R. L. (Richard Louis) Dugdale.

The Jukes; online

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which he has recently received 20 years' sentence of imprisonment.
In this case the boldest and most intelligent is the oldest child.

Of the crimes committed by the legitimate branch of the Juke
family no chart has been made, only that the same general rule
holds good, that the eldest is the criminal of the family, the young-
est the pauper.














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Tentative Inductions respecting Crime :

1. The burden of crime is found in the illegitimate lines.

2. The legitimate lines marry into crime.

3. Those streaks of crime found in the legitimate lines are found
chiefly where there have been crosses into X.

4. The eldest child has a tendency to be the criminal of the

5. Crime chiefly follows the male lines.

6. The longest lines of crime are along the line of the eldest son.
Crime and Pauperism compared. The ideal pauper is the idiotic

adult unable to help himself, who may be justly called a living em-
bodiment of death. The ideal criminal is a courageous man in the
prime of life who so skilfully contrives crime on a large scale that he
escapes detection and succeeds in making the community believe him
to be honest as he is generous. Between these two extremes there
are endless gradations which approximate each other, till at last you
reach a class who are too weak to be contrivers of crime, and too
strong to be alms-house paupers ; they are the tools who execute
what others plan and constitute the majority of those who are found
in prison during their youth and prime, and in the poor-house in
their old age. These men prefer the risks and excitements of
criminality and the occasional confinement of a prison where they
meet congenial company, to the security against want and the stag-
nant life of the alms-house.

To more fully illustrate this we give table X., in which is made a
comparison of the distinctively criminal branch of Ada, with the
distinctively pauper branch of Erne, so that the difference can be
contrasted. It will be seen that while the criminal branch shows
35 per cent of out-door relief and 2 1 per cent of alms-house pau-
pers, with 60 per cent of crime, the pauper branch shows 61 per
cent of out-door relief, 38 per cent of alms-house pauperism, and
53 per cent of crime. But when we come to study the intensity of
crime, we find that while nine offenders of the line of Ada have been
sent to State prison -for 60 years, only one has been sent for five years
01 the line of Effie. Again, contrasting the crimes against property,
against person and vagrancy, the percentages show great dis-
parities. While Ada's offspring perpetrate 54 per cent of crimes


against property, including burglary, grand larceny, and highway
robbery, Effie's only show 30 per cent, the highest crime
being petit larceny, which is the lowest crime of the other
branch. Of the crimes against the person, Effie's stock shows
a preponderance, 30 per cent, compared to 28 per cent, while
the offenses compare as to intensity : Effie's, attempt to kill, one ;
Ada's, murder one, attempt at rape, three. When we come
to breach of peace and vagrancy the percentage stands be-
tween Ada's and Effie's children as 16 to 46 per cent, and for va-
grancy as 2 to 38 per cent. Comparing the criminals of each branch
to each other, we find while all of Effie's are pauperized, only 35
per cent of Ada's have received out-door relief, while the alms-house
pauperism compare as 23 per cent of Ada, to 57 per cent of Effie.
Looking still closer and comparing ages at which relief was received,
we find only one of Ada to five of Effie received out-door relief
under 25 years of age, while two of Ada's resisted application till after
35, and one after 45, while every one of Effie's seven criminals was
a pauper before 35 in point of fact at 30. The contrast as to the
alms-house pauperism appears in the table much less than it really
is, for, while Ada's account has three children in the poor-house
whose ages range from four to ten, Effie's are all adults, ranging
from 23 to 56 years of age.

From this comparison, it would seem that the distinctively
pauper stock is less aggressive than the criminal, that crimes of
contrivance are characteristic of the criminal branch, while petty
misdemeanors are the characteristic of the pauper criminal.

Case 29. Having summed up the evidence on pauperism and
crime, we now turn to chart IV., generation 5, line i, to a man who
forms an example of the transition state between the two. He is
the illegitimate first son of a first son ; what his early childhood
was has not been ascertained beyond this, that he was not an in-
mate of an alms-house. His youth was licentious, for at 13 he was
afflicted so severely with syphilis, that his foot was lamed for life,
and at 41, the time when he was seen, he walked with a hahing
step. The records show that at 23 years of age he got out-door
relief; at 25, petit larceny, county jail ; at 30, petit larceny, no one
prosecutes \ 32, out-door relief one year ; 33, prosecuted for has-


tardy. He compounded this suit by marrying the girl ; at 38, out-
door relief; at 41, petit larceny, county jail 30 days; assault and
battery when drunk, county jail 20 days. This year I saw him a
the house of the poor-master, making application for an axe to do
wood-chopping, bringing a friend along to ask for a pair of boots.
The axe played the ostensible part of honest intentions to work, so
that the boots might be forthcoming. Both were denied, and
justly. Apparently he realizes in his own person the prepotency
of a first child and the weakness of an invalid, as if it might be a
conflict between vitality and death, but the side upon which the bal-
ance must ultimately fall was decided at 13. He cannot escape being
an alms-house pauper except by the interposition of sudden death,
because the disability under which he labors is a deep-seated dis-
ease, which year by year with cumulative force adds to his ineffi-
ciency. Although the eldest child of his generation, he has received
out-door relief at an earlier age than his brothers, his disease stand-
ing as the equivalent of weakness, and inducing an apathy which
destroys both physical activity and pride.

Tentative Inductions on the Relations of Crime and Pauperism :

1. Crime as compared to pauperism indicates vigor.

2. With true criminals pauperism either occurs in old age or in
childhood, and is not synchronous with the term of the crime

3. Imprisonment of the parent may produce induced pau-
perism in the children, especially if they be girls who are thrown
into the alms-house and remain inmates long enough to become

4. Criminal careers are more easily modified by environment,
because crime, more especially contrived crime, is an index of ca-
pacity, and wherever capacity is found, there environment is most
effective in producing modifications of career.

5. The misfortune of one generation which throws the children
into an alms-house, may lay the foundation for a criminal career for
that generation if the children are of an enterprising temperament,
for paupers if of low vitality and early licentious habits.

3 D


6. Where an adult oscillates between the poor-house and the jail,
it raises a presumption there is either acquired disease or an entail-
ment of bodily or mental weakness from the parents.

7. What is called the deterrent effect of punishment may be only
a hastening of the assumption of the pauper condition by such under-
vitalized adults. It marks a phase in the effort to gain a living in
the direction of least resistance.

8. The tendency of pauperized criminals is to commit misdemea-
nors or crimes against person.

9. Hereditary pauperism seems to be more fixed than hereditary
crime, for very much of crime is the misdirection of faculty and is
amenable to discipline, while very much of pauperism is due to the
absence of vital power, the lines of pauperism being in many cases
identical with such lines of organic disease of mind or body as in-
sanity, consumption, syphilis, which cause from generation to gen-
eration, the successive extinction of capacity till death supervenes.

10. Rape, especially of little girls, is a crime of weakness, and,
when occurring after the meridian of life has passed (from 35 to 45),
marks the decadence of vitality and the consequent weakening of
the will-power over the passions.

Relations of Honesty, Crime and Pauperism. It has already been
noticed that the illegitimate children of Bell were industrious and
honest, and that the eldest, a mulatto, was " the best of his genera-
tion," while the fourth child was the father of criminals. On follow-
ing down to the next generation of this fourth child, we find the two
eldest children honest, the first one acquiring property, the fourth
one a criminal contriving crime, and the two next children the pa-
rents of criminals, while the youngest is a pauper. In the most
vigorous branches honesty and industry are first in order, crime
second, and pauperism third. This order may be observed in the
following cases :

Castro. In Bell's stock, chart III. (lines 1 to 15), children, grand-
children, and great-grandchildren.

Third ( Ist- Honest y an d industry, with honest descendants.
Generation l . 2d " Honest y ^d industry, with descendants honest, criminal and
( in the order named.



ist. Honesty, industry and worldly success.

ad. Honesty and indusrty without worldly success.

3d. Personally criminal.

4th. Non-criminal, but father of criminals.

5th. Non-criminal, pauperized.

Case $i. Now look at chart I. children of Ada's illegitimate
stock (lines i to 13) :

1. Criminal and father of criminals.

2. Criminal and not father of criminals, reform with resumption of honest
f, * labor.

3. Non-criminal, but inefficient.

4. Pauperized.

Taking the third child of generation 4 and analyzing the pro-
geny, lines 22 to 32 :

i. Criminal.


2. Criminal, reformed.

3. Non-criminal.

4. Pauperized.

Here the same general tendency is noted in the comparison of the
children of the same generation. In the discussion of the features
of crime we found the tendency to hereditary crime to be along the
line of the eldest male child : there is probability that the same is
true of the tendency to hereditary honesty, although I have at pres-
ent no facts to establish it. Descending from the comparison of
families to the analysis of individual careers, we get the same essen-
tial facts in a different form, and in a way that brings us to a com-
prehension of some of the underlying causes of them.

Case 32. Take 1. m. A. B. X., chart I., generation 5, line i. At 30
years of age he commits grand larceny, and is sent to the county
jail for ninety days. From that time he gets committed no more
till he is 49, when he is sent to Sing Sing five years for rape of his
niece, 12 years old. In other words, during the prime of life, when
the judgment and the will have most control over the emotions, the
man's tendency is to give up crime and live by industry. But after
he passes his prime we find him committing a crime of weakness,
and it will repay to study it carefully.

The order in which the cerebral functions are developed are : ist.
The nervous centres of reflex action ; 2d. The sensations ; 3d. The
passions and emotions ; 4th. The judgment and the will, which reach
their maximum power from 28 to 33 years of age. The order of their


decay is substantially in an inverse progression. Upon looking
over the statistics of the crime of rape I find that, for the young,
the age of maximum passion is 27, before the full development of
the judgment and will ; that the fewest occur between the ages of 32
and 35, the age of maximum will-power ; but from this time we get
again an increase in the percentage of this offense. And why ? Be-
cause the will, which is the moral governor,tends to decay sooner than
the erotic passions, and the man's mind has lost, in part, the moral
balance which it possessed at 35, hence opportunity then becomes
temptation. This disposes in a general way of the main features
of the phenomena of the growth and decay of the organic life, but
in this case there is a still further lesson in the study of the environ-
ment which was contributive to the act. The circumstances which
determined this particular offense accord with the theory of action
taking the direction of least resistance. His niece accompanied him
alone to go fishing ; now fishing is not an employment requiring
labor of either mind or body, and so we find the element conspiring
to produce the crime is idleness, which left the full vitality of the
man to wreak itself in the direction of licentiousness. Laying
aside the collateral lesson here, and returning to the main fact to
be noted in the chain of argument, the features of it correspond to
the essential phenomena of growth, that, being punished for an
offense at 30 just before the meridian of life, his career is amended
during that period, but, as age approaches with its attendant weak-
ness, he breaks out at 49 into another form of crime, consonant with
the decline of life.

Case 33. Take line 7, generation 5, brother of the above. At 22
he was a boatman, and in company with his brother-in-law he com-
mits a burglary, third degree, for which he serves sentence of three
years in Sing Sing. Discharged at 25 years of age, he ceases
crime and becomes an honest laborer, abandons boating on canal,
which is a vagrant occupation, and settles down. He is now
described by his employer as a steady, civil and reliable man. The
three years' continuous labor in prison, together with the fulness
of development attending maturity, have produced steady habits.
Here he gets industrial training before the meridian of life, and his
career is measurably amended.


Case 34. The next brother, line 8, begins his career with petit
larceny at 12,60 days in county jail; petit larceny again at 21,
county jail 30 days ; grand larceny at 21, Sing Sing 3 years. The
probabilities are that between 12 and 21 he committed offenses
elsewhere. At 36, tried for shooting at horses. His case has not
been fully followed ; whether he reforms is to be tested, but the
probabilities are against it, as he is living with a licentious woman.

Case 35. Passing to the cousins of these men, from lines 22 to
32, the career of the oldest has not been traced. Line 25, we find
at 12 assisting his brother in a burglary; at 17 serves two years in
State prison for burglary ; at 22 two more years for breach
of the peace, no doubt the severity of the sentence being
made to cover two indictments for burglary which could not be
proved, but which he no doubt committed ; at 24, burglary third
degree, Sing Sing 3 years. It is said that the total years of im-
prisonment he has served in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Vermont,
and Rhode Island, has been from 13 to 14 years. In Clinton
prison he learned iron rolling and also industrious habits, for now
he has moved to another county, rents a quarry, and employs men
to get out flag-stones. Here, again, before the meridian of life is
passed, the education of labor, together with the experience of a
riper age, produce an amended career.

Case 36. Line 26, brother of the above, at 20 years, county jail
30 days for assault and battery ; at 2 1, county jail 30 days for same
offense ; at 22 Sing Sing two years for burglary third degree ;
at 31 he moved into the same county as his brother above
mentioned, purchased a farm and works a quarry upon it ; is
worth $5,000 at 37, and the testimony of persons who have known
him is, that "he is considerable of a man."

This line of facts points to two main lessons ; the value of labor
as an element of reform, especially when we consider that the ma-
jority of the individuals of the " Juke " blood, when they work at all,
are given to intermittent industries. The element of continuity is
lacking in their character ; enforced labor in some cases seems to
have the effect of supplying this deficiency. But the fact which is
quite as important but less obvious, is, that crime and honesty run


in the lines of greatest vitality, and rhat the qualities which make
contrivers of crime are substantially the same as will make men suc-
cessful in honest pursuits. In all the cases above cited burglary
preponderates. This crime requires a strong physique, a cool head,
and a good judgment backed by pluck. All these are qualities
essential to any successful career, and the reform of these four men
simply shows there is such a thing as interchangeability of careers,
the solution of the problem of reform being how a new direction
may be given to the activity of the faculties which are employed in
a bad one. Indeed, so true is this view believed to be it is safe to
venture the position that all criminals of sound mind and body who
commit crimes of contrivance and who have not passed the merid-
ian of life can be reformed, if only judicious training is applied in
time. Where there is vitality, there morality can be organized and
made a constituent part of character.

With criminals, gambling and licentiousness are widely preva-
lent. Any method which would direct this wasted power into
other directions would produce an amended career. The problem
amounts to this : given a certain amount of vitality, how shall it be
expended so that the community shall not suffer injury. If, by
training, evil modes should be closed up, not only could the energy
be used for other purposes, but it would be so used, for life is
activity of some sort, and will assert itself by effort of some kind.

What of the pauper ? With him there is less hope, because
less vitality, and less impressibility to praise or blame, to example
or ambition. There also is, almost invariably, found licentiousness
in some form. Here we have a key to solving some of the difficul-
ties of his case. Virility is a mark of vitality, and sexual licentious-
ness, when unallied with disease, an index that there is yet vital
strength, while reticence is a mark of power, for it indicates the
subjection of the passions to the dominion of the will, storing up
the vital forces, so to speak, for expenditure in other directions.
Hard, continuous labor checks the erotic passion, prevents waste
of vitality, tends to decrease its intensity by disuse, and in the
course of time may enable the potential pauper to form habits of
industry that will yet become organized as part of his character,


and prove that pauperism can be controlled by controlling the
passion which, disease aside, tends more than all other causes put
together to perpetuate it hereditarily.

The Formation of Character. Where there is heredity of any
characteristic, it would seem there is a tendency, and it might al-
most be said, a certainty to produce an environment for the next
generation corresponding to that heredity, with the effect of per-
petuating it. Where the environment changes in youth the charac-
teristics of heredity may be measurably altered. Hence the
importance of education. In treating the subject it must be
clearly understood and practically accepted, that the whole ques-
tion of the educational management of crime, vice, and pauperism
rests strictly- and fundamentally upon a physiological basis, and not
upon a sentimental or a metaphysical one. These phenomena take
place not because there is any aberration in the laws of nature, but in
consequence of the operation of these laws; because disease, because
unsanitary conditions, because educational neglects, produce arrest
of cerebral development at some point, so that the individual fails to
meet the exigencies of the civilization of his time and country, and
that the cure for unbalanced lives is a training which will affect
the cerebral tissue, producing a corresponding change of career.
This process of atrophy, physical and social, is to be met by
methods that will remove the disabilities which check the required
cerebral growth, or where the modification to be induced is pro-
found, by the cumulative effect of training through successive gen-
erations under conditions favorable to such strengthening.

We have seen that disease in the parent will produce idiocy in
the child ; this is arrest of cerebral development : that it will cause
early death ; this is arrest of development. Besides these, arrest of
development takes place in various other forms, at different stages
and under widely differing circumstances. Excess of the passions pre-
vents mental organization ; and neglected childhood even, produces
the equivalent of arrest of development ; for, as in the case of the
idiot, the arrest of cerebral development is caused by want of alimen-
tary nutrition to the brain, so in the untaught child we get arrest of
cerebral development caused by neglecting to furnish properly or-


ganized experience of the right relations of human beings to each
other, which gives us a corresponding moral idiot.

Men do not become moral by intuition, but by patient organiza-
tion and training. Indeed, the whole process of education consists
of the building up of cerebral cells. For the purpose of a concise
explanation, it may be said that there are four great subdivisions
of the nervous system, each one of which presides over, co-ordinates
and controls a separate set of functions, i. The ganglionic ner-
vous centres which connect the heart, lungs and internal viscera
with each other and with the brain, bringing them into sympathetic
action. 2. The spinal cord, which chiefly presides over the
movements of the limbs and body. 3. The sensational centres,
which register the impressions gathered by the senses. 4. The
ideational centres, that enable us to reason, to think, to will, and,
with this last, the moral nature. The ganglionic centres are, in a
certain sense, subordinate to the spinal nerve centres ; these, in
their turn, are subordinate to the sensory centres ; and these last
are subordinate to the controlling action of the hemispheres of the
brain, " and, especially to the action of the will, which, properly
fashioned, represents the governing power of the voluntary ac-
tions." * While the mind is the last in order of development, it is
the first in importance, and " instead of mind being a wondrous
entity, the independent source of power and self-sufficient cause
of causes, an honest observation proves incontestibly that it is the
most dependent of all natural forces. It is the highest develop-
ment of force, and to its existence all the lower natural forces are
indispensably prerequisite." f This all-important will does not
usually reach its full growth till between the thirtieth to the thirty-
third years, and " is entirely dependent for its outward realization
upon that mechanism of automatic action which is gradually organ-

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Online LibraryR. L. (Richard Louis) DugdaleThe Jukes; → online text (page 5 of 12)