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R.F. Dearborn.

Saratoga, and how to see it; containing a full account of its celebrated springs, mammoth hotels, health institutions, beautiful drives and walks, various objects of interest and amusement .. online

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[Illustration: PRICE 25 CENTS.

SARATOGA AND HOW TO SEE IT.

ILLUSTRATED.]


BY R.F. DEARBORN.


1872.

* * * * *

Drs. STRONGS,
REMEDIAL INSTITUTE,
ON CIRCULAR,
BETWEEN SPRING AND PHILA STREETS,

Is unsurpassed for beauty of location and accessibility to the
principal Springs. This Institution was established in 1855, for the
special treatment of

Lung, Female and Various Chronic Diseases.

During the Fall and Winter the Institute has been doubled in size to
meet the necessities of its increased patronage. It is now the largest
health institution in Saratoga, and is unsurpassed in the variety or
its remedial appliances by any in this country. In the elegance and
completeness of its appointments, it is unequaled. The building is
heated by steam, so that in the coldest weather the air of the house
is like that of Summer.

The proprietors, Drs. S.S. and S.E. Strong, are graduates of the
Medical Department of the New York University, and are largely
patronized by the medical profession.

In addition to the ordinary remedial agencies used in general practice
they employ

THE EQUALIZER OR VACUUM TREATMENT,
ELECTRO THERMAL BATHS,
SULPHUR AIR BATHS, RUSSIAN BATHS, TURKISH BATHS,
HYDROPATHY, SWEDISH MOVEMENT CURE,
Oxygen Gas, Gymnastics, &c, &c.

For particulars of the Institution, call or send for Circulars on
Lung, Female and Chronic Diseases and on our Appliances. Address

Drs. S.S. & S.E. STRONG,
REMEDIAL INSTITUTE
SARATOGA SPRINGS, N.Y.

* * * * *

[Illustration: MAP OF SARATOGA SPRINGS _by R.F. Dearborn_.]


SARATOGA,
AND
HOW TO SEE IT,

GIVING INFORMATION CONCERNING
The Attractions and Objects of Interest
OF THE
FASHIONABLE WATERING PLACE,
WITH THE
HISTORY, ANALYSIS AND PROPERTIES
OF THE
MINERAL SPRINGS.


BY R.F. DEARBORN.

* * * * *

SARATOGA, N.Y.:
C.D. SLOCUM, PUBLISHER.
1872.


Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1872, by
R.F. DEARBORN,
In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.




CONTENTS.

Introduction

PART I - _The Saratoga Mineral Springs_

The Saratoga Valley
Geology
General Properties of the Springs
Discovery of the Springs
Are They Natural
Commercial Value
Medicinal Value
Analysis by Prof. Chandler
Individual Characteristics
History and Properties of each Spring
Congress Spring
Columbian Spring
Crystal Spring
Ellis Spring
Empire Spring
Eureka Spring
Excelsior Spring
Geyser Spring
Glacier Spring
Hamilton Spring
Hathorn Spring
High Rock Spring
Pavilion Spring
Putnam Spring
Red Spring
Saratoga "A" Spring
Seltzer Spring
Star Spring
Ten Springs
United States Spring
Washington Spring
White Sulphur Spring
Directions for Drinking the Water
Saratoga Abroad
Special Notice

PART II - _Saratoga as a Watering Place_

Places of Interest
History
Routes and Distances
Railway Station
The Village
Hotel Accommodations
Congress Hall
Grand Union
Grand Central Hotel
Clarendon
Everett House
Alphabetical List of hotels
Temple Grove
The Climate
Drs. Strong
Churches
YMCA Rooms
Real Estate
Hack Fares
Drives and Walks
Moon's Lake House
Saratoga Lake
Chapman's Hill
Wagman's Hill
Hagerty Hill
Wearing Hill
Lake Lovely
Stiles Hill
Corinth Falls
Luzerne
Lake George
Ballston
Glen Mitchell
Excelsior Grove
Walk to Excelsior Spring
Congress Park
Gridley's Trout Ponds
Saratoga Battle Ground
Surrender Ground
The Village Cemetery
Verd-Antique Marble Works
Amusements
Josh Billings
Routine for a Lady
Balls
Races
Indian Camp
Circular Railway
Shopping
Evenings
Saratoga in Winter
Romance
Saratoga Society

Conclusion

Appendix




INTRODUCTION.


The design of this work is not to give a history of the village of
Saratoga. That, as well as a more elaborate description of the geology
of the county, may be found in a very interesting book, published
several years since, by R.L. ALLEN, M.D., entitled the "Hand
Book of Saratoga and Stranger's Guide." We acknowledge our
indebtedness to the work for several items in regard to the history of
the Springs.

Our thanks are due also to Prof. C.H. CHANDLER, Ph.D., of the
Columbia School of Mines, for the Analyses of the Springs, and for
electroplates and valuable suggestions from the _American Chemist_, of
which he is the distinguished editor.

We would acknowledge here also, the assistance and uniform courtesy
which we have received from the Superintendents and officers of the
various Springs. The failure of an engraving company to fulfill their
agreement has delayed the issue of the work and prevented the
insertion of several other engravings.

R.F.D.

SARATOGA. _June, 1872_




PART I.

The Analysis, History and Properties
OF THE
MINERAL SPRINGS.


* * * * *




THE
Mineral Springs of Saratoga.


The region of Mineral Springs in Eastern New York consists of a long,
shallow and crescent-shaped valley, extending northeast from Ballston,
its western horn, to Quaker Springs, its eastern extremity. The entire
valley abounds in mineral fountains of more or less merit, and in the
central portion bubble up the Waters of Healing, which have given to
SARATOGA its world-wide celebrity.

Professor CHANDLER, of the Columbia School of Mines, thus
describes the




Geology of the County.


"Beginning with the uppermost, the rocks of Saratoga county
are:

1. The Hudson river and Utica shales and slates.

2. The Trenton limestone.

3. The calciferous sand rock, which is a silicious limestone.

4. The Potsdam sand stone; and

5. The Laurentian formation of gneiss and granite, of unknown
thickness.

"The northern half of the county is occupied by the elevated
ranges of Laurentian rocks; flanking these occur the Potsdam,
Calciferous and Trenton beds, which appear in succession in
parallel bands through the central part of the county. These
are covered in the southern half of the county by the Utica and
Hudson river slates and shales.

[Illustration: GEOLOGICAL SECTION AT SARATOGA SPRINGS.]

"The most remarkable feature is, however, the break, or
vertical fissure, which occurs in the Saratoga valley, which
you see indicated in the cut. Notice, especially, the fact that
the strata on one side of the fissure have been elevated above
their original position, so that the Potsdam sandstone on the
left meets the edges of the calciferous sand rock, and even the
Trenton limestone on the right. It is in the line of this
fissure, or _fault_, in the towns of Saratoga and Ballston that
the springs occur.

"The Laurentian rocks, consisting of highly crystalline gneiss,
granite and syenite, are almost impervious, while the overlying
Potsdam sandstone is very porous, and capable of holding large
quantities of water. In this rock the mineral springs of
Saratoga probably have their origin. The surface waters of the
Laurentian hills, flowing down over the exposed edges of the
Potsdam beds, penetrate the porous sandstones, become saturated
with mineral matter, partly derived, perhaps, from the
limestones above, and are forced to the surface at a lower
level, by hydrostatic pressure. The valley in which the springs
all occur indicates the line of a fault or fracture in the
rocky crust, the strata on the west side of which are hundreds
of feet above the corresponding strata on the east.

"The mineral waters probably underlie the southern half of the
entire county, many hundred feet below the surface; the
accident of the fault determining their appearance as springs
in the valley of Saratoga Springs, where, by virtue of the
greater elevation of their distant source, they reach the
surface through crevices in the rocks produced by the fracture.

"It is probable that water can be obtained anywhere in the
southern portion of the county by tapping the underlying
Potsdam sandstone. In these wells the water usually rises to
and above the surface. Down in the rocky reservoir the water
is charged with gases under great pressure. As the water is
forced to the surface, the pressure diminishes, and a portion
of gas escapes with effervescence. The spouting wells deliver,
therefore, enormous volumes of gas with the water, a perfect
suds of water, carbonic acid and carburetted hydrogen.

"The common origin of the springs is shown by the analysis: all
contain the same constituents in essentially the same order of
abundance; they differ in the degree of concentration merely.
Those from the deepest strata are the most concentrated. The
constituents to which the taste of the water and its most
immediate medicinal effects are due, are: Chloride of sodium,
bicarbonate of lime, bicarbonate of magnesia, bicarbonate of
soda and free carbonic acid. Other important, though less
speedily active, constituents are: Bicarbonate of iron,
bicarbonate of lithia, iodide of sodium and bromide of sodium."

The solvent power which holds all these solid substances in solution,
and which contributes to their agreeable taste, is the carbonic acid
gas with which the water is so freely charged. This free carbonic acid
gas is probably formed by the decomposition of the carbonates which
compose the rock. The water, impregnated with it, becomes a powerful
solvent, and, passing through different strata, absorbs the various
mineral substances which compose its solid constituents.




General Properties.


Writers upon mineral springs generally divide them into the following
classes: Carbonated or acidulous, saline, chalybeate or iron,
alkaline, sulphur or hepatic, bitter and thermal springs.

The Saratoga waters embrace nearly all of these except the last two;
some of the springs being saline, some chalybeate, some sulphur, and
nearly all carbonated; and in the list may be found cathartic,
alterative, diuretic and tonic waters of varied shade and differing
strength. The cathartic waters are the most numerous and the most
extensively used. The curative agents prepared in the vast and
mysterious laboratories of Nature are very complex in constitution and
different in temperature, and on that account do not, like iron,
opium, quinia, etc., exhibit single effects; they exercise rather,
with rare exceptions, combined effects, and these are again modified
by various modes of employment and the time and circumstances of their
use.




The Discovery of the Springs.


All the older springs have been found in beds of blue marl, or clay
rather, which cover the valley more or less throughout its whole
extent. On digging into this clay to any considerable depth, we are
pretty certain to find traces of mineral water. In some places, at the
depth of six or eight feet, it has been discovered issuing from a
fissure or seam in the underlying limestone, while at other places it
seems to proceed from a thin stratum of quicksand which is found to
alternate with the marl at distances of from ten to forty feet, below
which bowlders of considerable size are found.

The spouting springs have been found by experimental boring. As this
is the cheapest and more certain method, it is "the popular thing" at
present, and the day may not be far distant when all Saratoga will be
punched through with artesian wells reaching hundreds of feet, if not
through to China, and thus an open market made for the Saratoga waters
among "the Heathen Chinee."

Mr. Jessie Button, to whom we are indebted for both the Glacier and
the Geyser springs, seems best to understand the process of
successfully boring artesian wells, having made these his special
study and profession. Like Moses of old, he strikes, or taps, the rock
and behold streams of water gush forth.




Are the Springs Natural?


Is a question that will probably seem absurd to those who are at all
familiar with mineral springs or Saratoga waters. Nevertheless, it is
a not unfrequent and amusing occurrence to hear remarks from strangers
and greenies who have a preconceived notion that the springs are
doctored, and that a mixture of salts, etc., is tipped in every night
or early in the morning! Strange that the art should be limited to the
village of Saratoga! The _incredulity_ of some people is the most
ridiculous credulity known. Such wonders as the spouting springs, the
"strongest" in Saratoga, come from so small an orifice in the ground,
as to preclude the least possibility of adulteration. Besides, the
manufactured article would be too costly to allow such immense
quantities to flow away unused.

But to argue this question would be a _reductio ad absurdum_. _Nature
is far better than the laboratory._ Artificial waters may simulate the
natural in taste and appearance, but fall far short of their
therapeutic effects.




The Commercial Value


Of the various springs differs as widely as does people's estimate of
their individual merits. Spring water property is very expensive. It
costs large sums of money to manage some of the springs. The old
method of tubing, by sinking a curb, may cost several thousand
dollars, and is uncertain then. Moreover, it is no small work to keep
the springs in perfect repair, and in a clean and pure condition.

The artesian wells cost not far from $6 per foot for the boring, and
are much less expensive.

Most of the springs are owned by stock companies, with a capital
ranging from several hundred thousand to a million dollars. _On dit_
that the proprietors of the Geyser Spring were offered $175,000 for
their fountain, and probably the Congress could not be purchased for
quadruple that amount. It would not be a _very_ profitable bargain if
some of the springs could be bought for a song, even, and yet there is
not enough mineral water in all the springs now discovered in the
Saratoga valley to supply New York alone, if artificial waters were to
be abandoned. The only profit of the springs is in the sale of the
water in bottles and barrels; and as the method of bottling requires
great care, and is expensive, the per cent. of profit is not enormous.
The use of mineral water, both as a beverage and for medicinal
purposes, is increasing, and there may be "a good time coming," when
these springs will bring wealth to the owner as they give health to
the drinker.




The Medicinal Value of the Waters.


There is no doubt of their power to promote evacuations of effete
accumulations from the kidneys, skin and bowels.

Dr. Draper, an eminent physician, in speaking of the springs, says:
"They restore suppressed, and correct vitiated secretions, and so
renovate health, and are also the means of introducing many medicines
into the system in a state of minute subdivision, in which they exert
a powerful alterative and curative action."

The value of mineral water has been shown in the treatment of obscure
and chronic diseases. In many instances persons have been restored to
health, or greatly relieved, by the use of mineral waters when all
other remedies had proved of no avail.

The best known waters are now prescribed by the faculty in certain
diseases with as much confidence as any preparation known to the
apothecary. Indeed, no prescription is known equally beneficial to
such differently made patients.

A large majority of those who resort to the springs for their health
have tried other means of cure without relief.

It may also be considered a marked compliment to the medicinal
properties of the waters, that the thousands who come here for
pleasure merely, living fast and indulging in dissipation while here,
return to their homes in better health - as they almost always do - than
when they came.

Unlike certain other springs, whose wonderful properties and vaunted
cures are found in pompous advertisements, the Saratoga waters have
not made their celebrity by printer's ink. Their reputation has
depended upon their own intrinsic merits, and steadily and surely has
their renown advanced.

To repeat all the disorders which they have been known to benefit,
would be very nearly to copy the sad list of ailments to which our
creaky frames are subject.

In short, spring water is good for the stomach, good for the skin,
good for ladies of all possible ages, and for all sorts and conditions
of men.




Individual Characteristics.


In stating the special properties of the individual springs, we have
conscientiously endeavored to make this work as reliable and accurate
as possible. Those who are familiar with the reputation and claims of
some of the several springs in past years will notice many changes,
but it is believed that the information herein given is on the best
authority, and brought down to the latest date.




_The Analyses of the Saratoga Waters,
by C.F. Chandler, Ph.D., of the Columbia School of Mines._


- - - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - -
Compounds as they exist | Star | High | Seltzer | Pavilion| United
in Solution in the Waters. | Spring. | Rock | Spring. | Spring.| States
| | Spring. | | | Spring.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - -
Chloride of sodium | 398.361 | 390.127 | 134.291 | 459.903 | 141.872
Chloride of potassium | 9.695 | 8.974 | 1.335 | 7.660 | 8.624
Bromide of sodium | 0.571 | 0.731 | 0.630 | 0.987 | 0.844
Iodide of sodium | 0.126 | 0.086 | 0.031 | 0.071 | 0.047
Fluoride of calcium | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace.
Bicarbonate of lithia | 1.586 | 1.967 | 0.899 | 9.486 | 4.847
Bicarbonate of soda | 12.662 | 34.888 | 29.428 | 3.764 | 4.666
Bicarbonate of magnesia | 61.912 | 54.924 | 40.339 | 76.267 | 72.883
Bicarbonate of lime | 124.459 | 131.739 | 89.869 | 120.169 | 93.119
Bicarbonate of strontia | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | 0.018
Bicarbonate of baryta | 0.096 | 0.494 | Trace. | 0.875 | 0.909
Bicarbonate of iron | 1.213 | 1.478 | 1.703 | 2.570 | 0.714
Sulphate of potassa | 5.400 | 1.608 | 0.557 | 2.032 | Trace.
Phosphate of soda | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | 0.007 | 0.016
Biborate of soda | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace.
Alumina | Trace. | 1.223 | 0.374 | 0.329 | 0.094
Silica | 1.283 | 2.260 | 2.561 | 3.155 | 3.184
Organic Matter | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. Trace. | Trace.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - -
Total per | | | | |
U.S. gallon, 231 cu. in.| 617.367 | 630.500 | 302.017 | 687.275 | 331.837
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - -
Carbonate acid gas | 407.650 | 409.458 | 324.080 | 332.458 | 245.734
Density | 1.0091 | 1.0092 | 1.0034 | 1.0095 | 1.0035
Temperature | 52°F. | 52°F. | 50°F. | ... | ...

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - -
Compounds as they exist | Hathorn | Crystal |Congress | Geyser
in Solution in the Waters. | Spring. | Spring. | Spring. |spouting
(Continued) | | | | well.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - -
Chloride of sodium | 509.968 | 328.468 | 400.444 | 562.080
Chloride of potassium | 9.597 | 8.327 | 8.049 | 42.634
Bromide of sodium | 1.534 | 0.414 | 8.559 | 2.212
Iodide of sodium | 0.198 | 0.066 | 0.138 | 0.248
Fluoride of calcium | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace.
Bicarbonate of lithia | 11.447 | 4.326 | 4.761 | 7.004
Bicarbonate of soda | 4.288 | 10.064 | 10.775 | 71.232
Bicarbonate of magnesia | 176.463 | 75.161 | 121.757 | 149.343
Bicarbonate of lime | 170.646 | 101.881 | 143.339 | 170.392
Bicarbonate of strontia | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | 0.425
Bicarbonate of baryta | 1.737 | 0.726 | 0.928 | 2.014
Bicarbonate of iron | 1.128 | 2.038 | 0.340 | 0.979
Sulphate of potassa | Trace. | 2.158 | 0.889 | 0.318
Phosphate of soda | 0.006 | 0.009 | 0.016 | Trace.
Biborate of soda | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace.
Alumina | 0.131 | 0.305 | Trace. | Trace.
Silica | 1.260 | 3.213 | 0.840 | 0.665
Organic Matter | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - -
Total per | | | |
U.S. gallon, 231 cu. in.| 888.403 | 537.155 | 700.895 | 991.546
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - -
Carbonate acid gas | 375.747 | 317.452 | 392.289 | 454.082
Density | 1.0115 | 1.0060 | 1.096 | 1.0120
Temperature | ... | 50°F. | 52°F. | 46°F.


- - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - -
Bases and Acids as | Star | High | Seltzer | Pavilion| United
actually found in the | Spring. | Rock | Spring. | Spring. | States
Analysis uncombined | | Spring. | | | Spring.
- - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - -
Potassium | 7.496 | 5.419 | 0.949 | 4.931 | 4.515
Sodium | 160.239 | 163.216 | 61.003 | 182.084 | 57.259
Lithium | 0.163 | 0.202 | 0.093 | 0.976 | 0.499
Lime | 43.024 | 45.540 | 31.066 | 41.540 | 32.189
Strontia | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | 0.009
Baryta | 0.056 | 0.292 | Trace. | 0.517 | 0.537
Magnesia | 16.992 | 15.048 | 11.051 | 20.895 | 19.968
Protoiyde of iron | 0.491 | 0.598 | 0.689 | 1.040 | 0.289
Alumina | Trace. | 1.223 | 0.374 | 0.329 | 0.094
Chlorine | 246.357 | 241.017 | 82.128 | 282.723 | 90.201
Bromine | 0.443 | 0.568 | 0.489 | 0.767 | 0.656
Iodine | 0.106 | 0.072 | 0.026 | 0.060 | 0.039
Fluorine | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace.
Sulphuric acid | 2.483 | 0.739 | 0.256 | 0.934 | Trace.
Phosphoric acid | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | 0.004 | 0.008
Boracic acid | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace.
Carbonic acid in | | | | |
carbonates | 56.606 | 62.555 | 44.984 | 60.461 | 50.380
Carbonic acid for | | | | |
bicarbonates | 56.606 | 62.555 | 44.984 | 60.461 | 50.380
Silica | 1.283 | 2.260 | 2.561 | 3.155 | 3.184
Organic matter | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace. | Trace.
Water in bicarbonates | 23.160 | 25.591 | 18.405 | 24.736 | 20.613
Oxygen in KO (SO_{3}). | 0.496 | 0.148 | 0.051 | 0.187 | ...
Oxygen in LiO | | | | |
(HO_{2} CO_{2})| 0.187 | 0.232 | 0.105 | 1.116 | 0.570
Oxygen in NaO | | | | |
(HO_{2} CO_{2}) | 1.206 | 3.323 | 2.803 | 0.358 | 0.444


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Online LibraryR.F. DearbornSaratoga, and how to see it; containing a full account of its celebrated springs, mammoth hotels, health institutions, beautiful drives and walks, various objects of interest and amusement .. → online text (page 1 of 6)