounted to $1,400,-
000, and her oyster trade $4,500,000. The candy and other con-
fectionery trade amounted to $1,534,900. This would fill all the
Christmas stockings in the United States.

In 1852, the commerce of the city reached the hopeful sum of
$20,000,000; since then, the annual sales of one firm amount to
that much. In 1870, it reached $400,000,000, and in 1878 it had
grown so i-apidh' that the trade of the city amounted during that
year to $650,000,000. Her manufacturing interests hav^e likewise
grown. In 1878, her manufactories employed in the neighborhood
of 75,000 operators. The products mannfactured during the 3^ear
were valued at $230,000,000. In reviewing the shi])ping interests of
Chicago, we find it ecpially enormous. So considerable, indeed, is the



176 HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.

commercial navy of Chicago, that in the seasons of navigation, one
vessel sails every nine minutes during the business hours; add to
this the canal-boats that leave, one every five minutes during the
same time, and you will see something of the magnitude of her
shipping. More vessels arrive and depart from this port during the
season than enter or leave any other port in the world.

In 1831, the mail system was condensed into a half-breed, who
went on foot to Niles, Mich., once in two weeks, and brought back
what papers and news he could find. As late as 1846, there was
often but one mail a week. A post-ofiice was established in
Chicago in 1833, and the postmaster nailed up old boot legs upon
one side of his shop to serve as boxes. It has since grown to be
the largest receiving office in the United States.

In lSl::t, the (puigmires in the streets were first pontooned by
plank roads. The wooden-block pavement appeared in 1857. In
1840, water was delivered by peddlers, in carts or by hand. Then
a twenty -five horse power engine pushed it through hollow or bored
logs along the streets till 1854, when it was introduced into the
houses by new works. The first fire-engine was used in 1835, and
the first steam fire-engine in 1859. Gas was utilized for lighting
the city in 1850. The Young Men's Christian Association was
oro-anized in 1858. Street cars commenced running in 1854. The
Museum was opened in 1863. The alarm telegraph adopted in
1864. The opera-house built in 1865. The telephone introduced

in 1878.

One of the most thoroughly interesting engineering exploits of
the city is the tunnels and water-works system, the grandest and
most unique of any in the world; and the closest analysis fails to
detect any impurities in the water furnished. The first tunnel is
five feet two inches in diameter and two miles long, and can deliver
50,000,000 gallons per day. The second tunnel is seven feet in
diameter and six miles long, running four miles under the city, and
can deliver 100,000,000 gallons per day. This water is distributed
through 410 miles of water mains.

Chicao-o river is tunneled for the passage of pedestrians and vehi-
cles from the South to the West and North divisions.

There is no grand scenery about Chicago except the two seas, one
of water, the other of prairie. Kevertheless, there is a spirit about
it, a push, a breadth, a power, that soon makes it a place never to






m-



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f: //y^W^'



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 177

be forsaken. Chicago is in the field ahnost alone, to handle the
wealth of one-fourth of the territory of this great republic. The
Atlantic sea-coast divides its margins between Portland, Boston,
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Savannah, but Chicago has
a dozen empires casting their treasures into her lap. On a bed of
coal that can run all the macliinery of the world for 500 centuries;
in a garden that can feed the race by the thousand years; at the
head of the lakes tliat give lier a temperature as a summer resort
equaled by no great city in the land; with a climate that insures
the health of her citizens; surrounded by all the great deposits of
natural wealth in mines and forests and herds, Chicago is the
wonder of to-day, and will be the city of the future.

STATES OF THE UNION.

THEIR SETTLEMENT, ORIGIN OF NAME AND MEANING, COGNOMEN, MOT-
TOES, ADMISSION INTO THE UNION, POPULATION, AREA, NUMBER OF
SOLDIERS FURNISHED DURING THE REBELLION, NUMBER OF REPRE-
SENTATIVES IN CONGRESS, PRESENT GOVERNORS, ETC., ETC., ETC.

Alabama. — This State was first explored by LaSalle in 1684, and
settled by the French at Mobile in 1711, and admitted as a State in
1817. Its name is Indian, and means " Here we rest." Has no
motto. Population in 1860,964,201; in 1870,906,992. Furnished
2,576 soldiers for the Union army. Area 50,722 square miles.
Montgomery is the capital. Has 8 Representatives and 10 Presi-
dential electors. Rufus W. Cobb is Governor; salary, $3,000;
politics, Democratic. Length of term, 2 years.

Arkansas — Became a State in 1836. Population in 1860, 435,-
450; in 1870,484,471. Area 52,198 square miles. Little Rock,
capital. Its motto is Regnant Populi — " The people rule." It has
the Indian name of its principal river. Is called the "Bear State."
Furnished 8,289 soldiers. She is entitled to 4 members in Congress,
and 6 electoral votes. Governor, W. R. Miller, Democrat; salary,
$3,500 ; term, 2 years.

California — Has a Greek motto, E^ireJca, which means " I have
found it." It derived its name from the bay forming the peninsula
of Lower California, and was first applied by Cortez. It was first
visited by the Spaniards in 1542, and by the celebrated Enghsh



178 HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.

navigator, Sir Francis Drake, in 1578. In 1846 Fremont took
possession of it, defeating the Mexicans, in the name of the United
States, and it was admitted as a State in 1850. Its gold mines
from 1868 to 1878 produced over $800,000,000. Area 188,982 square
miles. Population in 1860, 379,994. In 1870, 560,247. She gave
to defend the Union 15,225 soldiers. Sacramento is the capital.
Has 4 Representatives in Congress. Is entitled to 6 Presidential
electors. Present Governor is William Irwin, a Democrat; term,
4 years ; salary, $6,000,

Colorado — Contains 106,475 square miles, and had a population
in 1860 of 34,277, and in 1870, 39,864. She furnished 4,903
soldiers. "Was admitted as a State in 1876. It has a Latin motto,
Nil sine JSfumine, which means, " Nothing can be done without
divine aid." It was named from its river. Denver is the capital.
lias 1 member in Congress, and 3 electors, T. W. Pitkin is Gov-
ernor; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years; politics, Pepublican.

Connecticut — Qui transtulit sustinet, " He who brought us over
sustains us," is her motto. It was named from the Indian Quon-
ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long River." It is called the "Nutmeg
State." Area 4,674 square miles. Population 1860, 460,147; in
1870, 537,454. Gave to the Union army 55,755 soldiers, Hart-
ford is the capital. Has 4 Representatives in Congress, and is
entitled to 6 Presidential electors. Salary of Governor $2,000;
term, 2 years.

Delaware. — " Liberty and Independence," is the motto of this
State. It was named after Lord De La Ware, an English states-
man, and is called, " The Blue Hen," and the " Diamond State." It
was first settled by the Swedes in 1638. It was one of the original
thirteen States. Has an area of 2,120 square miles. Population in
1860, 112,216; in 1870, 125,015. She sent to the front to defend
the Union, 12,265 soldiers. Dover is the caj^ital. B[as but 1 mem-
ber in Congress; entitled to 3 Presidential electors. John W.
Hall, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $2,000; term, 2 years.

Florida — Was discovered by Ponce de Leon in 1512, on Easter
Sunday, called by the Spaniards, Pascua Florida, which, with the
variety and beauty of the flowers at this early season caused him to
name it Florida — which means in Spanish, flowery. Its motto is,
" In God we trust." It was admitted into the Union in 1845. It has
an area of 59,268 square miles. Population in 1860, 140,424; in



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 179

1870, 187,756. Its capital is Tallahassee. Has 2 members in Con-
gress. Has 4 Presidential electors. George F. Drew, Democrat,
Governor; term, 4 years; salary, $3,500.

Georgia — Owes its name to George II., of England, who first
established a colony there in 1732. Its motto is, " Wisdom, justice
and moderation." It was one of the original States. Population



Online Librarypub Chas. C. Chapman & Co.History of Tazewell county, Illinois ; together with sketches of its cities, villages and townships, educational, religious, civil, military, and political history; portraits of prominent persons and biographies of representative citizens. History of Illinois ... Digest of state laws → online text (page 14 of 79)