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carrying out his master's known wishes. The human
owner is responsible, he is bound to use his own judg-
ment and to do what he thinks is right ; but he is bound
to apply his property, not merely for his own enjoyment,
but as God would have him do, for the greatest good of
others. I do not say their greatest happiness, for that
seems ambiguous. The man who is merely self-regarding
in the use he makes of his wealth is not mindful of his
responsibility. There was a time when the best way of
fulfilling this duty of unselfish use seemed plain enough —
the selling all one's goods to give to the poor — but we
have got into the way of looking at ulterior consequences,
and we must do our duty according to the light we have.
We know that indiscriminate charity is an encouragement
to idleness and sin ; we know that the benefit it gives is



FHE SACREDNESS OF PROPERTY. g

short-lived, that the evil it occasions is long continued. It
is a common thing among novelists now to paint the diffi-
culties of the virtuous millionaire who strives so to admin-
ister his wealth that he shall do good rather than evil ;
and the pictures they have portrayed may help us to feel
the real difficulty which such men must find in doing their
duty earnestly and unselfishly in that state of life to which
it has pleased God to call them. To some it were easy to
shirk the duty, but it never can be easy to do it ; but those
who as captains of industry, or as great landowners, hon-
estly give their minds to the wise management of their
business or their estates, are not necessarily self-seeking,
because they continue to prosper,

7. The Christian conception of the sacredness of prop-
erty enables us to see the grounds on which it is entitled
to respect, and the aims which men should keep before
them in using their possessions. I think it helps us to see,
too, the grounds on which it may be rightly taken away.
The civil power is ordained by God for the punishment of
evil-doers and the praise of them that do well ; and it may
be the duty of the State to interfere with and readjust the
relations to property — in God's name. The private man
must recognize the sacredness of life, and dare not kill,
whatever wrong he may have suffered ; but the State may —
in God's name — condemn to death. Just so the private
individual ought to have regard to the sacredness of prop-
erty, however poor he be ; but the State may interfere with
it in God's name ; and interference thus made will not
be dictated by private greed, but by public uses. And
hence it will differ in character from proposals for readjust-
ment that we hear of to-day. It is not on the quantity of
a man's wealth, be it much or little, that we v/ill fix our
attention, but on the manner in which he uses it.

We are accustomed to interference with private property
in a public interest, when men are compelled to sell the
heritage of their fathers, perhaps, which they wish to keep,
that a railway may be made, or some work of public utility
carried out. We recognize that public utility must be
preferred to private use, however long established. And
from time immemorial, in cases of gross misuse, the State
has stepped in to confiscate property. Possessions used
for seditious or criminal purposes are rightly regarded as



10 THE CHURCH'S DUTY AS TO PROPERTY.

forfeited. Between these extremes of interference with
full compensation and of confiscation pure and simple,
there may be many grades — different modes by which
substantial justice may be done according to the circum-
stances of the cases — and the extent to which punishment
for misuse enters, if it enters at all. But such interference
with property, if it be not arbitrary and capricious, if it
is not dictated by the lust of spoliation, but by a desire to
do a duty as in the sight of God, can never impugn the
sacredness of property, or damage its security, since it
means, when it is thus conducted, that there is a public
desire to use the material things which God has lent us,
more worthily, a deliberate desire to carry out His Will
upon earth. Christian respect for property rests on a
refusal to displace those who are responsible for doing
God's Will in a definite sphere. It is entirely consonant
with this feeling that there should at times be earnest
attempts of public authority to see that that Divine Will
is more effectively realized among men.



SUGGESTIONS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY
READING.

BY FRANCIS WATTS LEE.

Barry, William. Rights of Public Property. Forum. Vol. IX.,
p. 208. April, 1890.

Bosanquet, Bernard. The Principle of Private Property. {In his
Aspects of the Social Problem. London. Macmillan. 1895.
Pp. 308-318.)

An attempt to clear up the " confusion between the history of property and
the reason of its existence."

Clark, Edward H. G. Man's Birthright ; or, the higher law of
property. New York. Putnam. 1885. 133 pp. i6mo.

Cobb, William F. The Fathers on Property. Economic Review.
Vol. v., p. 191. April, 1895.

A reply to the papers by the Rev. C. L. Marson.

Cunningham, William. The Ethics of Money Investments. Eco-
nomic Review. Vol. I., p. 13. January, 1891.

— The Use and Abuse of Money. New York. Scribner, 1891.
XXV, 219 pp. i2mo.

Donisthorpe, Wordsworth. What is Property .' (/w /%/j Individual-
ism : a System of Politics. London. Macmillan, 1889. Pp.
go-127.)

Gardner, Percy. The Casuistry and Ethics of Investments. Eco-
nomic Review. Vol. III., p. 501. October, 1893.

Gladden, Washington. Property in Land. Property in General.
(/« his Tools and the Man. Boston. Houghton. 1893. I^P-
55-1 14-)

Graham, William. Private Property : Its origin, natural and histori-
cal. Communism and Private Property. (/« his The Social
Problem. London. Kegan Paul. 1886. Pp. 278-332.)

Green, Thomas H. The Right of the State in regard to Property.

{In his Works. London. Longmans. 1886. Vol. II., Pp.

SI7-53S-)
Herbert, Aubernon E. M. Rights of Property. London. Liberty

and Property Defence League. [1889.] 50 pp. 8vo.

HoADLEY, George. Constitutional Guarantees of the Right of Prop-
erty. Journal of Social Science. No. XXVL, p. 13. 1890.

Laveleye, £mile L. V. de. Primitive Property. Translated by
G. R. L. Marriott. London. Macmillan. 1878. xlvii, 356 pp.
8vo.



12 SUGGESTIONS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING.

Letourneau, Charles. Property : Its Origin and Development.
London. W. Scott. 1892. xii, 401 pp. [The Contemporary
Science Series.] Sm. 8vo.

Lilly, William S. The Ethics of Property. Forum. Vol. VIIL,
p. 595. February, 1890.

Mackay, Thomas. Investment. {In his A Plea for Liberty. New
York. Appleton. 1891. Pp. 227-258.)

Marson, Charles L. The Church and the Democratic Idea. {In
Reid, Andrew. The New Party. London. Hodder. 1894.
Pp- 73-90 )

— Same. Dawn. Vol. VI., p. 132. September, 1894.

— Churchmen and their Politics. Westminster Review. Vol. CXLL,

p. 180. February, 1894.

— The Social Teaching of the Early Fathers. {In Reid, Andrew.

Vox Clamantium. London. Innes, 1894. Pp. 198-224.)

— Same. Dawn. Vol. VI., p. 121, July-August, 1894.

These articles claim the authority of the Fathers for Socialistic doctrines.
See reply by Rev. W. Y. Cobb.

Ottley, Robert L. The Ethics of Property. {In Lombard Street
in Lent London. Stock. 1894. Pp. 38-58.)

— Same. {In Abreast of the Times. New York. Pott. 1894.

Pp. 38-58.)

Proudhon, p. J. What is Property ? Translated by Benj. R.
Tucker. Princeton. Tucker. 1876. xli, 407 pp. 8vo.

Ritchie, David G. Locke's Theory of Property. Economic
Review. Vol. I., p. 29, January, 1891.

— The Right of Property. {In his Natural Rights. London. Son-

nenschein, 1895. Pp. 263-271.)

Sheldon, W. L. What justifies Private Property ? Inter. Jour, of
Ethics. Vol. IV., p. 17, October, 1893.

SiDGWiCK, Henry. On Property. {In his The Elements of Politics.
London. Macmillan, 1891. Pp. 62-77.)

Warren, Walter R. The History of Private Property. {In Reid,
Andrew. The New Party. London. Hodder. 1894. Pp.
"5-I43-)



THE CHURCH SOCIAL UNION.



Objects. — i. To claim for the Christian Law the ultimate authority to rule
social practice. 2. To study in common how to apply the moral truths aod
principles of Christianity to the social and economic difficulties of the present time.
3. To present Christ in practical life as the living Master and King, the Enemy of
wrong and selfishness, the Power of righteousness and love.

Membership is open to all communicants of the Episcopal Church upon appli-
cation to the Secretary and the payment of one dollar per annum.

Subscription to the Publications, one dollar per annum. Special rate to mem-
bers : annual dues and subscription to the Publications both at one time, strictly
in advance, one dollar.

PRESIDENT,
The Rt. Rev. F. D. Huntington, S. T. D.

VICE-PRESIDENTS.

The Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter, D. D. I The Rev. Robert A. Holland, S.T. D.
The Rev. Joseph Reynolds. | Prof. Richard T. Ely, Ph. D.

George E. McNeil.



SECRETARY,

The Rev. George Hodges, D. D.
Mason Street, Cambridge, Mass.



TREASURER,

Robert H. Gardiner, 40 State Street,
Boston, Mass.



Prof. W. J. Ashley, M. A
Edmund Billings.
The Rev. W. D. P. Bliss.
The Rev. C. H. Brent.
The Rev. W. L. Bull.



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE.

The Rev. J. W. Suter, Chairman.

The Rev. W. B. Frisbv.
Francis Watts Lee.
The Rev. Philo W. Sprague.
The Rev. Floyd Tompkins, Jr.
John W. Wood.



COUNCIL.



The foregoing and
The Rt. Rev. H. M. Thompson, S.T.D.
The Rt. Rev. Davis Sessums, D. D.
The Rev. Arthur Brooks, D. D.
Prof. James H. Dillard.
Miss Helena S. Dudley.
The Rev. Prof. E. P. Gould, D. D.
The Rev, Percy S. Grant.
James L, Houghteling.
William P. Johnston, LL. D.
The Rev. J. S. Lindsay, D. D.
The Rev. Arthur Lowndes.
J. BLEaKER Miller.



The Rev, Henry Mottett, D. D.
The Rev. E. N. Potter, D. D.
The Rev. W. S. Rainsford, D. D.
Miss ViDA D. Scudder.
Archibald L. Sessions.
The Rev. H. H. Sleeper, Ph. D,
The Rev. William Harman Van

Allen.
The Kev. George R. Van De Water,

D. D.
Everett P. Wheeler.
The Rev. John Williams,
Georgu Zabhiskie.



PUBLICATIONS

X

The Church social Union.

ISSUED SEMI-MONTHLY.

Series A. No. 3.^ June 1, 1895. \JAl.''^lZ'.t;'A



SOCIAL PROBLEMS

AND THE

CHURCH.

BY THE

Rt, Rev. F. D. HUNTINGTON, S. T. D.

Bishop of Central New York, President of the Union.
[Reprinted from The Forum, October, 1890.]



BOSTON.
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY.

■THE DIOCESAN HOUSE,
1895.



SUGGESTIONS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING.



BY FRANCIS WATTS LEE.



Adderley, James G. Christ and Social Reform. London. S. P. C. K. 1893. 3^ PP- i6mo.
Bemis, Edward W. The Relation of the Church to Social Problems. Boston. Society of

Christian Socialists. [1890.] 11 pp. 8vo.
Bliss, William D. P. The Social Faith of the Catholic Church. Boston. Office o£

The Dawn. 1894. 23 pp. 8vo.
Butler, Henry M. The Christian Social Union. Economic Review. Vol. III., p. 2.

January, 1893.
Campion, William H. J. Christianity and Politics. (In Gore, Charles. Lux Mundi.

Pp. 365-388. New York. U. S. Book Co. 1891.)
Commons, John R. Social Reform and the Church. With an introduction by Richard

T. Ely. New York. Crowell. [1894.] x., 176 pp. i6mo.
Dolling, Robert W. R. The Christian Clergyman's Place in Politics. Portsmouth,

England. 1892. 12 pp. i6mo.
Ely, Richard T. Social Aspects of Christianity. New York. Crowell. [1889.] x (i),

132 pp. i2mo.
Freemantle, William H. The World as the Subject of Redemption. With an intro-
duction by Richard T. Ely. New York. Longmans. 1892. 470 pp. lamo.
Fry, Thomas C. A Social Policy for Churchmen. Economic Review. Vol. II., p. 50.

January, 1892.
A Social Policy for the Church, and other papers on Social subjects. London,

Rivington. 1893. (4) 128 pp. Sm. 8vo.
Gladden, Washington. Applied Christianity; Moral aspects of Social questions.

Boston. Houghton. 1886. 320 pp. i6mo.

Tools and the Man. Boston. Houghton. 1893. vi(i), 308 pp. i6mo.

Hancock, Thomas. Christ and the People. Sermons chiefly on the Obligations of the

Chuich to the State and to Humanity. 2d. edition. London. Hodges. 1882. 12, xvii,

468 pp. Sm. 8vo.
Headlam, Stewart D. The Laws of Eternal Life ; being Studies in the [social teaching]

of the Church Catechism. London. Verinder. 1888. (4), 56 pp. Sm. 8vo.
Priestcraft and Progress; being sermons and lectures. 2d edition. London. Hodges.

1882. vi. (1)1 16 pp. Sm. 8vo.
The Secular Work of Jesus Christ, His Apostles, and the ^Church of England.

London. Women's Printing Co. 20 pp. Sm. 8vo.
The Service of Humanity and other sermons. London. Hodges. 1882. 134 pp.

Sm. 8vo.
Herron, George D. The New Redemption. A Call to the Church to Reconstruct

Society according to the Gospel of Christ. New York. Crowell. [1893.] 176 pp.

i6mo.

The Christian Society. New York. Revell. 1894. 158 pp. i2mo.

Hill, David J. The Social Influence of .Christianity. Boston. Silver. 1888. 231

pp. i2mo.
Holland, Henry Scott. What Attitude should the Church Adopt towards the Aims

and Methods of Labor Combinations ? Economic Review. Vol. II., p. 441. October,

1892.

( Continued on the last page.)



SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND THE CHURCH. 17

time has come when workmen ask not charity, but justice ; not
the property of other men, but their own ; Grod's common gifts
to the people for the people's use ; nothing more. If strikes and
strikers demand more, the Church cannot countenance their
demand. According to the last report of the New York com-
missioner of labor statistics, there have been in that State, during
five years, 9,384 strikes, with 338,900 laborers taking part in
them. To ordinary eyes it does not appear probable that any-
thing like that number of sane men in this country would hazard
their livelihood without cause. Yet it is not the Church's
business to advocate or to promote strikes. Quite as little may it
be expected, in the face of recent social science and of the labor
bureaus of our cities, to encourage soup kitchens, poor laws, the
old-time dole, or the distribution of cast-off clothing. It must
achieve its gracious ends, if at all, by creating convictions in all
classes which will render these unhealthy remedies of an un-
healthy condition superfluous, and by allying itself fearlessly
with all the restorative forces that are rising into action in the
mind and conscience of our time. Above all, it must remember
that what is to be sought in behalf of the suffering class first and
foremost, is not their material, but their moral elevation — their
spiritual salvation. It is to enlist in no crusade for those who
" enforce their rights with hands of iron, while they disclaim
their duties with fronts of brass." A sordid materialism is just
as bad at one end of the social scale as at the other. The whole
matter is degraded and belittled if we forget that the worst evil,
even among the poor, is not their poverty. There must be a
^ " ' • i.rf»,i'-> and a deeper longing in them, and in us who

'■han to obtain an easier lot, more to eat and
viiiiiiv aiiLi vvccii, Ox more leisure for dissipation, indolence, and
amusement. But just as careful ought Christians to be not to
hide their social inconsistencies under some sophistical religious
generalities; not to act or preach as if having our "conversation
in heaven " were to postpone a heavenly order of society to a
future world, instead of setting it up on the earth; and heartily
and practically to believe that the Church has not gone beyond
the need of being reformed back to its original charter.

F. D. Huntington.



Holland, Robert A. The Church of the World. Cambridge. 1895. i^^t" ..The

Church Social Union. Publications. Series A., No. i.] 8vo.
Huntington. Frederic D. "The Golden Rule applied to Business and Social Life."

Address before the Evangelical Education Society. [Baltimore, 1892.] 20 pp. 8vo.
" The Gospel and the People." Address at a Meeting of the National Evangelical

Alliance. Dec. 5, 1889. New York. Whittaker. [1890.] 16 pp. Sm. 8vo.
Hyde, William DeW. Outlines of Social Theology. New York. Macmillan. 1895.

ix, 260 pp. i2mo.

Lee, Francis W. Notes on the Social Teaching of the Christian Year. [As set forth

in the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels of the Book of Common Prayer.] In The Dawn,

Vol. VI., No. 2. — Vol. VII., No. 2. Feb., 1894. — Feb., 1895.
Noel, Roden. Christianity and Social Advance. (/« Reid, Andrew. Vox Clamantium.

Pp. 315-354. London. Innes. 1894.)
Ottley, Robert L. Christian Ethics. (/« Gore, Charles. Lux Mundi. Pp. 389-436.

New York. U. S. Book Co. 1891.)
The Special Importance of the Study of Christian Ethics for the Church in the Present

Day. Economic Review. Vol. III., p. 229. April, 1893.

Richmond, Wilfrid J. Christian Economics. London. Rivingtons, 1888. xix,278
pp. Sm. 8vo.

Economic Morals. Four Lectures. London. Allen. 1890. xvi, 134 pp. Sm. 8vo.

Of peculiar interest as resulting in the formation by those who had heard these lectures of the
Christian Social Union in England and subsequently of The Church Social Union in America.

Roads, Charles. Christ Enthroned in the Industrial World. A Discussion of Christianity
in Property and Labor. New York. Hunt. 1893. 387 pp., lamo.

Sand ay, William. Christianity and Social Duty. Economic Review. Vol. III., p. 348.
July, 1893.

A rejoinder to Dr. Stanton.

The Social Movement. (/« /5m Two Present-Day Questions, pp. 47-72. London-
Longmans. 1892.)
Sheldon, W. L. What Attitude should the Pulpit take to the Labor Problem? Inter.

Journal of Ethics. Vol. II., p. 439. July, 1892.
Shuttleworth, Henry C. The Christian Church and the Problem of Poverty. (In

Reid, Andrew. Vox Clamantium. Pp. 6-46. London. Innes. 1894.)
Stanton, Vincent H. Christianity and Social Duty. Economic Review. Vol. III.,

p. 87. January, 1893.

A reply to Dr. Sanday's The Social Movement.
Strong, Josiah. The New Era ; or. The Coming Kingdom. New York. Baker. [1893.]

XX, 374 pp. i2mo.
Stubbs, Charles W. Christ and Economics. London. Isbister. 1893. 292 (2) pp. Sm. 8vo.
Walker, John B. The Church and Poverty. [Washington (?) 1891.] 32 pp. i6mo.
Westcott, Brooke F. The Christian Social Union. Economic Review. Vol. III., p. i.

January, 1893.

The Christian Social Union. Economic Review. Vol. V., p. 154. April, 1895.

The Incarnation a Revelation of Human Duties. London. S. P. C. K. 1892. 53 pp.

Sm. 8vo.

Same. (/« ^«j The Incarnation and Common Life. Pp. 41-106. London. 1893.)

The Incarnation and Common Life. London. Macmillan. 1893. xii, 428 pp. Sm.Svo.

The Social Aspects of Christianity. London. Macmillan. 1887. xx, 202pp. Sm.Svo.



PERIODICALS.

The Church Reformer. Monthly. Edited by the Rev. Stewart D. Headlam. Lon-
don. F. Verinder. 8 Duke St. Adelphi. Two shillings and sixpence per annum.

The Dawn. Monthly. Edited by the Rev. W. D. P. Bliss. Boston. 241 Tremont St.
Fifty cents per annum.

The Economic Review. Quarterly. Edited by the Rev. John Carter. London. Pub-
lished for the Oxford branch of the Christian Social Union by Rivington, Percival &
Co. 34 King St., Covent Garden. Ten shillings per annum.



9ka.,



d4~



^- '■''■*-^:-^„^., -t>



SOCIAL PEOBLEMS AND THE CHUECH.

When a great mixed audience in one of the public halls in
New York cheered the name of Jesus Christ and hissed the
name of the Church, it settled no question, solved no problem,
proved no proposition, expounded no Scripture; but it was as
significant as half the sermons that are preached. Whence came
that discrimination? There have been times when the people
heard the words " Christ and the Church " with reverent silence^
if not with enthusiastic devotion. There have been a few fana-
tical disbelievers who have cursed both the Nazarene and his
kingdom. Only in these later days, when workingmen think
and read, reason and reflect, does a promiscuous crowd, rudely
rather than irreverently, take the two apart, honoring the one and
scouting the other.

No matter where or in what age the Church is found, no
matter what influences of climate, race, environment, political
economy, or social customs play upon it, the guide of its life
must be one and the same. No institution of any power or mark
has been so completely identified with its founder, or so depen-
dent on its original force for the accomplishment of its real end.
Whatever its perversions or aberrations, they are corrected only
by reference to one standard. The secret of this law is in the
fact that the relation of the founder or planter to the thing

Copyright, 1889, by the Forum Publishing Company.



2 SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND THE CHURCH.

founded or planted, to tlie living, organic creature, is not external
but internal. He who is its life principle is more than builder
or vine-dresser. The working law and rule of action are in the
constitution, and the constitution of the Church is Christ. No
inference can be plainer, reluctant as ecclesiastical leaders and
" authorities " have been to confess it practically, than that the
duty of the Church to the unprivileged is to be learned from the
treatment they received in the personal bearing, acts, and teach-
ings of the Christ of the New Testament ; and it is not now pre-
tended, we believe, that there is any other Christ. For the pres-
ent purpose, any definition of the word " Church " is conveniently
avoided. Let it be assumed that it includes all persons who
" profess and call themselves Christians." The term " unprivi-
leged" is used for a class, rather than other terms like "lower,"
"laboring," "poor," or "proletarian," as being, on the whole,
descriptive, fair, respectful, and comprehensive.

The Christian law, as between these two divisions of society,
would not be materially different from what it is if the destruc-
tive new criticism of the Christian writings were to be accepted.
The question would remain, Who made the Christian religion?
Not Hebrew piety, for the first war Christianity waged was with
Judaism ; not Athenian civilization, for the new religion declared
Grreek society to be rotten to its vitals, and smote it in the face ;
not the Eoman empire, for that ridiculed the Gospel and tried to
kill it. If a dozen fishermen and peasants made it, they certainly
did not make it in the interest of patricians or of nabobs. For
the present purpose it is assumed, passing by all critical and exe-
getical questions, that the ethical contents of Christianity are due
to a person from whose name that word is derived. In fact, the
rationalistic schools themselves have generally no quarrel with
the writings as they are in regard to moral duty or social rights.
The sublime proclamation at Nazareth, which announced the new
kingdom, declaring its fundamental and everlasting principle, is
not in dispute. " The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he
hath anointed me to preach the Grospel to the poor ; he hath sent
me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the cap-
tives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them
that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord." He



SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND THE CHURCH. 3

"closed the book," but he opened the meaning; and not for
Nazareth, or Judea, or the Eoman empire alone, or for one land
or one generation more than another, but for all the lands and
generations and nationalities of the earth. Where the Church,
swayed by selfish privilege, has been false to its head, it has
contented itself with letting the passage stand untouched.

Did Christ recognize classes ? He recognized them as
actual, but not as necessary, or even as legitimate, in the order
of society which he came to establish. He did not propose
that order as a scheme, but predicted and commanded it as a
social reality or kingdom. "It shall not be so among you," he
said. It is well enough to speak of Christianity as an " ideal " ;
he did not present it in that way. It was embodied in a person,
and in him it began to be as an economy. Classes would be-
long to it only so far as there would be broad distinctions made
by character; they would be not "according to what a man
hath," but to what a man is. In naming the classes that he
found existing, he followed his habit of using words that would
be most readily understood, and of naming things as they appear
to the eye ; his object not being scientific but more than scien-
tific. The less serves the greater; literal inaccuracy promotes
the reception of a larger truth. Reformers often do this; but
he is more than a reformer, he is a social renewer, breathing
into society and man a divine spirit. Material things are with
him images of immaterial or spiritual things. The unprivileged


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