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History of Tazewell county, Illinois ; together with sketches of its cities, villages and townships, educational, religious, civil, military, and political history; portraits of prominent persons and biographies of representative citizens. History of Illinois ... Digest of state laws online

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Online Librarypub Chas. C. Chapman & Co.History of Tazewell county, Illinois ; together with sketches of its cities, villages and townships, educational, religious, civil, military, and political history; portraits of prominent persons and biographies of representative citizens. History of Illinois ... Digest of state laws → online text (page 15 of 79)
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in 1860, 1,057,286; 1870, 1,184,109. Capital, Atlanta. Area 58,-
000 square miles. Has 9 Eepresentatives in Congress, and 11
Presidential electors. Her Governor is A. H. Colquitt, Democrat;
term, 4 years; salary, $4,000.

Illinois — Motto, " State Sovereignty, National Union." Name
derived from the Indian word, Illini, meaning, superior men. It
is called the ''Prairie State," and its inhabitants, "Suckers."
Was first explored by the French in 1673, and admitted into the
Union in 1818. Area 55,410 square miles. Population, in 1860^
1,711,951; in 1870, 2,539,871. She sent to the front to defend the
Union, 258,162 soldiers. Capital, Springfield Has 19 members in
Congress, and 21 Presidential electors. Shelby M. Cullom, Kepnb.
lican, is Governor; elected for 4 years; salary, $6,000.

Indiana — Is called " Hoosier State." Was explored in 1682,
and admitted as a State in 1816. Its name was suggested by its
numerous Indian population. Area 33,809 square miles. Popu-
lation in 1860, 1,350,428; in 1870, 1,680,637. She put into the
Federal army, 194,363 men. Capital, Indianapolis. Has 13 mem-
bers in Congress, and 15 Presidential electors. J.D.Williams,
Governor, Democrat; salary, $3,000; term, 4 year.

Iowa — Is an Indian name and means "This is the land." Its
motto is, "Our liberties we prize, our rights we will maintain."
It is called the " Hawk Eye State." It was first visited by
Marquette and Joliet in 1673; settled by New Englanders in
1833, and admitted into the Union in 1846. Des Moines is the
capital. It has an area of 55,045, and a population in 1860 of 674.913,
and in 1870 of 1,191,802. She sent to defend the Government,
75,793 soldiers. Has 9 members in Congress; 11 Presidential
electors. John H. Gear, Kepublican, is Governor; salary, $2,500;
term, 2years.

Kansas — Was admitted into the Union in 1861, making the
thirty-fourth State. Its motto is Ad astra per aspera^ " To the
stars through difiiculties." Its name means, " Smoky water," and



180 HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.

is derived from one of her rivers. Area 78,841 square miles.
Population in 1860, 107,209; in 1870 was 362,812. She furnished
20,095 soldiers. Capital is Topeka. Has 3 Representatives in Con-
gress, and 5 Presidential electors. John P. St. John, Governor;
politics, Republican; salary, $3,000; terra, 2 years.

Kentucky — Is the Indian name for "At the head of the rivers."
Its motto is, " United we stand, divided we fall," The sobriquet
of "dark and bloody ground " is applied to this State. It was first
settled in 1769, and admitted in 1792 as the fifteenth State. Area
37,680. Population in 1860, 1,155,684; in 1870, 1,321,000. She
put into the Federal army 75,285 soldiers. Capital, Frankfort.
Has 10 members in Congress; 12 Electors. J. B. McCreary,
Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000 ; term, 4 years.

Louisiana — Was called after Louis XIY., who at one time
owned that section of the country. Its motto is " Union and Con-
fidence." It is called "The Creole State." It was visited by La
Salle in 1684, and admitted into the Union in 1812, making the
eighteenth State. Population in 1860,708,002; in 1870, 732,731.
Area 46,431 square miles. She put into the Federal army 5,224
soldiers. Capital, Kew Orleans. Has 6 Representatives and 8
Electors. F. T. Nichols, Governor, Democrat; salary, $8,000;
term, 4 years.

Maine. — This State was called after the province of Maine in
France, in compliment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned
that province. Its motto is Dirigo^ meaning " I direct." It is
called "The Pine Tree State." It was settled by the English in
1625. It was admitted as a State in 1820. Area 31,766 square
miles. Population in 1860, 628,279; in 1870, 626,463; 69,738 sol-
diers v/ent from this State. Has 5 members in Congress, and 7
Electors. Selden Conner, Republican, Governor; term, 1 year;
salary, $2,500.

Maryland — Was named after Henrietta Maria, Queen of
Charles I. of England. It has a Latin motto, Crecite et Tnultiplica-
mini, meaning " Increase and Multiply." It was settled in 1634,
and was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 11,-
124 square miles. Population in 1860 was 687,049; in 1870, 780,-
806. This State furnished 46,053 soldiers. Capital, Annapolis.
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. J. H. Carroll,
Democrat, Governor; salary, $4, 500 ; term, 4 years.



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 181

Massachusetts — Is the Indian for " The country around the great
hills." It is called the "Bay State," from its numerous bays. Its
motto is E use petit placidam sub lihertatc quietem, " By the sword
she seeks placid rest in liberty." It was settled in 1620 at Plymouth
by English Puritans. It was one of the original thirteen States,
and was the first to take up arms against the English during the
Revolution. Area 7,800 square miles. Population in 1860, 1,231,-
066; in 18T0, 1,457,351. She gave to the Union army 146,467 sol-
diers. Boston is the capital. Has 11 Representatives in Con-
gress, and 13 Presidential electors. Thomas Talbot, Republican, is
Governor; salary, $5,000; terra, 1 year.

Michigan — Latin motto, Luehor, and Si qucEvis yeninsulariL
amainam circumspice, '-'■ 1 will defend" — " If you seek a pleasant
peninsula, look around you." The name is a contraction of two
Indian words meaning " Great Lake." It was early explored by
Jesuit missionaries, and in 1837 was admitted into the Union. It
is known as the " Wolverine State." It contains 56,243 square
miles. In 18G0 it had a population of 749,173; in 1870, 1,184,059.
She furnished 88,111 soldiers. Capital, Lansing. Has 9 Repre-
sentatives and 11 Presidential electors. C. M. Croswell is Gov-
ernor; politics, Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 2 years.

Minnesota — Is an Indian name, meaning " Cloudy Water." It
has a French motto, VE toils du Word — " The Star of the North."
It was visited in 1680 by La Salle, settled in 1846, and admitted
into the Union in 1858. It contains 83,531 square miles. In 1860
had a population of 172,023; in 1870, 439,511. She gave to the
Union army 24-,002 soldiers. St. Paul is the capital. Has 3 mem-
bers in Congress, 5 Presidential electors. Governor, J. S. Pills-
bury, Republican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years.

Mississipjyi — Is an Indian name, meaning "Long River," and the
State is named from the " Father of Waters." The State was first
explored by De Sota in 1541; settled by the French at Natchez in
1716, and was admitted into the Union in 1817. It has an area of
47,156 square miles. Population in 1860, 791,305; in 1870,827,-
922. She gave to suppress the Rebellion 545 soldiers. Jackson is
the capital. lias 6 representatives in Congress, and 8 Presidential
electors. J. M. Stone is Governor, Democrat; salary, $4,000;
terra, 4 years.

Missouri — Is derived from the Indian word " muddy," which



182 HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.



more properly applies to the river that flows through it. Its motto
is Salus popull suprema lex esto, " Let the welfare of the people
be the supreme law." The State was first settled by the French
near JelFerson City in 1719, and in 1S21 was admitted into the
Union. It has an area of 67,380 square miles, equal to 43,123,200
acres. It had a population in 1860 of 1,182,012; in 1870, 1,721,-
000. She gave to defend the Union 108,162 soldiers. Capital,
Jefierson City. Its inhabitants are known by the offensive cogno-
man of ^' Pukes." Has 13 representatives in Congress, and 15
Presidential electors. J. S. Phelps is Governor; politics. Demo-
cratic; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years.

Nebraska— Rsi.^ f jr its motto, " Equality before the law." Its
name is derived from one of its rivers, meaning " broad and shal-
low, or low." It was admitted into the Union in 1367. Its capital
is Lincoln. It had a population in 1860 of 28,841, and in 1870,
123,993, and in 1875,246,280. It has an area of 75,995 square
miles. She furnished to defend the Union 3,157 soldiers. Has but
1 Kepresentative and 3 Presidential electors. A. Nance, Kepub-
lican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; term, 2 years.

Nevada — " The Snowy Land " derived its name from the Span-
ish. Its motto is Latin, Volens et potens, and means " willing
and able." It was settled in 1850, and admitted into the Union in
1864. Capital, Carson City. Its population in 1860 was 6,857;
in 1870 it was 42,491. It has an area of 112,000 square miles.
She furnished 1,080 soldiers to suppress the Eebellion. Has 1 Rep-
resentative and 3 Electors. Governor, J. H. Kinkhead, Eepublican;
salary, $6,000 ; term, 4 years.

Neio Hamjyshire — Was first settled at Dover by the English in
1623. Was one of the original States. Has no motto. It is
named from Hampshire county in England. It also bears the
name of " The Old Granite State." It has an area of 9,280 miles,
which equals 9,239,200 acres. It had a population in 1860 of 326,-
073, and in 1870 of 318,300. She increased the Union army with
33,913 soldiers. Concord is the capital. Has 3 Eepresentatives
and 5 Presidential electors. N. Head, Eepublican, Governor;
salary, $1,000; term, 1 year.

New Jersey — Was named in honor of the Island of Jersey in the
British channel. Its motto is " Liberty and Independence." It was
first settled at Bergen by the Swedes in 1624. It is one of the orig-



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 1S3

inal thirteen States. It has an area of 8,320 square miles, or 5,324,-
800 acres. Population in 1860 was 672,035 ; in 1870 it was 906,096.
She put into the Federal army 75,315 soldiers. Capital, Trenton.
Has 7 Representatives and 9 Presidential electors. Governor,
George B. McClelland, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 3 years.

New York. — The " Empire State " was named by the Duke of
York, afterward King James II. of England. It has a Latin motto,
Excelsior, which means " Still Higher." It was first settled by the
Dutch in 161-i at Manhattan. It has an area of 47,000 square
miles, or 30,080,000 acres. The population in 1860 was 3,880,735;
in 1870 it was 4,332,759. It is one of the original thirteen States.
Capital is Albany. It gave to defend our Government 445,959
men. Has 33 members in Congress, and 35 Presidential electors.
Governor, L. Robinson, Democrat; salary, $10,000; term, 3 years.

North Carolina — Was named after Charles IX., King of France.
It is called '' The Old North," or " The Turpentine State." It was
first visited in 1524 by a Florentine navigator, sent out by Francis
I., King of France. It was settled at Albemarle in 1663. It was
one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 50,704 squai'e
miles, equal to 32,450,560 acres. It had in 1860 a population of
992,622, and In 1870, 1,071,361. Raleigh is the capital. She
furnished 3,156 soldiers to put down the Rebellion. Has 8 mem-
bers in Congress, and is entitled to 10 Presidential electors. Z. B.
Yance, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years.

Ohio — Took its name from the river on its Southern boundary,
and means " Beautiful." Its motto is 1 inperium in Iinperio —
''An Empire in an Empire." It was first permanently settled in
1788 at Marietta by New Englanders. It was admitted as a State
in 1803. Its capital is Columbus. It contains 39,964 square
miles, or 25,576,960 acres. Population in 1860, 2,339,511; in 1870
it had 2,665,260. She sent to the front during the Rebellion 310,-
654 soldiers. Has 20 Representatives, and 22 Presidential electors.
Governor, R. M. Bishop, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years.

Oregon — Owes its Indian name to its principal river. Its motto
is Alis volat j)ropriis — " She flics with her own wings." It was
first visited by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century. It was set-
tled by the English in 1813, and admitted into the Union in 1859.
Its capital is Salem. It has an area of 95,274 square miles, equal
to 60,975,360 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 52,465; in



184: niSTOKY OF ILLINOIS,

1870, 90,922. She furnished 1,810 soldiers. She is entitled to 1
member in Congress, and 3 Presidential electors. W. W. Thayer,
Republican, is Governor; salary, $1,500 ; term, 4 years.

Pennsylvania. — This is the "Keystone State," and means "Penn's
Woods," and was so called after "William Penn, its original owner.
Its motto is, " Yirtue, liberty and independence." A colony was
established by Penn in 1682. The State was one of the original
thirteen. It has an area of 46,000 square miles, equaling 29,440,-
000 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 2,906,215; and in 1870,
3,515,993. She gave to suppress the Rebellion, 338,155. Harris-
burg is the capital. Has 27 Representatives and 29 electors. H.
M.Hoyt, is Governor; salary, $10,000; politics, Republican; term
of office, 3 years.

Rhode Island. — This, the smallest of the States, owes its name to
the Island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said
to greatly resemble. Its motto is " Hope," and it is familiarly
called, "Little Rhody." It was settled by Roger Williams in 1636.
It was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 1,306
square miles, or 835,840 acres. Its population in 1860 numbered
174,620; in 1870, 217,356. She gave to defend the Union, 23,248.
Its capitals are Providence and Newport. Has 2 Representatives,
and 4 Presidential electors. C. Vanzandt is Governor; politics,
Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 1 year.

South Carolina. — The Palmetto State wears the Latin name of
Charles IX., of France (Carolus). Its motto is Latin, Animis
o^ih usque par ati, " Ready in will and deed." The first permanent
settlement was made at Port Royal in 1670, where the French
Huguenots had failed three-quarters of a century before to found a
settlement. It is one of the original thirteen States. Its capital is
Columbia. It has an area of 29,385 square miles, or 18,806,400
acres, with a population in 1860 of 703,708; in 1870, 728,000.
Has 5 Representatives in Congress, and is entitled to 7 Presidential
electors. Salary of Governor, $3,500; term, 2 years.

Tennessee— l^ the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e,
the Mississippi, which forms its western boundary. She is called
"The Big Bend State." Her motto is, " Agriculture, Commerce."
It was settled in 1757, and admitted into the Union in 1796, mak-
ing the sixteenth State, or the third admitted after the Revolution-
ary War— Vermont being the first, and Kentucky the second. It



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 185

has an area of 45,600 sqiuue miles, or 29,184,000 acres. In 1860
its population numbered 1,109,801, and in 1870, 1,257,983 She
furnished 31,092 soldiers to suppress the Rebellion. Nashville is
the capital. Has 10 Representatives, and 12 Presidential electors.
Governor, A. S. Marks, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years.

Texas — Is the American word for the Mexican name by which
all that section of the country was known before it was ceded to the
United States. It is known as " The Lone Star State." The first set-
tlement was made by LaSalle in 1685. After the independence of
Mexico in 1822, it remained a Mexican Province until 1836, when
it gained its independence, and in 1845 was admitted into the
Union. It has an area of 237,504 square miles, equal to 152,002,-
560 acres. Its population in 1860 was 604,215; in 1870, 818,579.
She gave to put down the Rebelion 1,965 soldiers. Capital, Austin.
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. Governor, O.
M. Roberts, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 2 years.

Yermont — Bears the French name of her mountains Verde Mont
"Green Mountains." Its motto is "Freedom and Unity." It
was settled in 1731, and admitted into the Union in 1791. Area
10,212 square miles. Population in 1860, 315,098 ; in 1870, 330,551-
She gave to defend the Government, 33,272 soldiers. Capital, Mont-
pelier. Has 3 Representatives, and 5 electors. Governor, H. Fair-
banks, Republican; term, 2 years; salary, $1,000.

Virginia. — The Old Dominion, as this State is called, is the
oldest of the States. It was named in honor of Queen Elizabeth,
the " Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made his
first attempt to colonize that region. Its motto is Sic semper
tyrannis, " So always with tyrants." It was first settled at James-
town, in 1607, by the English, being the first settlement in the
United States. It is one of original thirteen States, and had before
its division in 1862, 61,352 square miles, but at present contains
but 38,352 square miles, equal to 24,545,280 acres. The population
in 1860 amounted to 1,596,318, and in 1870 it was 1,224,830. Rich-
mond is the capital. Has 9 Representatives, and 11 electors. Gov-
ernor, F. W. M. Halliday, Democrat; salary, $5,500; term, 4 years.
West Virginia. — Motto, 31 ojitani semper liberi, " Mountaineers
are always free." This is the only State ever formed, under the
Constitution, by the division of an organized State. This was done
in 1862, and in 1863 was admitted into the Union. It has an area of



186



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.



23,000 square miles, or 14,720,000 acres. The population in 1860
was 376,000; in 1870 it numbered 445,616. She furnished 32,003.
Capital, Wheeling. Has 3 Representatives in Congress, and is
entitled to 5 Presidential electors. The Governor is H. M. Mathews,
Democrat; term, 4 years; salary, $2,700.

\Visco7isi7i — Is an Indian name, and means "Wild-rushing
channel." Its motto, Clvitatas successit barbarum^ " The civilized
man succeeds the barbarous." It is called " The Badger State."
The State was visited by the French explorers in 1665, and a settle-
ment was made in 1669 at Green Bay, It was admitted into the
Union in 1848. It has an area of 52,924 square miles, equal to
34,511,360 acres. In 1860 its population numbered 775,881; in
1870, 1,055,167. Madison is the capital. She furnished for the
Union army 91,021 soldiers. Has 8 members in Congress, and is
entitled to 10 Presidential electors. The Governor is W. E. Smith;
politics, Republican; salary, $5,000; term, 2 years.




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HISTORY OF TAZEWELL COUNTY.



CHAPTER I.

SETTLEMENT AND ORGANIZATION.
LA SALLE's explorations. — FIRST ATTEMPT TO SETTLE ILLINOIS.

TO TAZEWELL county belongs the honor of having within
her boundary the soil first turned by white men in the great
State of Illinois. To it we must also look to find the scene of the
first attempt made by Europeans to settle our grand and noble State.
On the third day of next January (1880), it will have been just two
hundred vears since LaSalle with his little band of Frenchmen
stepped from their canoes, which rested upon the placid waters of
the Illinois, upon the shore now embraced within the limits of this
county. This little fleet of canoes contained in all thirty-three
daring, resolute explorers, and were led by the indomitable will,
genius and enthusiasm of the most noted of French explorers, Rob-
ert Cavalier de LaSalle. This famous explorer had conceived the
plan of opening water communication between the Gulf of St. Law-
rence and the Gulf of Mexico. It was this truly grand and com-
prehensive purpose that seems to have animated him in all his
wonderful achievements and the matchless difficulties and hardships
he encountered.

It was in the consummation of this idea of LaSalle's that brought
the little band down the beautiful stream named in honor of the
Illinois Indians who dwelt upon its banks, and landed them on its
eastern shore. Seven years previous Jolict and Marquette, the first
Europeans to discover the Illinois, had wended their way up to its
course on their return from their famous voyage down the Missis-
13



190 HISTORY OF TAZEWELL COUNTY.

sippi. Being truly a leader, foremost in every enterprise, every
thought, every move, we do not doubt that the dauntless La-
Salle himself was the first to alight upon the shore, — was the first
white man to set foot upon the soil of Tazewell county. Thus it
will be seen that here is a spot truly historic, — a place noted for
being the first in one of the greatest States of the Union where
civilized man made his first attempt to establish himself.

FORT CREVECCEUR BUILT.

Through the difficulties encountered with the Indians, and the
machinations of his own men, LaSalle was greatly retarded on his
journey southward. Winter had overtaken him, and to protect him-
self and followers, and to provide for them comfortable quarters in
which to pass that dreary season, he resolved to erect a fort. His
good judgment led him to a spot upon the eastern bank of the Illi-
nois, the site of the present Wesley City, and upon the southeast
quarter of section one, Pekin township. Here upon the extremity
of a ridge, protected on either side by deep ravines, and extending
to within two huudred yards of the water's edge, he built a fort
which he christened Fort Crevecoeur. The moaning of the French
name is heart-breaker. Why LaSalle should have chosen so sad a
name we know not, unless, perchance, by a prophetic vision he
glanced into the future and foresaw the sad ending of his enterprise.
Or, it may have been thus named as indicative of the misfortunes
they suffered here, or from its having been the site of a bloody bat-
tle between the brutal Iroquois and Illinois Indians.

To fortify the bluff thus selected, the point of which at the time
was about one hundred yards further from the river than it now is,
his first move was to dig a ditch behind and connect the two ravines.
He thus severed the point upon which the fort was to be constructed,
which contains about eighty acres, from all connection with any land
of the same altitude. This bluif rises to the height of from 160 to
180 feet, and to increase the altitude of its different sides, which
nature has made steep and rugged, an embankment encircling its
outer line was thrown up. To make the fortress still more impregna-
ble a palisade of heavy oak timber, twenty-five feet in height, ex-
tending around the entire fortification, was constructed. This being
completed, buildings for the accommodation of the men were erected
within the enclosure, and the little band went into snug winter
quarters.



HISTORY OP TAZEWELL COUNTY. 191

The fort was admirably located, and commanded fnll view of the
river for miles above and below ; and its high, perpendicular sides,
heavily palisaded, could not be easily ascended by the foe. Thus
advanta^eouslv situated a small garrison could have defended it from
the combined attack of all the neighboring Indians, at least until
the supply of provisions failed.

THE JESUIT PRIESTS.

Fortunately, however, the fort was never used to protect the men
from Indian hostility, as they remained peaceable and friendly with
the garrison. Indeed, it was used more as a sanctuary than a fort-
ress of military power. Fathers Hennepin and Membre and old
Father Ribourde labored daily with the neighboring Indians. But
even the zeal and earnestness displayed by those early Jesuit mis-
sionaries in spiritual matters failed to make any perceptible impres-
sion upon the filthy savages. Hennepin preached twice every Sun-
day, chanted vespers, and regretted that the want of wine prevented
the celebration of mass.

A VESSEL COMMENCED.

The fort having been fully completed, LaSalle set about to build a
sailing vessel with Avhich to descend the Mississippi to the Gulf of
Mexico. Thus we see that the first timber felled by the axe of civ-
ilization, the first mechanical labor performed, and not only the
first fort built but the first vessel put upon the stocks in Illinois,
were all done in Tazewell county.

HENNEPIN SENT ON HIS FAMOUS VOYAGE.

In the mean time LaSalle sent Hennepin, with Accau and Du
Gay, on his famous voyage of the discovery of the upper Mississippi.
They left the fort on the last day of February. After a year's sojourn
among the Indians of that region Hennepin returned to Europe,
where the account of his exploits and the description of this beauti-
ful country was published in several languages. He subsequently,
however, attempted to rob LaSalle of his well-earned and deserved
honor by giving a false account of his discoveries, in consequence of
which much of his writings are discredited.

LEGENDS OF THE MISSISSIPPI.

LaSalle could not obtain any satisfactory information from the
Indians in regard to the Mississippi. All his inquiries had elicited



192 HISTORY OF TAZEWELL COUNTY.

only the information that the Father of Waters was inhabited by huge
goblins, and an attempt to sail upon its boisterous waves w^as



Online Librarypub Chas. C. Chapman & Co.History of Tazewell county, Illinois ; together with sketches of its cities, villages and townships, educational, religious, civil, military, and political history; portraits of prominent persons and biographies of representative citizens. History of Illinois ... Digest of state laws → online text (page 15 of 79)