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its administration has convinced me that old-age pensions are
an absolute necessity for our industrial veterans, and, as you no
doubt know, I am an advocate of pensions alike to men and
women. I have read through the scheme for superannuation
allowances to the employees of the Ordnance Factories and
Stores. I had the pleasure of assisting the Poor Law workers
in attaining a similar pension scheme, and they can safely rely



378 MODERN SOCIALISM

upon my support. At the same time, I am of opinion that
they should not waive their claim on the national fund.

On education I stand for a directly elected body to deal
with all grades. To workmen especially I would enforce the
importance of the question. The one great hope for our
children is to see that they are fully equipped for the battle of
life, and this can best be obtained by extending the scholarship
system to apprenticeships tenable in the finest workshops the
nation possesses.

On the formation of the Technical Education Board, I
secured approval of a resolution affording special facilities
for technical instruction in working-class and manufacturing
districts, under which I am glad to know your own Polytechnic
benefits.

I am in favour of the largest possible measure of self-
government being given to Ireland. I believe the Irish people
are as capable of working out their own problems as we our-
selves, and, legislatively, England would be a gainer by the
withdrawal of unwise and irksome interference.

My policy on the unemployed question was stated clearly
at the recent conference convened by the London County
Council of the public bodies of London. The resolution sent
by the Poplar Borough Council, and adopted by seventy-five
to twenty votes, had my hearty sympathy. The borough
councils, county councils, and Parliament, must alike face their
responsibility promptly for its practical solution.

I shall, if elected or not, continue to further the claims of
Woolwich for a subway, which I consider to be desirable in
any weather, and imperative in times of frost or fog.

I want to see all markets and lands under the Union Jack
honestly developed ; an army in which our soldiers are treated
as men deservedly sharing the glories of peace as well as the
hardships of war ; a navy made doubly strong by the content-
ment and happiness of its sailors. I should then have no fear
of the defence of the Empire without dabbling in what is termed
a spirited foreign policy.



ELECTION ADDRESS OF MR. WILL CROOKS, M.P. 379

Briefly I summarize the things I will strenuously work for
as under : —



Direct employment.
Trade-union rates.
Temperance.
Housing the poor.
Enfranchisement of women.
Religious freedom.
Equal opportunities for our
children.



Improvement of the port of

London.
A Minister of Industry, with a

seat in the Cabinet.
Useful organized work for the

unemployed.



I am of opinion that a strong Labour party in the House
of Commons, comprised of men who know the sufferings and
share the aspirations of all grades of workmen, is certain to
exercise greater influence for good than the academic student.

I have no desire to enter Parliament unless it be for the
opportunities it may afford me of continuing and extending my
life's work. If I can further the well-being of my country, by
assisting in the development of a nation of self-respecting men
and women, whose children shall be educated and physically
and mentally fitted to face their responsibilities and duties, I
shall be content.

I therefore ask those of you who believe that the greatness
of our Empire rests on the happiness and prosperity of its
people, to carefully consider the importance of the present
election.

I shall have frequent opportunities of addressing you, and
should any elector desire my opinion on points which may not
be clear to him, I hope that he will not fail to question me.



XXIX

THE FUTURE
By Anatole France

From the novel : " M. Bergeret a Paris." The adhesion of Anatole
France to SociaHsm is remarkable, because he is the lineal successor
of Voltaire and Diderot, and represents a linking of the old revolu-
tionary criticism to the new. His visions may also be suggestively
compared with those in William Morris's Neius from Nowhere.

" We shall all be happy, papa."

" No. Divine pity, which is the beauty of souls, would
come to an end when suffering ended. That will never be.
Moral evil and physical evil, unceasingly resisted, will un-
ceasingly share with happiness and joy the empire of the world,
as the nights follow the days. Evil is necessary. Like good, it
has its spring deep in nature ; the one could not be dried up
without the other. We are only happy because we are unhappy.
Suffering is the sister of joy ; the breath of these twins passes
over our harp-strings and makes them sound in harmony. If
happiness alone blew on them, they would give out a monotonousj
tedious sound, like silence. But to the inevitable evils, to those
evils at once common and august which result from the state of
mankind, there shall no more be added the artificial evils, which
result from the state of our society. Men will no more be
deformed by an unfair labour by which they rather die than live.
The slave will come out of the ergastulum, and the factory
no longer eat up men's bodies by millions.

380



I



ANATOLE FRANCE 381

" For this deliverance I look to machinery itself. Machi-
nery, which has crushed so many men, will come gently and
generously to succour soft human flesh. Machinery, first
cruel and harsh, will grow kindly propitious, friendly. How
will it change its spirit? Listen. The spark which sprang
from the Leyden jar, the little subtle star which manifested
itself last century to the wondering physicist, will work this
marvel. The unknown which has let itself be conquered
without letting itself be known, the mysterious captive force,
the intangible of which our hands take hold, the tame thunder-
bolt bottled and discharged upon the innumerable wires which
cover the world with their network — electricity, will carry its
strength, its succour, wherever it is needed, into the houses
and rooms, to the home where father, mother, and children
will be separated no more. It is no dream. The stern
machinery, which shatters body and soul in the factory, will
become domesticated, homely, familiar. But it is nothing —
no, it is nothing that pulleys, cogs, connecting-rods, cranks,
grooves, and flywheels should be humanised, if men remain
iron-hearted.

"We look for, we call for, a change more wonderful still.
What does the employer say to-day ? That he is the thinking
spirit, and that without him his army of workers would be like a
body deprived of understanding. Well, if he is the mind, let this
honour and joy be enough for him. Need a man glut himself
with wealth because he is the mind that thinks ? When the
great Donatello cast a bronze statue with his companions, he
was the soul of the work. The price which he received from
prince or citizen he used to put in a basket which was slung
up by a pulley to a beam of the workshop. Every companion
untied the rope in his turn, and took from the basket according
to his needs. Is there not joy enough in producing through
one's understanding, and does this advantage dispense the
master-worker from sharing the profit with his lowly fellow-
workers ? But in my republic there will no longer be profits
or wages, and everything will belong to us."



382 MODERN SOCIALISM

" Papa, that's collectivism," said Pauline, quietly.

"The most valuable things," replied M. Bergeret, "are
common to all mankind, and were always so. Air and light
belong in common to everything that breathes and sees daylight.
After selfishness and greed have toiled for centuries, in spite of
the violent efforts which individuals have made to seize and keep
treasures, the private wealth which even the richest among us
enjoy is trifling in comparison with what belongs to all men
without distinction. Even in our own society do you not see that
the pleasantest or the most splendid properties — roads, rivers,
forests that once were the king's, libraries, museums — belong
to every one ? No rich man possesses any more than I do this
ancient oak of Fontainebleau or that picture of the Louvre.
And they are more mine than the rich man's, if I know better
how to enjoy them. Collective ownership, which people fear
as a distant monster, surrounds us already under a thousand
familiar forms. It is alarming, when you announce it ; whereas
the advantages which it procures are already in use."



I



INDEX



Agrarianism, Socialism and, xv,
xxxi, xxxii ; Vandervelde's views,
197 ei seq. ; German views. 219
et seq.

America, North (jt't' United States) ;
South, 193

Anseele, biographical note, 284 ;
on Socialism and Co-operation,
284 et seq.

Arbitration, compulsory, xv, xvi,
102, 359, cp. 60,61 ; Millerand's
"Strike Bill," 157-160. ^^cv- In-
dustrial tribunals

Archimedes, 292

Argyll, late Duke of, 235

Armaments, Socialist opposition to,
I73> 37i~375' ^'^ International-
ism

Asquith, Right Hon. H. H., 93

Australia, Socialistic legislation and
parties, xv, xvi ; Victorian wage-
boards, 102, 359 ; studied on the
Continent, 159

Austria, position of Socialism, xiii ;

party's programme, 333 et seq.
Avenir de Plaisance, at Taris, 294

B

Babeuf, 338

Barcelona, strike at, 191, 194
Bastable, Professor C. F., 230
Bebel, August, on Utopianism, 1-3 ;

on Theory of Increasing Misery,

189; 218, 221, 376
Belgium, character of Labour Party,

xiv ; its programme, 322 et seq. ;

general strikes in, xxiv «., 194 ;

agriculture in, 197 ft seq. ; union



of Socialism with Co-operation
in, 284 et seq.

Bernstein, Eduard, xxvi, 189, 376 \

Bismarck, it,^ et seq.

Blanc, Louis, xxi

Booth, Charles, 312

Bordeaux Congress, 163-184

Bowley, Professor A. L., 116-I18

Briand, Aristide, 191

Burns, John, biographical note,
264 ; on municipal Socialism,
264 et seq.; his L.C.C. pro-
gramme, 281 ; Parliamentary
programme, 282 ; 306



Campbell-Bannerman, Right Hon.
Sir H., 313

Capital, concentration of, xvii tt. ;
eftect of private ownership of,
xviii ; two methods of expropriat-
ing, xviii. See passim, especially
14 et seq., 90 et seq.

Capitalist class, Morris on, 76-79
et seq. ; Kautsky on, 127 et seq. ;
risks from its emigration,238, 239;
money capitalists, 128 et seq.

Capitalist system, IS ^ seq., 50,
71-80

Chamberlain, Right Hon. J,, 134,

314

Chambers of Labour, 145. See
Labour Councils

Chelsea Board of Guardians, 245 «.

Classes, abolition of. See Pro-
letariate, rS/e of

Class -State, Sarraute on, 165-167 ;
Jaures on, 168-170. See State

Class-war, economic basis, xviii,



384



INDEX



xix ; first seen by St. Simon,
xxi ; as basis of a party, xxiii,
XXV ; Liebknecht on, 4-8, 10 ;
Kautsky on, 115 ^^ ■f'^V-j Jaures
on, 167 et seq. ^ft' Revolutionary
Socialists, Historical Process,
Proletariate

Clemenceau, Georges, 193

Clericalism, Socialism and, xv,
xxviii

Cobden, R., 234, 235

Colins, 213, 214

Collective bargaining, private,
xxxiv-xxxvi, 99, 100

Collectivism contrasted with Com-
munism, 83-88

Combination, right of, 145

Commune, the Parisian, 35, 193

Communism contrasted with Col-
lectivism, 83-88

" Communist Manifesto," origin
of, 35 ; programme suggested in,
36, 188, 189

Companies, joint-stock, 27, 130-132

Conseils du Travail. See Labour
Councils

Constitutionalism, 49, 54, 63

Contracts, wage-clauses in public,
xxxvi, 148, 152, 246 et seq. ; cp.
Fair Wages Movement

Crises, commercial, Marx's theory
of, 25

Crooks, W., biographical note, 376;
election address, 376-379



D



David, Dr. Eduard, 188, 224, 227 «.
Democracy, its effect on Socialism,

X, xi, 165, 168 et seq., cp. 61-62
Denmark, xii, xxxii
Direct employment, 241 et seq.
Donatello, 381
Drink traffic —

Local option, 283

Public ownership and control,
327, 354. 357, 360

Gothenburg system, 360

High licence, 360



Education, xix, 58 et seq. See Mini-
mum, policy of national. In pro-
grammes — German, 319 ; Belgian,
325, 330 ; Austrian, 336 ; French,
346; English— S.D.F., 353-354;
I.L.P., 357 ; Fabian, 361 ; Mr.
W. Crooks', 378

Emerson, 247

Employment agencies, 148, 154

Engels, F., biographical note, 14 ;
doctrine, 14-37 ; 189

England, her evolution following
the German, 132, 133 ; compared
with the United States, 90 et seq.

Entrep?-eneiir, elimination of private,
261-263

Erfurt Programme, 316-321

Expansion of markets, why de-
manded, 24

Exploitation of proletariate, 15
et seq., 71 et seq. ; still increasing,
11S-119



Fabian Society, note on, 358 ; basis,
358 ; questions for Parliamentary
candidates, 359 ; for town coun-
cillors, 362 ; on direct employ-
ment, 241 et seq. ; 90,366,367, 376
Factory regulation, why need for,
95-98 ; conduces to efificiency,
248 ; less important to regulate a
given industry for all nation
than to regulate all industries for
a given nation, 233 ; 59, 146,
155. See all programmes
Fair Wages movement, 242 et seq.
See Wage-clauses in public con-
tracts ; Wages, regulation o
Farrer, late Lord, 230
Fatalism, alleged Marxian, 10
Financiers. See Money capitalists
France, position of Socialism, xi,
xxvi «., 48; "French Socialist
Party," its Bordeaux debate, 163
et seq. ; its Toursjprogramme, 338
et seq. ; *' Socialist Party of
France," 185 ; social reform in
France, i^oetseq. 6V^ Millerand



1



INDEX



385



France, Anatolc, 3S0-3S2
Free Trade, Socialism and, xxix-
xxxi, 228 etscq.



G



General strike, xxiv ; Jaures on,
191 ; Dutch resolution on, 195 ;
cp. in French programme, 342

George, Henry, 208, 213

Germany, position of Socialism, xii,
xiii ; the Anti-Socialist Law, 138 ;
history since, 140 et seq. ; com-
pared with England, 132, 133 ;
agrarian question, 219-227 ;
party's programme, 316-321

German Emperor, the present, 142,

143
Ghent, Co-operation at, 297. See

"Vooruit," Anseclc
Gladstone, 133, 134
Great Eastern Railway Company,

256
'• Great Industry." See Industrial

revolution
Guesde, Jules, 48, 170, 176, iSi,

185, 191



H



of



See



Hardware trade, integration
industries in, 259, 260

Health, public, 90, 172.
Minimum, policy of national

Hegel, influence of, xxii

Heine, 120

Herve, speech of, 163

Higgling of the market, 94

Historical process, Marxian view
of the, 4-1 1, 15 et seq.; cp. 50,
68 et seq. : affirmed in pro-
grammes, 316, 323, 333, 338, 351

History, "materialist conception"
of, 14

Holland, xxiv «., 195

Hours of labour, no, iii, 145, 148,
151. See the programmes

Housing, III, 141, 172, 28 r, 282,
377



Hymiman, H. M., 306
Hypothesis, Collectivism as an, 52,
53. 57, 58



Imperialism, xxviii

Independent Labour Party, genesis
and history, 304-307 ; pro-
gramme, 356, 366, 367

Industrial revolution, xix, xx, 15 c(
seq.

Industrial tribunals, 145, 153, 328

Inspection of factories and mines,

59) 97> 145 ei ^'■'q- '■ workmen
inspectors, 147
Insurance, workmen's, 138, 152
Integration of industries, 254^/ seq. ;

cp. 27
"Intellectuals," 77, 121-123, 287
Internationalism and Socialism, in
St. Simon, xxi ; in Marx, and
since, xxvii, xxviii, 11, 55; in
German programme, 318; Bel-
gian, 323 ; Austrian, 335 ;
French, 344; S.D.F., 352
Italy, position of Socialism, xi



Jaures, Jean, biographical note,
191 ; disagreement with Mille-
rand and with Guesde, 167 et
seq. ; on the general strike, 191-
195 ; xxvi, xxviii, 53, 292, 300

Jefferson, Thomas, 91, 98

Joint-stock companies, 27, 130-132

Junkers, the Prussian, 144, 219 n.



K



Kautsky, Karl, 114 et seq., 187 et

seq., 214, 226, 227 n.
Keir Hardie, J., biographical note,

302 ; views in 1894...302 et seq. ;

views in 1903.., 304 et seq.
2 C



386



INDEX



Labour bureaux, 148, 154

Labour Councils, 155. See Cham-
bers of Labour

Labour Electoral Association, 305,
306

Labour Representation Committee,
constitution, 366 ; xxxiv, xxxvi,
2,09etseq., 376

Laisser-faire, 99, 136 et seq.

Land. See Agrarianisni. Land
nationalisation, 213-215

Lassalle, Ferdinand, biographical
note, 38; his "brazen law," 38
et seq. ; view of working-class
misery, 42 et seq., 189 ; universal
suffrage as instrument, 44-47 ;
ix, xxi, xxii, xxix «.

Liberty and property, 49

Liebknecht, Wilhelm, on trade
unions, xxxiii ; on political prin-
ciples, 4-13 ; 53, 221. See Inter-
nationalism

London County Council, 241 et seq.

London School Board, 241

London and North- Western Rail-
way Company, 255, 256

Liibeck Congress, 187-190



M



Markets, expansion of, 24
Marshall, Professor A., 245
Marx, Karl, theory, 14-34 ; cp. 4-
13 ; early programme, 35-37 ;
ix, xxii, xxix n., xxxi, 1 15, 124,
132, 164, 187, 189, 270
Marxists. .See Revolutionary So-
cialists
"Materialist conception" of his-
tory, 14
Midland Railway Company, 256
Mill, J. S., 197, 236, 245, 305
Millerand, A., account of his
measures, 150-162 ; views in
1896.. .48; views in 1903. ..56
case against at Bordeaux, 163
resolution to expel, 178 ; Jaures
resolution on, 179 ; xi, xxxvi, 135,



Minimum, policy of the national,

109 et seq.y 235 et seq. ; need not

be international, 236
Misery, theory of increasing, 114,

lis, 187-190
Money capitalists distinguished from

industrial, 12S et seq.
Morris, William, 65 et seq., 306,

380
Municipal industry, in London, 248

et seq.; Birmingham, 251, 252 ;

Liverpool, 252 ; Manchester, 252,

253; Battersea, 273-281
Municipalisation, xi «., xxxvi, 27,

51, 248 et seq., 281, 282. See the

programmes



N



Nationalism. See Internationalism
Nationalization of industries, 27 ;

of land, 213 ^/ seq.
National minimum. See Minimum
New Zealand, xv, xvi, 102, 159,

359



O



Owen, Robert, xx-xxii, 235



Paepe, C. de, 322, 331 w.

Parasitism, industrial, loi, 228 et
seq.

Peasantry, 126, 197 et seq., 219 et
f'-y-. 3 1 7. .333. 340, 343. cp. 329

Pensions, Bismarck's workmen's in-
surance, 139, 140; at the " Voor-
uit," 291 ; cp. 60

Petty-bourgeoisie, 123-125, 287-
289

Petty industry. See Industrial re-
volution

Posadowsky, Count, 143

Potter, Beatrice, 90, 261 «. See
Webl)



INDEX



387



Production, cost of, contrasted with

expenses of, 22S d seq.
Proletariate, Socialist view of,

xviii, xix, 72, 73, 316, 317,

323, 333. 334. 338-341, 350-352,
358; history, 1S-20; Marxian
view of its role, 30-34, 35-37 ;
proletarians as "hired men," 90-
98 ; their interest the real in-
terest of the community, 172,
182; rural, 217, 220, 226

Property, historical development
of its forms, 4 et seq. ; associated
with liberty, 49

Protection, Socialism and, xxix-
xxxi, 228 etseq., 371-372, 375



R



Radicals, their weakness against

Whigs, 303
Reeves, Hon. W. P., xv, xvi
Referendum, 282, 319, 324, 335,

345. 353

Reformist Socialists versus Revolu-
tionaries, xxiii-xxxiii, 163 et seq.;
doctrine in p'rance, 56-64 ; in
England, go ei seq. ; spring from
the " intellectuals," 123

Regulation. See Factory regulation

Renaudel, 178

Reserve-army of industry, 23

Revolutionary Socialists versus Re-
formists, xxiii-xxxiii, 163 et seq.

Rodbertus, 120

Rowntree, B. S., 312

Russian Socialism, xiii



Sanitation, 90, 97, 99, in, 172
Sarraute, Joseph, 164 et seq
Scientific, claim of Socialism to be,

xxii, 13
Shaftesbury, Lord, 235
Shipbuilding, integration of indus-
tries in, 257, 258
Smith, Adam, 91, 94, 98, 239,
245



Social Democratic Federation
(English), programme and note,
352; 65, 306

Socialism, theory, xvii-xix; genesis,
xix-xxiii, its broad synthesis, 53,
172; organisation of workers its
essence, 161 ; cp. 292

.Socialist League, 65, 306

Solitlarity of classes, xxv, 61, 62

.Spain, Anarchism eclipsing Social-
ism, xiv ; violence of strikes, 191
et seq.

Spencer, Herbert, 255, 262 n.

St. Simon, xx, xxi

.State, the, its police character due
largely to its class character, 30-
31. 79, 83; to be replaced by
industrial character, 83, 87. See
Class-State

Strike, the general, xxiv, n. ; Jaures
on, 191 ; Dutch resolution on,
195 ; in French programme, 342

"Strike Bill," Millerand's, 157-
160

Stumm, Von, 144, 149

Suffrage, universal adult, 282, 318,

324, 335, 345, 353, 357, 361 .
Sweated trades, loi et seq. ; injure
the non-sweated trades, 229 et
seq. ; cannot be dealt with by
Protection, 231 et seq.



Taff Vale, and other decisions,

xxxiv, 308, 377
Tests of a good society, Morris's,

^^

Tillies newspaper, its articles on
Municipal Socialism criticised,
264 et seq.

Trade-unions, xxxiii et seq., 60, 99,
100, 153, 161, 293, 308; in
public interest, 146, 159; co-
operation of factory inspectors
with, 146, 155

Trusts, advent of, go et seq. ; pro-
spects and dangers of, io6 et seq.:
cp. Integration of industries



INDEX



U



United Kingdom, position of So-
cialism in, xvi, xvii ; compared
with that in France, xxvi n. ;
following Germany, 132, 133 ;
compared witli America, (^odscq.

United States, backwardness and
recent growth of Socialism, xvi ;
general situation, 90 et scq.

Utopian Socialism, xxi, xxii, 1-3



Vaillant, Edouard, 48, 185, 191
Vandervelde, Emile, biographical
note, 197 ; on agriculture, 197-

218, xxxvii, 52
Verekndimgstheorie. See Misery,

Theory of Increasing
Vollmar, G. von, note, 135, on
social reforms, it,^ etseq.^ xxvi n,,

219, 224

"Vooruit," of Ghent, 284, 290,
291, 292



W

Wages —

Regulation of, no, 141, 236,

240 «., 242 et seq., 376
Wage-clauses in public contracts,
xxxvi, 148, 152, 246^^^^^. See
Fair Wages Movement
Wage-boards, 102, 359
Wages-movement, 116-118
Waste, social, 25, 70, 76-79
Webb, Mr. and Mrs. Sidney, note,
90 ; on industrial problems, 90 el
seq. ; on Free Trade, 228 et seq. ;
XXX, xxxiii n., xxxvi, 133, 241 ?/.
See Potter
Whigs, their hold over Radicals,

304

Wise, B. R., 231

Women's Suffrage, in the pro-
grammes, 282, 318, 324, 335,

^345. 352, 353. 357, 361, 379
Works Department of London
County Council, 249 et seq., 272
et seq.



Zola, E., 285



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