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Mr. Everett P. Wheeler.
The Rev. John Williams.
Mr. George Zabriskib.



The foregoing and
The Rt. Rev. H. M. Thompson, S.T.D.
The Rt. Rev. Davis Sessums, D. D.
The Rev. Arthur Brooks, D. D.
Prof. James H. Dillard.
Miss Helena S. Dudley.
The Rev. W. B. Frisby.
The Rev. Prof. E. P. Gould, D. D.
The Rev. Percy S. Grant.
The Rev. George Hodge.
Mr. James L. Houghteling.
Mr. William P. Johnston, LL. D.
The Rev. A. R. Kieffer.
The Rev. J. S. Lindsay, D. D.

OBJ ECTSi ^i- "^o claim for the Christian Law the ultimate authority to rule
social practice. 2. To study in common how to apply the moral truths and
principles of Christianity to the social and economic difficulties of the present time.
3. To present Christ in practical life as the living Master and King, the Enemy of
wrong and selfishness, the Power of righteousness and love.

MEMBERSHIP ^^ open to all communicants of the Episcopal Church upon
application to the Secretary and the payment of one dollar per annum.

PUBLICATIONS. —A semi-monthly series of Publications is issued under the
auspices and with the general approval ot tue Executive Committee, but no responsi-
bility is assumed by the Union fur the particular views of individual writers. It is
intended to provide for the expression of div<.igent opinions.

SUBSCRIPTION to the Publications, one dollar per annum. Special rate to
members: Annual Dues and Subscnptiou to the Publications both at dae time,
strictly in advance, one dollar.



^^ o G t)



v* 1



PUBLICATIONS

OF

THE CHURCH SOCIAL UNION.

ISSUED SEMI-MONTHLY.



Series A. No. 6. | September i, 189^. U.ngIe'n



( Pep annum, Si.oo.
"umbers, ioc.



WHAT THE



Church Social Unio



IS



BOSTON.

OFFICE OF THE SECEETARY,

THE DIOCESAN HOUSE,

1895.






WHAT THE CHURCH SOCIAL
UNION IS.



" The time has come to vote urgency for the social ques-
tion." " We are of those who are convinced that the
ultimate solution of this social question is bound to be
discovered in the Person and life of Jesus Christ." These
two sentences, written by Canon Scott Holland, indicate
the starting point of the Church Social Union. It starts
with the Incarnation. It is organized now because its
members believe that the thing supremely necessary to-
day is to consider the social problem in the light of the
Incarnation.

The Church Social UnIon is the American daughter of
the English Christian Social Union. The English
society was organized in 1889, under the lead of such men
as Prof essor Westcott (now Bishop of Durham), President;
Canon Scott Holland, Chairman of the London Branch ;
the Rev. Charles Gore, M.A. (now Canon of Westminster),
President of the Oxford Branch, and the Rev. John Car-
ter of Pusey House, Oxford, Secretary. It has to-day, in
England, 37 branches, with some 2400 members, and
also affiliated branches in some of the English colonies.

It works by holding meetings and spreading literature
for the study of social questions in the light of the Master-
ship of Christ. The London branch has been active in
holding services and courses of sermons in various
churches, and particularly in St. Edmund's, Lombard
Street, and St. Mary-le-Strand, where, during Lent, busi-
ness men have crowded the church on week-days; to hear
the foremost preachers and thinkers of the English Church
consider the practical problems of the social and industrial
life in the light of Christ's life and social teachings. Two
volumes of selections from these courses have been pub-



WHAT THE CHURCH SOCIAL UNION IS. 3

lished under the titles of '■' Lombard Street in Lenf^^'' and
"■A Lent in London." The Oxford Branch has devoted
itself to the systematic study, week by week, of current
economic problems.

The important " Economic Review " is published for the
Oxford Branch of the Union, while numerous tracts and
smaller publications are creating a small library of earnest
Christian social thought. Altogether, the influence of the
Society is permeating the English Church, notably in the
University centres of Oxford and Cambridge, and in busy
London, as well as in the smaller parishes. The society
is unquestionably one of the most important to-day in the
English Church. Its declared objects are identical with
those of the American society which we print below.

The American Church Social Union is of more re-
cent date. In 1890, the Rev. R. A. Holland, S. T. D., of
St. Louis, while on a visit to Oxford, became deeply inter-
ested in the work of the English Union, and returning to
this country, consulted on the matter with the Rt. Rev.
F. D. Huntington, Bishop of Central New York. A meet-
ing was called in New York City, and an American Chris-
tian Social Union was organized April 3, 1891. Bishop
Huntington was chosen President, and Prof. R. T. Ely,
then of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, was made
Secretar}^ The society grew rapidly, and elicited consid-
erable interest. Some ten branches were formed. But
after Prof. Ely's removal to Madison, Wis., the executive
officers were so scattered that sustained energetic effort
proved impossible, and the society almost lost life. Novem-
ber 13, 1894, however, it was reorganized in Boston; an
Executive Committee was chosen, with a majority in or
near that city, enabling them to meet and act together ; a
new Constitution was adopted, and the name changed to
The Church Social Union, to indicate its appeal, not
only to the Christian life, but also to the Church, in her or-
ganic capacity as the steward of the mysteries of God.
Gradually the society has revived; $1000 was raised -or
pledged for its work ; two series of short papers or studies
have been begun and are appearing semi-monthly; old
members have renewed their membership, and the society
begins the winter of 1895 with every prospect of usefulness,
of strength, and of success. The President of The Church
Social Union is the Rt. Rev. F. D. Huntington, S. T. D.,
Bishop of Central New York. Its Vice-Presidents are,



4 WHAT THE CHURCH SOCIAL UNION IS.

Bishops William Lawrence, D.D., of Massachusetts, and
Henry C. Potter, D.D., of New York; Dr. R. A. Holland,
of St. Louis ; Dr. W. S. Rainsford, of New York City ; Prof.
R. T. Ely, of the University of Wisconsin ; and Mr. G. E.
McNeill, of Boston, one of the founders of the American
Federation of Labor. Its Secretary is the Rev. George
Hodges, D.D., Dean of the Episcopal Theological School,
Cambridge, Mass. ; its Treasurer, Mr. Robert H. Gardiner,
of Boston, Mass. ; the Chairman of the Executive Com-
mittee, the Rev. John W. Suter, of Winchester, Mass. ; the
Chairman of the Publication Committee, Prof. W. J.
Ashley, M.A., of Harvard University.

The declared objects of the Union are the same as
those of the English Christian Social Union, and read as
follows : —

OBJECTS.

1 . To claim for the Christian Law the ultimate authority
to rule social practice.

2. To study in common how to apply the moral truths
and principles of Christianity to the social and economic
difficulties of the present time.

3. To present Christ in practical life as the living
Master and King, the Enemy of wrong and selfishness, the
Power of righteousness and love.

Membership.

Membership (entitling to Publications) is open to all
communicants of the Episcopal Church upon application
to the Secretary and the payment of one dollar.

Subscriptions to the Publications are received from non-
members at one dollar per annum.

Methods.

The methods of the Union are declared by the Constitu-
tion to be :

1 . Prayer.

2. The encouragement, by precept and example, of a
conscientious use of the ballot.

3. The preaching of sermons by clerical members on
topics connected with the Union, especially on St. Philip
and St. James Day, or the first Sunday in May, and the
Sunday before the first Monday in September (the Sunday
before Labor Day).



WHAT THE CHURCH SOCIAL UNION IS. /

4. The appointment of suitable persons as Organizers
to present the principles of the Union in churches and
other public places ; but especially in schools, colleges
and theological seminaries, as opportunity may offer.

5. The proper use of the press and the publication and
circulation of such tracts, leaflets, monographs and trea-
tises upon subjects connected with the objects of the
Union, as occasion may require.

6. The publication, as a medium of communication
between the members of the Union, and as a vehicle for
the purposes of Sect. 5, of a monthly organ, either in the
form of an independent paper or in the form of a fixed de-
partment in some existing and suitable paper, which de-
partment shall be controlled by the General Secretary of
the Union, subject to the direction of the Executive Com-
mittee, or of a Publication Committee appointed by it.

7. The recommendation of courses of reading upon
subjects connected with the objects of the Union.

8. The formation of local circles or Chapters for the
study of such courses of reading, the careful observation
of existing conditions of social life, and such practical
work as may suggest itself.

9. The encouragement of the study of Social Science
by the establishment of prizes, scholarships, fellowships,
lectureships and professorships, in so far as the funds
shall be provided therefor.

10. The encouragement in individuals and in Chapters
of efforts for the promotion of industrial peace and for the
preservation of friendly relations between various social
classes, or the establishment of such relations where they
do not exist.

1 1 . Conventions of the local Chapters in various dis-
tricts supplemental to the Annual Meeting of the Union
provided for by Art. X.

12. Such other lines of work as may be suggested and
approved hereafter.

What the Union is Doing.

The Church Social Union is at present, as its chief
work, issuing two series of monthly Publications which
are being widely circulated and which it hopes will lead
to the foundation of groups for study in parishes, colleges
and divinity schools, or in connection with societies, or
wherever there may be an opportunity. Series "A" of these



4; WHAT THE CHURCH SOCIAL UNION IS.

Publications is intended to consider primarily the funda-
mental principles of the Union. The numbers of this
series which have thus far appeared are :

"The Church of the World." Rev. R. A. Holland, S.T.D.
"The Church's Duty in Relation to the Sacredness of

Property." Rev. Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D.
"Social Problems and the Church." Rt. P.ev. F. D.

Huntington, S.T. D.
"The Incarnation a Revelation of Human Duties." Rt.

Rev. B. F. Westcott, D.D.
"Rights and Duties." Joseph Mazzini.
■" What the Church Social Union Is."
"The Social Teaching of the Early Fathers." (Two
views.) By the Rev. C. L. Marson and the Rev.
W. F. Cobb.
Series " B " is intended to consider the detailed applica-
tion of the principles of Christianity to the concrete
problems of the day. The issues of this series thus far
have been :

"The Railroad Strike of 1894." Prof. W. J. Ashley,

M. A.
"An Interpretation of the Social Movements of our

Time." Prof. Henry C. Adams, Ph. D.
"Arbitration and Concihation." Rev. W. D. P. BHss.
" Political Economy and Practical Life." Rev. Prof. W.

Cunningham, D.D.
" A Plan of Work."

Besides the above there are in preparation :
" A Bibliography for Students." F. W, Lee.
"The Slums of Great Cities and Their Problems." Rev.

P. W. Sprague.
" An Eight-Hour Day."
" American Trades Unions."
" Strikes." Rev. Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D.
Single copies of any of these may be had from the Sec-
retary at 10 cents each. The subscription price is one
dollar per year.

Besides the publication of these studies, the Union ar-
ranges for special public services and hopes to have these
grow into courses of sermons at seasons such as Advent
and Lent, to be arranged as opportunity may present in
various cities and parishes. At the last Annual Meeting
in Boston, May i, 1894, the society appointed a committee
to use its good offices in doing what was possible to ob-



WHAT THE CHURCH SOCIAL UNION IS. 7

tain the settlement by arbitration of an important strike in
the vicinity. Thus quietly, and feeling its way towards
larger action, The Church Social Union is working ever
that it may acquire strength to exert an influence in Amer-
ica such as has already proved so useful and helpful in
England.

Meanwhile it must not be forgotten that the main pur-
pose of the Union is the careful study of the practical
application of Christ's Gospel, feeling that out of the full
knowledge of Jesus Christ shall eventually issue the better,
fuller, social life.

Says Canon Scott Holland concerning the studies of
the English Union : " The application of the redemptive
force of Christ to actual society can be no very simple
matter. The problems raised by human society are mani-
fold, intricate and immense ; and, however firm our con-
victions may be that Christ is Himself their one and only
solution, yet the solution of a difficult problem must, of
necessity, be itself diificult ; and, if the perplexities have
been themselves a matter of long and gradual growth, then
their undoing also will be slow and gradual. Still harder
is it to define the degree of approach to the Christian ideal
of society which the situation of our civilization at any
particular moment permits. The application of Christ's
victory to society must perforce take into consideration
the degree to which the materials are in a condition to
surrender themselves to His dominion or to admit of be-
coming His instruments. Slowly and gradually they must
be brought over to the uses of the Kingdom ; but, how
slowly ? and how gradually ? and can the pace be quick-
ened by a little courage ? and are we lagging far behind
even the possibilities already touched ? These are the
questions ; and they can onlj^ be answered by those who
have got long past the merely sentimental assertion that
Christ is all in all ; and have set themselves to the solid
task of discovering what that solemn truth really and pre-
cisely means, and have worked it down into the concrete
facts, and have surveyed and estimated the full need of
the circumstances, and striven to make clear to them-
selves what is the first step, and what the second and the
third, if that great royaltj^ of Christ is, in very deed, ever
to be made good here on earth, amid men as they are,
and after a history such as they have had. We cannot all
of us undertake such a study as this involves ; we have



8 WHAT THE CHURCH SOCIAL UNION IS.

not the leisure nor the brains. But that is just why we
should all take some direct measures for keeping in touch
v/ith those who have the faculties and the opportunities
that we lack. Some servants of the Church there must be,
who will give themselves seriously to the training that
such a task involves ; and, then, the knowledge and the
experience amassed by these few, must be absorbed and
utilized bjr the many. This can be done if a sufficient
body of Christian men will take the trouble to put them-
selves in sympathetic contact with those who know, and
so to keep themselves alive and alert, in order that they
may keenly and vividly appreciate the stress of the actual
pressure which is inflicted by the present situation, and
may be quick to understand the wrong, and eager to look
for the means of its undoing, and ready to examine the
means proposed, in the steady conviction that all wrongs
can be undone in the Name and Power of Christ. * * * *
The aim is distinct and definite enough. The cause is
urgent. It is for us to give it our patience, our courage
and our prayers."



F'UBLICATIONS

OF

THE CHURCH SOCIAL UNION.

ISSUED SEMI-MONTHLY.

Series A. No. 7.] Oct. 1, 1895. hlf..^lZ'.liX.

THE

SOCIAL TEACHING

OF THE

EARLY CHRISTIAN FATHERS



TWO VIEWS



Rev. C. L. Marson and the Rev. W. F. Cobb.



BOSTON :
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY,

THE DIOCESAN HOUSE,

1 JOY STREET.

1895.



^AtU^t^uA tU^Jb



.ejL-,




PUBLICATIONS.

The following papers have appeared, or will shortly
appear, in the Publications of the Union. They may be
had from the Secretary at ten cents each. Subscription,
one dollar per annum.



SERIES A.

The Church of the World.

Rev. R. A. Holland, S.T.D.
The Church's Duty in Rela-
tion TO the Sacredness of
Property.
Rev. Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D.
Social Problems and the

Church.
Rt. Rev. F. D. Huntington, S.T.D.
The Incarnation a Revelation
OF Human Duties.
Rt. Rev. B. F, Westcott, D.D.
Rights and Duties.

Joseph Mazzini.

The Social Teaching of the

Early Fathers. (Two views.)

Revs. C. L. Marson and

W. F, Cobb.

What the Church Social

Union Is.
An Address Before Harvard
University.

Rev. W. S. Rainsford, D.D.



SERIES B.

The Railroad Strike of 1894.
Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A.
An Interpretation of the
Social Movements of our
Time.
Prof. Henry C. Adams, Ph.D.
Arbitration and Conciliation.
Rev. W. D. P. Bliss.
Political Economy and Prac-
tical Life.
Rev. Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D.
The Slums of Great Cities
and Their Problems.

Rev. P. W. Sprague.
Strikes.

Rev. Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D.
A Plan of Work.
A Bibliography for Students.
F. W. Lee.
An Eight-Hour Day.
American Trades Unions.



These Publications are issued under the auspices and
with the general approval of the Executive Committee ; but
no responsibility is assumed by the Union for the particular
views of individual writers. It is intended to provide for
the expression of divergent opinions.



THE

SOCIAL TEACHING OF THE EARLY FATHERS.

By Rev. Charles L. Marson.

Those of us who owe most to the Tractarian movement
cannot but regret the fact that the High Churchman of to-
day is content merely to occupy ground already won. He
considers himself to be the lineal descendant of the Pusey-
ites just because he can mimic their tones and wrap him-
self in their old chasubles. But when it comes to extend-
ing their principles, with their old zeal, their strenuous and
bold piety, their crusading spirit, it never seems to cross
his mind that such new applications are possible, or if
possible desirable, to any other matters than ecclesiological
ones. Granted that all the Tractarians' reform began at the
altar ; granted that they showed that the associative princi-
ple is of the very essence of the Faith; still it does not
follow that they wanted to stop those reforms at the west
door or the lych-gate ; still less that they wished to store
the leaven of the Faith in the vessels of abstract and
general statement, and never to use it. Their work was to>
set in order the Church ; to draw attention to her misunder-
stood doctrines, her broken discipline, her neglected de-
cencies, and her belittled claims. They had no time to ex-
tend the rule of the principles they fought for to the street
and the shop, the market and the 1 iw-court. These and
many other applications remain for us who come after; and
would that we could brace ourselves to this work with any-
thing like their reverent and manful spirit !

Yet an application of Catholic principle to political and
social questions has been more than hinted at by the Trac-
tarians themselves. Let us take one extract from the
leader, who to us, in these later days, seems the pre-eminent
genius of the whole movement : " Strictly speaking, the
Christian Church, as being a visible society, is necessarily a
political power and party. It may be a party triumphant or
a party under persecution ; but a party it must always be,
prior in existence to the civil institutions with which it is



2 SOCIAL TEACHING OF THE EARLY FATHERS.

surrounded, and from its latent divinity formidable and in-
fluential, even to the end of time. The grant of per-
manency was made in the beginning, not to the mere doc-
trine of the Gospel, but to the Association itself, built upon
the doctrine (St. Matt. xvi. i8) ] in prediction not only of
the indestructibility of Christianity, but of the medium also
through which it was to be manifested to the world. Thus
the ecclesiastical body is a divinely appointed means
towards realizing the great Evangelical blessings. Chris-
tians depart from their duty, or become in an offensive sense
political, not when they act as members of one community,
but when they do so for temporal ends or in an illegal
manner ; not when they assume the attitude of a party, but
when they split into many. If the primitive believers did
not interfere with the acts of the civil government, it was
merely because they had no rights enabling them legally to
do so. But where they have rights the case is different
(Acts xvi. 37-39) ; and the existence of a secular spirit is
to be ascertained, not by their using these, but their using
them for ends short of the ends for which they were given.
Doubtless, in criticising the mode of their exercising them
in a particular case, differences of opinion may fairly exist ;
but the principle itself, the duty of using their civil rights
in the service of religion, is clear; and since there is a
popular misconception that Christians, and especially the
clergy as such, have no concern in temporal affairs, it is ex-
pedient to take every opportunity of formally denying the
position, and demanding a proof of it. In truth, the
Church was framed for the express purpose of interfering,
or (as irreligious men will say) meddling with the world.
It is the plain duty of its members not only to associate in-
ternally, but also to develop that internal union in an ex-
ternal warfare with the spirit of evil, whether in kings'
courts, or among the mixed multitude ; and if they can do
nothing else, at least they can suffer for the truth, and
remind men of it, by inflicting upon them the task of
])ersecution." *

A candid examination of the writings of the " primitive
believers " must lead us to see that if they had possessed
rights enabling them to " interfere with the acts of the civil

* Newman's " History of the Arians," pt. ii. ch. iii. p. 264.



SOCIAL TEACHING OF THE EARLY FATHERS. 3

government," they would have used these on behalf of the
frankest Socialism, and that in exact proportion to their
own orthodoxy.*

Where the Catholic Faith is merely latent, there the
Socialism is also less explicit. When the writer is unsound
in his orthodoxy, then he is almost sure to favor some
form of individualist law or possession. When the writer is
sound and saintly, then he is always entirely and unhesitat-
ingly in favor of the common holding of goods, of equality
of opportunity, of social freedom ; and even when he is not
quite sound, he is always fiercely opposed to the covetous-
ness which calls itself enterprise, smartness, natural incen-
tive to exertion, thrift, and the like.

The whole meaning of the New Testament word " right-
eousness " has been narrowed down to include only the per-
sonal virtues. Yet the word dixaioavvt], which is used eighty-
six times in the New Testament, has no such limitation. It
ought, in the present state of our languuge, to be rendered
"justice"; audits opposite, ddma, which is used twenty-
five times, should be rendered "injustice." Without? this
clearly before us, we should never be able to understand
the patristic use of Holy Scripture.

St. Clement of Rome f asks the question how we may be
found among those who wait for God and receive the
promises? and he answers not only that we must be
mentally settled Godwards, but also that " we must bring
about a state of things agreeable to His holy Will, casting
out from us all injustice, anarchy, covetousness, competition,
ugly customs and deceitful ways, slanders, detractions and
hatred of God, class arrogance, pretence, pomposity, and
cliquiness. Those who peddle in such matters are hateful
to God — ay, and not only those, but they too who com-
promise with them." St. Clement| pits the sympathy of
the Gospel against what some modern Churchmen dare to
praise as a thing natural and inevitable, the greed and grab
of modern business. Then, again, St. Clement regarded
the world to come, not as a mere continuation of this world,



* Of course, by " Socialism " we must understand the principles set

forth by the " Fabian Essays," and not the mere railing accusations
which sometimes usurp the name.

t I Cor. XXXV. 2, Leipsic edit. J 2 Cor. iv.



4 SOCIAL TEACHING OF THE EARLY FATHERS.

but as its mortal foe. Yet he did not push his revolutionary
tenets so far as to neglect present facts. He found rich and
poor, and bade the former supply the needs of the latter, and
the latter thank God for giving him a helper. We may say


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Online LibraryR. A. (Robert Afton) HollandThe church of the world → online text (page 10 of 19)