R. G. (Robert Gordon) Latham.

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ETHNOLOGY OF INDIA.



E. G. LATfiAM, M.A., M.D., F.R.S.,

LATS FELLOW OF RINO'S COLLKOE, CAMBRIDOB, ETC.




LONDON:
JOHN VAN VOORST. PATERNOSTER ROW.

MIXXXJLIX. ''



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LONDON:
PRINTED BT WOODFALL AND EINDEB,

ANOBL COCRT« lUirMBB 8TRIBT.



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PREFACE.



The following pages form an extract from a larger work,
one in which a full and systematic description of the
several varieties of mankind is attempted. That such
an extract should be made, — in other words, that a par-
ticular portion of the work should be thus separated
from the rest, and that that portion should be the notice
of India and the districts of the Indian frontier, are
circumstances of which the explanation lies in the special
importance of the subject ; a subject which, interesting
as it is in a scientific view, is, at the present moment, one
of vast practical magnitude. It commands much of our
attention as Englishmen. It ought, perhaps, to com-
mand more.

The present notice gives the ethnology of British
India, and something more. That the acquisitions of
the Company are by no means limited to Hindostan is
well known. It is well known that Arakan, Pegu, and
the Tenasserim provinces, on the East ; that portions of
Caubul, on the West ; and that certain Himalayan dis-
tricts in the North, are, at one and the same time,
British in respect to their political relations, and other
than Indian in their ethnology. For this reason the
Indian frontier has been considered in conjunction with
India. In the eyes of many too much space may have
been devoted to it.



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IV PREFACE.

The populations akin to the Tibetans and Burmese
come first. They agree, to a great extent, in both lan-
guage and physical form. The general character of their
civilization (when it exists) and of their barbarism (when
they are barbarians) is the same. They lie to the north
and north-east of India proper; in Ladak, Nepaul,
Sikkim, and the parts to the East of the Bay of Bengal.
Some are decidedly Tibetan or Burmese. Others, like
the Nepaulese, are, in many important respects, Hindu ;
whilst a few, like the Bodo and Garo, have actually been
treated as Indians.

On the west and north-west the frontier is Persian.
In the way of politics it is important ; inasmuch as it
gives us the tribes which bound our acquisitions in both
the Punjaub and Sind. In the way of ethnology it is
more important still, since, according to all hypotheses,
it was from the west and north that the pre-eminently
Indian characteristics of India were introduced.

In the details of India proper, I have relied, in all
cases, upon first-hand evidence. The great repertories
have, of course, been those numerous periodicals of
which the Asiatic Researches^ the Transactions of the
Asiatic Society of London, and the Transactions of the
Asiatic Society of Bengal are the chief representatives.
Numerous reports, especially those of the Bombay
Government, have also been investigated. When the
authorities are of this kind, it is no easy matter, in all
cases, to give the particular observer upon whose account
you rely. For the most part, however, the authors of
the chief monographs are named.



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CONTENTS.



PAET I.

CHAPTBR I.

PAQl

Ladak. — Kimawer.— Ktunaon. — Doma. — Bawat. — Bhot. ... 1

CHAPTER II.
The Nepaal Tribea.— The Sunwar. — The Magar. — Gtinmg. — Jareya. —
Newar. — Konni. — Kirata or S^ichak. — Limba. — Lepcha. — The
Denwar, Diirr6, and Bramho 17

CHAPTER IIJ.
The Kooch.— Dhimal and Bodo. — ^Western Bodo of Sikkim and the
Bfitan frontier. — Eastern Bodo^ or Borro, of Asam and Cachar. —
The Qaro.— The Eaaia.— The Mikir. 81

CHAPTER IV.
The Hill-tribes of Aaam. — Northern Boundary. — Aka, Dofla, Abor, and
Kin Tribes. — The Bor Abor. — Eastern extremity and South-eastern
margin. — ^The Mishmi. — The Muttuk, Singpho, and Jili. . 62

CHAPTER V.
The Hill Tribes of Asam.— The Nagas. 70

CHAPTER VI.
The Burmese Group. —The Kumia and Kuki of Sylhet, Tipperah, and
Chittagong.— The Old and New Kuki of Cachar. —The Mugs of
Arakan. — Tribes of the Koladyn River. — Mm, Kami, and Kumi.
— Sak. — Shendu, or Heuma. — The Khen of the Toma Range. —
The Karien 75

CHAPTER Vn.
The Thay ; or, Siamese Group. 106

CHAPTER VIII.
The M6n of Pegu Ill



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VI CONTENTS.



PAET II.

CHAPTER I.
The Bilnch Tribee 113

CHAPTER II.

The Afghans.— The Western Tribes.— The Dnrani.— The GhihEyes.—

The Eastern Afghans 116

CHAPTER m.
The Paropamisans of the Oxns. — Cohistanis. — Kafirs, &c. . . . 182

CHAPTER IV.
Jrahfii 147

CHAPTER V.

nt History and Antiquities of Persia. — Relation of Persia to India.
-The Religion of Ancient Persia. — The Parsis. . . . .162

CHAPTER VI.

indent Languages of Persia and India. — The Persepolitan of the
hineifonn Inscriptions. — ^The Caubul Coins. — The Pali Inscriptions.
-The Sanskrit and Pali of Literature 168

CHAPTER VII.

i Langoages akin to the Tamul. — The Telinga. — ^The Tamtd jiroper.
-The Canarese. — The Ciirgi.— The Malayalam. — The Tula, or
•ulava.— The Ghond. — The Khond.— The Eastern Kol.— The
lajmahal. — The Tamul elements of the Brah^ 174

CHAPTER VIII.

ons of the languages akin to the Tamul. — Relations of the lan-
oages akin to the Sanskrit 184

CHAPTER IX.

inguages akin to the Hindi. — The Caahmiri. — ^The Hindi. — ^The
ujerati. — The Bengali.— The Uriya.— The Mahratta. —Sectional



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CONTENTS. vii

PAQt

and Intennediate PonoB, &c. — Migratory Fopolations and Trades.
—The Gypaiee.— The Bha Dialects. —The Hindostani. . . .188

CHAPTER X.

India as an influence. — ^Its action upon Tibet^ Ara, &c. — ^Upon the
i ffVm^ig of the Ty^d i^^'? Archipelago. — Brahminism and Bnddhism. . 193

CHAPTER XI.
The Alphabets of India. 216

CHAPTER Xn.

The Frontiers of India and Persia. — ^The Paropamisans. — ^The Afghans.

—The Cankers, &c.— The BnihM and Bilnch 219

CHAPTER XIIL

Foreign inflnenoes in India. — Bacchic (?). — ^Assyrian (?). — ^Persian. —
Toranian.— Macedonian.— Arab. — ^A^ghan.— Tnrk (Tshagatai). . 283

CHAPTER XIV.
Geoexal Tiew of the diYisions of the populations of India. — Cast. . 287

CHAPTER XV.
Populations speaking either the Hindi or a hingnage akin to it. — Cashmlr. 248

CHAPTER XVI.

Populations speaking either the Hindi or a kngnage akin to it. — ^The

Rajpat and Jut division. — ^The Sikhs. 253

CHAPTER XVn.

Popolatiens speaking either the Hindi or a language akin to it. — The

Rajput and Jnt divisions. — Sind. — ^Eutch. — Oujerat . . 262

CHAPTER XVm.

PopulationB q)eaking either the Hindi or a language akin to it. — The

Rajput and Jut divisions. — Rajputana, Rajwarra, or Rajasthan. . 276

CHAPTER XIX.

Populations speaking either the Hindi, or a knguage akin to it.— Delhi,

Allahabad, Bahar, Bengal, Orissa. 282

CHAPTER XX.

Popuhitions speaking either the Hindi or a language akin to it. — The

Subhimalayans. 290



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viii CONTENTS.

CHAPTBB XXI

PAOB

The ItlahrattaB. 801

CHAPTEB XXII.
The populations whoee language is akin to the Tamul. — ^The Bajmahali
moontaineen. — ^The Kola. — The KhondB. — ^The Soon. . . .308

Till.

and Tamnl districte. . . 852



Idigratoxy and other popola-



861



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TIBETANS AND ALLIED FAMILIES



INDIA



CHAPTER I.

Ladak. — Konawer. — Kumaon. — Doms. — Bawat. — Kepaul Bhot.

Ladak, like Bultistan, belongs to Gulab Singh, with
tlie exception of two districts — Spiti and Lahal, which
constitute a part of British India. Spiti is wholly, Lahul
but partially, Bhot. It is Bhot along the banks of the
Chandra, and Bhot along those of the Bhaga ; but below
the junction, and along the Chandra-Bhaga, or the result
of the two combined streams, it is Hindu.

In Spiti the population is scantily spread along the



banks of the river so called.


In 316 h


in sixty villages, we find




Adult males


. 392


Boys under 12


. 191


Adult females


. 598


Girls under 12


. 238


Priests


. 193



1607

Their chief enemy is the small-pox ; weakness of the
eyes being common — goitre rare. The men marry
between twenty and twenty-one, the women from fifteen
to twenty. Polyandry prevails ; and, side by side vnth
it, polygamy A man in good circumstances may have

B



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2 TIBETANS OF BRITISH INDIA.

two or three wives; but, then, the priest has none. Of
food they have but little variety, being without poultry,
without vegetables.

The whole area of Ladak is as follows : —

UNDER GULAB SINGH.



DiitricU.


Sq.MUet.


Mean Hetghta.


Nubra .


. . 9216 .


. . 12,768


Ladak .


. . 8960 .


. . 11,600




. . 8080 .


. . 18,164


Rukshu .


. . 6580 .


. . 16,684


Purik 1






Sura


. . 4200 .


. . 11,196


Dras


BRITISH.




Spiti . .


. . 2812 .


12,986


Lah^l .


. . 1872 .


. . 11,068



Hungrufiff, — I know of no true ethnological difference

between the Bhot of Hungrung and those of Ladak and

Tibet The district, however, belongs to the Rajah of

Bisahur. The villages lie at different levels ; ranging from

9,500 to 12,000 feet, the alluvia being numerous, and the

climate, considering the altitude, favourable to cultivation.

On the very crest of the Hungrung pass, at a height of

14,800 feet, the dama grows in patches ; the dama being

the Tibetan name for the Caragana versicolor, a small

shrub, that thrives at elevations where no other tree is to

be found. This makes it valuable for fuel ; the scarcest

of the Bhot necessaries. The barleys are of two kinds,

the common, and the Hordeum ^giceros. Both are culti-

vnfi^A . jinH fhfLt after the ordinary Bhot fashion ; t. e, by

jn. On the lower levels are grown

f millet, a kind of rape, and apricots.

ere are no fruit trees at all.

Hungrung, that Dr. Thompson finds
k upon the gradual character of the
lia to Tibet, both morally and physi-



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TIBBTANS OP BRITISH INDU.



3



cally. It is by gradual transitions that Brahminism passes
into Buddliism. It is by gradual transitions that the
Hindu physiognomy becomes Bhot. The " gradual tran*
sition, in descending the Sutlej, from Hinduism to Budd-
hism is very remSrkable^ and not less so because it is
accompanied by an equally gradual change in the physical
aspect of the inhabitants ; the Hindus of the Lower Sutlej
appearing to pass by insensible gradations as we advance
from Tillage to viUage, till at last we arriye at a pure
Tartar population. The people of Upper Piti have quite
the Tartar physiognomy, the small stature and stout build
of the inhabitants of Ladak, to whom they closely ap-
proximate in dress.**

Kunawer. — In Lower Kunawer the language is Hindu
rather than Bhot ; in Upper Kunawer it is Bhot rather
than Hindu. Nor is this all. There are dialects and
sub-dialects. The Milchan is the language of Lower
Kunawer ; Milchan being the Ramp&r term for the lan-
guage in general. In S6ngntim the forms are truly pro-
vincial, and, as the word Theburskud, or Tibberskud
18 used as a name for all deviations from the ordinary
speech, the S&3gn6m dialect has been given as The-
burskud. The Lubrung (or Kanam) and the Lidung
(or Lippa) forms are varieties of the Milchan. The
Sumchu is, perhaps, a fresh dialect.



E>,^


MUdun.


Theburaliad.


Sdmchd.


Man


mi


mi


m6


Women


chismi


eihri


e^iung


Head


bal


piflha


piBlia


Tonffue


le


le


le


Eye


mfk


m^


mi


Ear


Va-Hi^ny


mpnng


repnng


Foot


bung


bonk


bunkon


Sun


ydne


n6


nimok


Moan


golsung


golsong


gulaang
B 2



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TIBETANS OF BRITISH INDU.



Eiiglnh.


MUdian.


Thebunkud.


Sdmdid.


SUvr


ftkara


karma


kanna


One


ft


U


it


Two


nfsh


nfahf


nUh


Three


8<im


B6m


h(Un


Four


pa


pi


. pa


Five


gna


gnai


gna


Ten


aaf


chOf


sa



The differences here are slight.
ever, have peculiar endings: —



The infinitives^ how-



Milchan .
Lippa . .
Kana^irt
S6ngD(im .
SCimchA (?)



. lonhmih* or lonhmig

. lodenh* or lodent

. logma

• lopang

. lomma or loma.



Neither the Bhot nor the Hindu populations of
Kunawer are truly pure. On the contrary, there are
Bhot characters amongst the Hindus, Hindu characters
amongst the Bhot. Buddhism, indeed, decreases in the
central districts, and disappears in the southern. It is
not, however, replaced by any pure form of Brahminism.
Local gods and irregular priests appear here. Every hill
has its deota or genius. Polyandry is general. To one
family one wife ; the elder brother being the more special
husband. Minute and trenchant divisions of caste are
wanting. There is, however, an approach to it. The
Chumangs are regarded as outcasts, and no true Kanet *
will eat with them, intermarry with them, or allow them
to cross their threshold. Their skins are dark, and some
are said to be woolly-haired. The same is said concerning
the Rawi and Dom of Kumaon. They are not found in
the Bhot districts. The people of the lower hills call
them Koli ; those of Rampur, Chumars. Chumang is
what they call themselves. They till the soil and weave.

* Population of Kun-hwer, where a dialect called Kan-tan. is spoken.



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THE SHOT OF KUMAON AND 6URWHAL. 5

Polyandry is one of their habits^ as well as one of their
superiors*. They are liable to he pressed as porters.

So are the Domang, whose name is^ word for word, that
of the Dom of Kumaon.

So is the class of carpenters.

Hence, even in Kimawer, with its Buddhist frontier
and its Bhot characters, there are no less than three
castes ; each of which keeps its members to itself in the
way of intermarriage. A Dom will not intermarry with a
Chumang. *

Ourwhal and Kumaon. — The productive and habitable
portion of the Bhot area in Kumaon and Gurwhal is
confined to the passes and their neighbourhood, all the
rhst being either snow or rock. Their minimum height is
about 6000 feet. The paths to ^them coincide with the
head-waters of the following rivers.

The Mana Paaa ifl on the Sanswati > „ , . . ^
TheNUIPaaa „ DuU J Feeders of the Ganges.

TheJuwfcrPto „ Gafiri )„ ^ * ./ « ^
TheDarmaPass , DhonU Fe^of the Sarda or

The Byanse Pass „ KaU ) ^*^

The evidence to the gradual extension of the zone of
snow is strong. The passmen state that ridges, which,
vrithin the memory of man, were covered with forests, are
now covered with snow; that pastures to which their
fathers drove their flocks in summer are now non-existent ;
that avalanches from the higher regions are, on melting,
foimd to contain trees in their centre. With such a
neighbourhood it is easy to imagine that the passes them-
selves are of no ordinary difficulty. The watercourses
that run up to them require bridges ; the roads by the side
of them require continual repairs. The snow blocks
them up ; masses of rock obstruct them ; beasts of burden
are often unable to proceed alone, and must be raised or



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6 TIBETANS OF BRITISH INDU.

lowered by means of slings passed round their bodies.
The Niti pass is the best, the Juw&r the worst. Re-
specting the latter the story runs thus — that when a Bhot
army, under Raja Bag Bahader Khan, invaded Kumaon,
the commander inspected the making of the road himself,
and paid a rupee for every cupful of earth. This is not
given as a fact It is given as a measure of the belief of
the natives in the engineering difficulties that presented
themselves during its construction. The number of well-
built stone houses (for well-built houses of stone are
required to stand their ground) in the Bhot districts is as
follows :—

Vmaget. HoQMS.

In Mana . . 8 . . 126 •

In Niti . . 10 . . . 219
In Jnw&r . • . 18 . . 455

In Darma . . 24 . . .842

In Byanae . . 9 . . .184

59 1826

A portion of the population consists of slaves, who,
with their families, live under the same roof with their
masters. They help in the cultivation of the soil ; for
here, as elsewhere, Uie Bhot is an agriculturist. Marse a
species of amaranth, wheat, two kinds of barley, two
kinds of buckwheat, are the chief products ; to which add,
as cultivated vegetables, turnips and leeks, and as wild
ones, garlic, celery, rhubarb, a kind of frankincense. Few
or no fruits receive any culture. The walnuts and hazel-
nuts are small, the apricots and peaches ill-flavoured.
Gooseberries, currants, strawberries, and pears, grow wild.
The domestic animals are those of Ladak and Tibet.

In the Mana, Niii^ Juw&r, and Byanse passes the popu-
lation is generally believed to have emigrated from Tibet
within the historical period, inasmuch as many of the
chief families trace their family to some Tibetan locality.



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THE BHOT OP KDBIAON AND GURWHAL. 7

They encroached upon an earlier body of Hindus, and
drove them downwards. With the inhabitants of the
Darma pass the case is diiferent. They are considered to
be descendants of a body of Mongols left in Kumaon by
Timur. If so, the difference of origin is considerable ; if
so, the occupants of the Darma pass are no true Bhots, but
Mongols, who have learned the Bhot language. They
differ from the rest in dress (especially that of the females)
and in certain customs. All the pasinnen bum their dead ;
but the Darma make a general ceremony of the crema-
tion and reserve it for the month Kartik. Those who
die at any other time of the year are interred, but only
for a time. When the month Kartik approaches they
are taken out of the ground, and transferred to the funeral
pile. But what if a Darma die away from his native
village ? In such a case his relations take a clue of
worsted and draw it from the dead body to the house of
the deceased, keeping it \mbroken if they can. The
object of this is to enable the spirit to join those of its
ancestors.

The details, then, of the Bhot area in Kumaon require
further investigation. Again,-— in the districts of Dewara
and B&geswar vestiges of some population other than
Hindu, and, perhaps, other than Bhot, are to be found.
They consist, chiefly, of tombs constructed of large flat
tiles, different in their external character from those of the
other inhabitants, who call them the Mogul sepulchres.

At the same time the people repel the doctrine that
makes them Mongol ; the term Mogul being too closely as-
sociated with the Mahometan religion. Of their language
we have no specimens. In their creed there are probably
peculiarities; at any rate the practice of divination is
spoken of as if it were more Darma than aught else. The
omens are taken from the warm and reeking livers of



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8 TIBETANS OF BRITISH INDU.

sheep, sacrificed for the purpose, whenever an undertaking
of importance is in hand.

Another distinction — the Mdna, Niti, and Juw&r Shots
pretend to consider the men of Darma as their inferiors ; —
but, as they have the same low opinion of those of
Byanse, this either proves too little or too much. Are the
Byanse Mongol also ? The fact of their being classed with
the Darma in the matter of caste is not their only Darma
characteristic. The women of the two passes dress alike.
A piece of cloth, folded round the body, descends &om the
waist to the ankles, like a petticoat, being fastened round
the waist with a girdle. Above this is a shift without
sleeves, reaching to the knee. Over the head is a hood,
with a tail behind, which reaches nearly to the heels. The
ornaments are remarkable for their mass ; the pewter ear-
rings being compared to large house-keys.

Again, — whilst the Mana, Niti, and Juw&r Shots ab-
stain from beef of all kinds, the Darma and Syanse in-
dulge in the flesh of the yak, and would not abstain from
that of the common cow if the law permitted them to eat
it. But there is, in the province, a general prohibition
against the slaughter of this holy animal.

The difference of rank, along with the other details
akin to it, is worth our notice, if it be only for its sug-
gesting the probability of the Darma and Byanse popula-
tions being other than Shot. But there is another reason
for giving prominence to it. The feeling of caste is, by
no means, Buddhist ; and Shots as Buddhists ought to
have nothing whatever to do with it. They have it never-
theless. This is because their creed is no longer pure ;
but Buddhist plus certain Brahminic influences. The
Hindu doctrines on one side contend with the Tibetan on
the other ; and the contest has not been wholly unfavour-
able to them. A Shot, in want of a priest, will accept



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THE BHOT OP KUMAON AND GUBWHAL. 9

the services of either a Brahmin or a Lama. The Juwfir
Shots go further in the direction of Hinduism. They
affect many of the Hindu prejudices in regard to food.
They occasionally practise Sutti. The use of the Hindu
language is most widely difiused amongst them. Their
trade is the most considerable.

Trade is important to the whole Shot population of
the passes ; but it is most considerable within the Juw6r



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