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Latin texts, carefully edited with introductions and
notes, by Wilfred P. Mustard, M. A., Ph.D.,
Collegiate Professor of Latin in the Johns Hop-
kins University.

1. The Eclogues of Baptista Mantuanus, 191 1.
Pp. 156. $1.50.

2. The Piscatory Eclogues of Jacopo Sannazaro,
1914. Pp. 94. $1.00.

3. The Eclogues of Publius Faustus Andrelinus and
loannes Arnolletus Nivernensis, 1918. Pp. 123.














Copyright, 1918








Thanks to the liberal policy of the Johns Hopkins Press,
I am able to make this third contribution to the history of
the hmnanistic Pastoral.

The name of Faustus Andrelinus is less familiar than that
of either " good old Mantuan " or Sannazaro ; he never en-
joyed the fame and the influence of the one, he never ap-
proached the high poetic plane of the other. And yet in his
own day and generation he was a very important personage.
One of the Italian scholars who helped to spread the New
Learning in France, professor for many years in the Univer-
sity of Paris, the intimate friend of Erasmus, the special
protege of the King and Queen — din regnavit Lutetiae.
His Eclogues are always readable, because they contain
a certain amount of autobiography, and reflect many of his
own experiences in Italy and France. They are interesting
because of their ' moral ' tone, with occasional bits of pro-
verbial wisdom and frequent echoes of the great Roman
Satirists. And they hold an important place in the tradition
of the Pastoral, because of their frequent imitation of Cal-
purnius and Nemesianus — at a time when these two poets
were not very widely read.

My Text is based on a comparison of the Paris edition
of 1506 with a rotograph copy of the text published by
J. Oporinus, Basel, 1546. In a few passages I have adopted
the reading of Josentius Josa's edition, Lyons, 1530. The
spelling is modified to suit the convenience of the modern
reader. The punctuation is my own.

My Notes are mainly concerned with the question of
Andrelinus' sources, and only occasionally sen^e to explain
his meaning. I have paid some attention to his fondness for
proverbial expressions, and I have tried to indicate some of
the traces of his Italian origin. Indeed, there is more than
one passage {e. g. vii. 44) where without some knowledge
of Italian it would be hard to guess his meaning at all.



The Appendices are added to give a part of the historical
background of the Eclogues. I have modernized the spell-
ing and punctuation of these documents, but I have been
careful not to interfere with anyone's diction, syntax, or
meaning. It is mere chance, not design, that my edition
will help to mark the fourth centenary of the poet's death.

The four rather prosaic Eclogues of loannes Arnolletus
are really added as a sort of appendix. They show that
Andrelinus had at least one close imitator. And they show
that, like Andrelinus, their author was a careful student of
Calpurnius and Nemesianus. The text is based on roto-
graph copies of the editions published by Badius Ascensius,
Paris, 1524, and J. Oporinus, Basel, 1546, and on my own
copy of the Poematia published by Robert Winter, Basel,

I have three people to thank for special help in the mak-
ing of this book: Professor John L. Gerig, of Columbia
University, Mr. E. H. W. Meyerstein, of the British
Museum, and M. Ch. Mortet, of the Bibliotheque Ste-
Genevieve, Paris.

W. P. M.

" HoMEwooD ", Baltimore,
December 2i, 1917.



Introduction ii

Eclogues of Publius Faustus Andrelinus 21

Notes ^7

Eclogues of Ioannes Arnolletus Nivernensis 89

Notes ^^7

Appendices ^^3

Index ^^^




PuBLius Faustus Andrelinus was born at Forli, about
1462. He studied at Bologna, under Filelfo, and at Rome,
under Pomponio Leto. About 1483 he was crowned by the
Roman Academy,^ for his Amores, or Livia—'' etsi nondum
secundum et vigesimum annum agebat." - At Rome he
made the acquaintance of Lodovico Gonzaga, Bishop of
Mantua, and he enjoyed his patronage for four years
( 1484-1488) . Toward the close of 1488 he went to France,
carrying with him letters of introduction to his patron's
niece, Chiara Gonzaga, and to her husband, Gilbert de
Montpensier, compte-dauphin of Auvergne.^' On Septem-
ber 5, 1489, he was admitted to lecture publicly at the
University of Paris—" ad lectiones publicas in arte humani-
tatis legendas." In the autumn of 1491 he went to teach
for some months at Toulouse ; and he also tried his fortune
at Poitiers. But he soon returned to Paris, and taught there
until his death (about March 1, 1518).

His position at Paris was precarious at first, and, in par-
ticular, he had to defend himself against the jealous attacks
of another Italian scholar, Hieron^Tiius Balbus.-* But he
soon won the friendship of the distinguished churchman and
diplomat Robert Gaguin,^ and of the brothers Charles and

1 lacobus Volaterranus, in Muratori, Rer. Hal. Script., xxiii. 185
(Milan, i733)-

2 Johannes Cordiger Alemanus, quoted by Mazzuchelli, Scnttori
d' Italia, i. 7H (Brescia, 1753)-

3 These letters were published bv R. Renier, Giorn. Star. d. Lett.
Ital xix (1892) 191. They are dated Sept. 22, 1488. In one of
them Andrelinus is called " laureato poeta facundissimo et oratore

4 See Ed. xi, ' De Fuga Balbi ', and Appendix A.

5 Gaguin, writing to Erasmus about 1495. says of Andrelinus,
"veterem iam amicum habeo " ; Roberti Gaguini Epistole et Ora-
tiones, ed. L. Thuasne, ii. 7 (Paris, 1904)-



Jean Fernand. And he professes to have enjoyed the
patronage of many other eminent people — of four chancel-
lors of France, Guillaume de Rochefort (d. Aug. 12, 1492),
Robert Brigonnet (d. 1497), Guy de Rochefort (d. 1507),
and Jean de Ganay, of Thomas Ward, ambassador of the
King of England, and Pierre Cohardy or Courthardy (" re-
gius advocatus ", 1486; "primus Franciae praeses ", 1497;
d. 1505). Through the influence of Cohardy, he was
granted a royal pension, about 1496.^ On January 17, 1502,
he was granted letters of naturalization, by Louis XII. In
1505 he was appointed canon of Bayeux.

His most distinguished friend at Paris was Erasmus.'^
In Erasmus' catalogue of his own writings he mentions a
poem which was published soon after his going to Paris
(c. 1495) "ad Faustum Andrelinum, quicum mihi tum
recens coierat sodalitas." On May 2, 1499, he could write:
" cum Fausto mihi . . . summa familiaritas " ; and the
statement is borne out by other letters written about that
time.® In 1500 Andrelinus wrote a commendatory letter,
for the first edition of the Adagia. In a later edition of the
Adagia (c. 1518) Erasmus calls him " vetus congerro
mens " ; and in mentioning his death he speaks of him as

* The pension was continued by Louis XII. In the King's ac-
counts for 1503 there is an entry, "A Faustus, orateur, 180 liv." ;
R. de Maulde, Chroniques de Louis XII par Jean d'Auton, i. 388
(Paris, 1889).

' Another early friend at Paris who afterwards became distin-
guished was Guillaume Bude. In 1496 Andrelinus addressed to him
a short poem, Querela Parrhisiensis Pavimenti, the tone of which
implies a certain degree of intimacy with the recipient. It is quoted
by Ludwig Geiger, ' Publio Fausto Aridrelini aus Forli ', in Viertel-
jahrs. /. Kulttir und Liit. d. Renaissance, i. (1886) 535.

* For example, the letter of the same year in which he urges
Andrelinus to join him in England and tells him of the pretty Eng-
lish girls and of the pleasant English custom of kissing on all occa-
sions ; Letters of Erasmus, ed. P. S. Allen, i. 238 (Oxford, 1906).
A sentence in this letter has been solemnly offered as one of the
sources of the legend of Dr. Faust, the famous magician and char-
latan of the i6th century: " Quamquam si Britanniae dotes satis
pernosses, Fauste, nae tu alatis pedibus hue accurreres ; et si podagra
tua non sineret, Daedalum te fieri optares." To Herman Grimm
this was the earliest trace of the wide-spread belief in Faust's ability
to fly through the air {Preuss. Jahrb., xlvii. 456). See also Allen's
edition, i. 3, 221, 234, 235, 236, 297, 311.


one who deserved to live forever, " immortalitate dignus."
It was only in the following year that he ventured to write
a very unfavorable report of his old friend's character and

In an edition of the Adagia published about 1518 Andre-
linus is mentioned as " poeta non solum laureatus verum
etiam regius atque etiam, si diis placet, regineus " (68, cent.
2, chiliad. 2). Some scholars have seen in this a mere
jest on the part of Erasmus, and not an actual title. But
the poet is actually called " poeta laureatus regiusque ac
regineus " in an undated edition of his ' aegloga moralissima '
and in an undated edition of his Hecatodistichon.^ And
he apparently had some right to the full title. In dedi-
cating to him an edition of some of the comedies of Plautus,
Simon Carpentarius mentions the " lecturae tum regiae tum
regineae quas non sine optima mercede perficis ".^^ The
queen in question was doubtless Queen Anne. Even in the
eighteenth century his unusual title had not been forgotten.
Baillet introduces him as " Poete couronne Poete du Roi (et
de la Reine, si Ton veut rire avec Erasme)".^^ And de la
Monnoye has his comment, in the Mefiagiana, iii. 183 (Paris
ed., 1715) :

Poeta Regius, en bon Frangois, signifie le fou de Roi. Le poete

Regnier le Satirique a dit, sat. 14. v. 30:

' Les foux sont aux echets les plus proches des Rois.'

A ce conte Faustus Andrelinus, qui prenoit tout ensemble la qualite

de Poeta Regius et de Regineus, etoit le fou du Roi et de la Reine.

His popularity and his influence as a teacher are often
mentioned; ^2 " ^iu regnavit Lutetiae ", as Erasmus said.^'

9 Both included in Mile. Pellechet's list of French Incunabula ; i,
156 and 158.

10 Mazzuchelli, op. cit., i. 715. Cp. ' Corydon's ' statement, Ed.
xii. 190, where after speaking of the King's bounty, " pulchra fetas
sub imagine vaccas ", he adds, " atque alias Augusta boves dedit
uxor ".

11 Jugemens des Savans, Paris ed.. 1722, iv. 329.

12 "Ab extremis Franciae et Germaniae oris auditores confluxerunt,
ut reconditarum facultatum praecepta audirent, et in suas regiones
certatim deferrent " ; Marchesi, Vitae Virorum Illustrium Forolivi-
ensium, Forli, 1 726 (quoted by R. Renier. op. cit., p. 187). Some
of his pupils in Paris were Claudius Budinus Carnotensis, Matthias


In the first edition of his Livia (Paris, Oct. 1, 1490) there
is a complimentary letter from " Frater lohannes Cordiger
Alemanus sacrae theologiae professor ", addressed to the
University of Paris :

Nostris quoque temporibus merito gloriari potest vestra Univer-
sitas Parisiensis, quod Faustum Andrelinum Foroliviensem nacta est.
Is enim, cum omnium disciplinarum studiosissimus sit, solus fuit (ut
aliorum pace dixerim) qui Galliam ex ieiuna saturam, ex inculta
tersam, ex sicca viridem, ex barbara Latinam fecit ; quandoquidem
non solum oratoriam et poeticam facuhatem, sed etiam sphaericam
ipsam tanta omnium admiratione professus est, ut quid dicant alii
profecto habeant nihil, et artem ac leporem carminis hoc in Regno
antea prorsus incogniti ita patefecit, ut omnes solum Faustum in
quovis carminis genere imitari studeant, et integras illius sententias
ac versus saepenumero pro suis accipiant. Nee id profecto iniuria
factum est, cum Faustus talis sit poeta, ut ' ab eo ceu fonte perenni
vatum Pieriis ' (ut de Homero scribit Ovidius) ' ora rigentur

' 14

One of his pupils, Claudius Budinus Carnotensis, could
say of him :

Ille est qui Latium Musis spoliavit amoenis,
Ut coleret Gallas clarus Apollo domos ;

Ille est qui primus cis Alpes carmina vexit,
Quo duce iam Francos nulla Camena latet.

^ :): ^ ^c :|; :)c

* Laurea serta gerens Musisque excultus amoenis
Gymnasium Faustus Parisiense polit.' ^^

In the dedication of an edition of Persius (Lyons, Jan. 27,
1499) lodocus Badius Ascensius has, " Faustum praecipuum
Galliarum specimen ac litteraturae praesidium, regium dico
ilium musicum ac vatem clarissimum, Parrhisios tot annos
erudientem." '^^ Beatus Rhenanus, looking back on his own

Ringmann, Sebastian Murrho the Younger, Othmar Nachtigal,
Beatus Arnoaldus, and Beatus Rhenanus. See G. C. Knod, Aus der
Bibliothek des Beatus Rhenanus, pp. 37-43 (Schlettstadt, i88g).

13 Letter of July 26, 1518; Opera omnia, iii. 403 (Leyden, 1703).

i-^ Quoted by Mazzuchelli, op. cit., i. 715. Cp. Ovid, Am., iii. 9, 25.

15 From his poem 'Faustina', in Poematia aliquot insignia illus-
irium Poetarum recentiorum, Basileae, per Robertum Winter, 1544'
The last distich here quoted is used as a motto in three Paris editions
of the Buccolica Fausti, I496(?), 1501, 1506.

1^ Ph. Renouard, Bibliographie de Jesse Badius Ascensius, iii. 147


student days at Paris (1503-1507), reports that Faustus was
not an ideal teacher: " defunctorie profitebatur, iocis qui-
busdam magis festivis quam doctis plausum rudium audi-
torum captans." ^^ And Erasmus implies that his lectures
sometimes made the judicious grieve: " Lutetiae licuit Fausto
profiteri quoslibet poetas usque ad naenias Priapeas, idque
more (ne quid aliud dicam) Faustino." Indeed, when
Erasmus thinks of his personal and moral character and his
rather mediocre learning, he marvels that the University of
Paris could put up with him so long :

Parisiensis Academiae candorem ac civilitatem iam olim sum admi-
ratus, quae tot annos Faustum tulerit, nee tulerit solum, verum etiam
aluerit evexeritque. Cum Faustum dico, multa tibi succurrunt quae
nolim Uteris committere. Qua petulantia solitus est ille in Theolo-
gorum ordinem debacchari ! Quam non casta erat illius professio !
Neque cuiquam obscurum erat qualis esset vita. Tantum malorum
Galli doctrinae hominis condonabant, quae tamen ultra mediocritatem
non admodum erat progressa.^^

His principal published works were, Livici sen Amores,
in four books (Paris, 1490) ; Elegiarum libri III (1494) ;
Bucolica (c. 1496) ; De moralihus et intellectualibns virtuti-
bus (c. 1496) ; Hecatodistichon (before 1500) ; Epistolae
proverbiales et morales (nine epistles in prose, 1507, or
earlier) . He wrote a number of occasional poems, to court
the favor or acknowledge the bounty of his adopted country :
on the victories of Charles VIII at Naples and at Fomovo
(1496), 1^ on the death of Charles VIII (1498), on the
capture of Lodovico Sforza, * II Moro ' (1500), on the
second victory of the French at Naples (1502), on the
taking of Genoa (1507), on the conquest of Venice (1509),
on the career of Georges d'Amboise, Cardinal Archbishop

(Paris, 1908). Ascensius' own edition of Ottavio Cleofilo's De coetii
poetarum (Paris, Oct. 7, 1503) was dedicated to Faustus, " decus
camoenarum ".

■^^ Epistle to Charles V (June I, 1540).

1® Letter to Ludovicus Vives (15 19) ; Opera omnia, iii. 535 (Ley-
den, 1703). See, also, iii. 689.

1^ Cp. Petrus Crinitus, 'Ad Faustum, de Carolo Rege Francorum,
cum ad Urbem tenderet cum exercitu ', ' Quid occupatum litteris
urges tuis | frustraque toties flagitas, | ut impotentis Galliae fastum
gravem | regemque dicam Carolum?' Two other poems of Crinitus
are addressed ' ad Faustum '.


of Rouen, on the marriage of Claude, daughter of Louis XII,.
with Francis, Duke of Valois, etc., etc. In 1499 he pub-
lished an edition of Ottavio Cleofilo da Fano's De Coetu
Poet arum. '^^

The Eclogues \i. e. the first eleven) were printed at Paris
about 1496.^^ They seem to have been written at various
times between 1488 and 1496; the first refers to the poet's
departure for France (toward the end of 1488), the tenth,
to the birth of a son to Charles VIII (Sept. 1496). Some
of them were ready for publication in 1494 : ** buccolicum
carmen quotidiano prope convicio flagitatum emittam, cum
primum a Guilelmo Gualtero certior factus fuero cuinam
lucubrationes illae iure dedicandae sint " (Ded. of the
Elegies, to Thomas Ward). The twelfth is of later date.^^
It is addressed to Louis XII, and professes to have been
written when ' Corydon ' (i'. e. Faustus) w^as 50 years old.

In the De Latinae Linguae Reparatione of M. Antonius
Sabellicus there is a brief comment on Andrelinus and his
earlier poems. He is mentioned immediately after Baptista
Mantuanus: " multum ingenii et in M. Octavio Phanensi,
multum in Forliviensi Fausto ; verum uterque amorum can-
tator, et ob id minus quam ille de quo loquor celebrandi." ^^
In a Venice edition of the Amores, 1501, Bartolomeo Mega-
luzzi called the author " principem poetarum nostri tem-
poris." ^* And in the dedication of an edition of Plautus,
Simon Carpentarius called him ** eorum ex numero qui
vivunt eruditissimus poeta." ^^ The printer of two Paris

20 In the dedication of his Elegies to Thomas Ward (1494) he
mentions an ' opus laboriosissimum De Vera ReHgione inscriptum '
and several * unfinished ' works, most of which seem to have been
left unpublished : " Satiras decem, Christianum Adventum, Epigram-
mata ducenta, Sphaericum Dialogum, Morales centum Epistolas, et
Latinae Linguae Observationes."

21 An edition with a commentary was published at Lyons in 1539 :
Bucolica Fausti . . . perdiligenter emendata, cum commento . . .
Josentii Josae.

22 It is not included in the Paris editions of 1501 and 1506. It was
printed at Strassburg in 15 12. Mile. Pellechet, i. 154, includes an
undated edition of it in the list of French Incunabula, and L. Thu-
asne, op. cit., i. 131, says it appeared in 1498.

23 Venice ed., c. 1495, fol. g. vii.

24 Quoted by R. Renier, op. cit., 192.

25 Mazzuchelli, op. cit., i. 715.


editions of the Eclogues, 1501 and 1506 (loannes Antonius
Venetus) was ready to rank them beside those of Virgil and
Calpumius: " Habes, studiose lector, Fausti poetae Regii
Buccolica, quae adeo exculto venustoque carmine composita
sunt, ut neque Virgilii neque Calphurnii aeglogis mea quidem
sententia cedant." In 1507 loannes Murmellius could say:
" Faustum saecla futura canent ", Eleg. Mor., iii. 1, 54.^^
loannes Sapidus thought it worth while to stand out for the
superiority of Virgil :

Sed tua loripedi committe poemata divo ;

Musa tuos ridet Virgiliana modos.
Cuique suum pulchrum ; te caeca philautia tangit

Plus nimio ; sine te laus aliena probet.^^

J. C. Scaliger and Lilius Gyraldus both speak of our poet's
* facilitas ' : Poetice, vi,

Fausti facilitas viventis in scribendo plausu excepta est. Scholas
tamen sapit ilia iuniorum ; a qua nihil aliud quam hoc ipsum ex-
pectes ;

and De Poet. Nostr. Temp.,

Faustum Foroliviensem eius commendat facilitas, sed plerumque
vulgaris et protrita. Perplura hie scripta reliquit, quae a Transal-
pinis, apud quos multos annos vixit, magis quam ab Italis in manibus

G. J. Voss quotes with approval a remark which he attri-
butes to Erasmus :

de cuius poematis scite aiebat Erasmus unicam in iis syllabam
desiderari. Ea erat vovq sive mens."^^

Baillet's estimate is not very high :

^ II ne se soucioit pas beaucoup de mettre des sens dans ses compo-
sitions pourvu qu' il y mit des mots bien choisis et de riches expres-
sions, comme si les choses etoient faites pour les mots, au lieu d'assu-
jettir les mots aux choses.-^

26 Miinster ed., by A. Bomer, 1893, p. 76.

-"^ Quoted by L. Geiger, op. cit., p. 46.

28 Instit. Poet., i. I, 3.

"^ Jugemens des Savans, Paris ed. 1722, iv. 329.


And de la Monnoye could say: " Faustus Andrelinus, Poete
moderne trivial" {Menagiana, ii. 398).

Quotations from Andrelinus are not very numerous, and
the Eclogues seem to be hardly quoted at all. Pierre Grin-
gore quotes the line:

Nil iuvat amisso claudere septa grege

{Oeuvres, Paris ed., 1858, i. 32). The Scoparius of loannes
Murmellius (1517) has the distich :

Stentorea obtundunt clamantes voce sophistae,
Dum levibus nugis tempora vana terunt.^^

There are a dozen quotations (most of them from the Livia)
in the learned commentary which Benedictus Curtius com-
posed on the Arrets d' Amour of Martial d'Auvergne.^^ And
there is one in Grimmelshausen's SimpUcissimus (1669)
i. 17:

Welches auch Faustus Poeta in diesem Disticho exprimiret hat :

Si te rusticitas vilem genuisset agrestis,
Nobilitas animi non foret ista tibi.^^

Branthome quotes a striking phrase, in his Life of Charles

L'ltaHe ne le plaignit pas : aussy le poete Faustus disoit que ses
victoires et faicts belliqueux estoient autant de (stigmates ou pour
mieux parler de vrayes) marques et enseignes, qu'il appelle vera stig-
mata proprement en latin, sur le front des Italiens, qui jamais n' en

And in the Paris edition of the Menagiana, 1715, vol. ii, p.
-398, de la Monnoye remarks:

Ceux qui citent de memoire sont sujets a s'equivoquer. Saumaise
qui sur Solin, pag. 5 de la 2. edit., a cite comme d'Horace cet hexa-

Nulla dies abeat, quin linea ducta supersit,

auroit ete bien etonne si on lui eut fait voir que c'est un vers de
I'Hecatodistichon de Faustus Andrelinus Poete moderne trivial.

30 Miinster ed., by A. Bomer, 1895, p. 82.

31 Paris ed., 1566, pp. 36, 53, 82, 91, 261, 473, 625, 721, 723, 835.
'2 Quoted by L. Geiger, op. cit., p. 46.


There is a quotation in one of the Lamentationes novae Ob-
scurorum Reiichlinistarum (1518), No. 12: " Infecundi
quippe ingenii est (Faustus inquit) praemonstrantem (quan-
quam illi debeatur plurimum) non excedere ". And E.
Booking says in his edition of these Lamentationes (Leipzig,
1864, p. 369) that Ortwinus Gratius drew very freely upon
Andrelinus' Epistolae proverhiales et morales. Compare,
also, the expression in Lament. 34, ' quid te proprio caedis
ligone?' with Andrelinus, Eel. vii. 47-48.

As for his sources and models — he of course owes a great
deal to Virgil and Ovid, and in his ' moral ' passages he
sometimes draws upon Horace, Persius and Juvenal. But
the most interesting fact is his free use of Calpurnius and
Nemesianus — at a time when these two poets were not very
widely read. Indeed, one of his enemies accused him of
attempting to pass off the Eclogues of Calpurnius at Paris
as his own :

Mox Calphurnii eglogas, quas certe turn paucissimi viderant, sicuti
tuam elucubrationem privatim plurimis exhibuisti, eas (qua es impu-
dentia) tuo nomine editurus, ni Cornelius Vitellius huic tuo temerario
ausui obstitisset.23

His influence upon the later pastoral is not very great.
Perhaps the most important item is the Eclogues of loannes
ArnoUetus Nivernensis, which are included in this volume,
as a sort of appendix.


On March 18, 1524, lodocus Badius Ascensius published at
Paris an Opus de orthographia by loannes ArnoUetus Niver-
nensis, " liberalium artium legumque professor ac protogym-
nasta academiae Nivernicae ". The volume included a col-
lection of Latin poems by the same author, Bucolica, Ludicra,
etc. ArnoUetus had sent his work to the great publisher
with a complimentary letter, and Ascensius returned a very

33 Invectiva in Fatistum Balbi calumniaforem (quoted by G. C.
Knod, op. cit., 96). See Appendix C. It has been suggested that
Andrelinus knew and imitated the Eclogues of Baptista Mantuanus
(E. Carrara, La Poesia Pastorale, Milan, 1909, p. 270). If so, he
may have known them in manuscript; they were not printed until


friendly reply : " totas istas laudes, quas minime agnosco,
stilo deletili ex hoc albo' expunxissem, nisi pluris abs te
amari quam a quovis quantumvis laudato viro' laudari
facerem." ^'^

The title of the book seems to say that in 1524 Arnollet
was principal of a school at Nevers.^^ And it may perhaps
be inferred from his poems that he was a native of Nevers,
that he lived for a time in the " agri Fiscalienses ", and that

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