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R. L. (Richard Louis) Dugdale.

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founded laws, derived from a patient and extensive study of the
phenomena involved.

Having discussed the elements of the subject, the various parts
are presented (table XL) in a statistical aggregate. The line
headed " Marriageable Age " will give, very nearly, the number of
adults in each generation : girls of 14 and boys of 18 are included
under that heading.

The social damage of the " Jukes " estimated. Passing from the
actual record, I submit an estimate of the damage of the family,
based on what is known of those whose lives have been learned. The
total number of persons included in the foregoing statement reach
709 ; besides these, 125 additional names have been gathered since



68 THE JUKES.

the text of this essay was prepared, whose general character is
similar. If all the collateral lines which have not been traced could
be added to the 709 here tabulated, the aggregate would reach at
least 1,200 persons, living and dead. Now, out of 700 persons we
have 1 80 who have either been to the poor-house or received out-
door relief to the extent of 800 years. Allowing that the best
members of the family have emigrated, it would be a low estimate
to say that 80 of the additional 500 are, or have been, dependents,
adding 350 years to the relief, making an aggregate of 280 persons
under pauper training, receiving 1,150 years of public charity.
Great as this is, it is not all. In a former portion of this report, it
was stated the pauper records cover 255 years, of which only 64
could be consulted, the difficulties of getting the remaining 191
years being, in most cases, insuperable. Allowing that these 191
years would yield as many years of relief as the 64 which have ac-
tually been searched, we should have an aggregate of 2,300 years of
out-door relief. Allowing 150 years of alms-house life at $100 a
year, the sum expended equals $15,000, and for 2,150 years of out-
door relief, at the moderate rate of $15 a year, $32,250, making an
aggregate expenditure of $47,250 in 75 years for this single family,
52 per cent of whose women are harlots in some degree. Making
a like computation for the other items of the schedule, allowing for
all contingencies a financial estimate may be summed up as
follows :

COST
Total number of persons .................................... 1,200 ........

Number of pauperized adults ................................. 2 g o

Cost of alms-house relief ......................................... $i 5,000 .00

Cost of out-door relief ...................................... * 2 250.00

Number of criminals and offenders



Years of imprisonment ............................ l , o

Cost of maintenance, at $200 a year .............................. 28000.00

Number of arrests and trials ................................. 2 * o

Costof arrests and trials, $100 each ............................... 25,000.00

Number of habitual thieves, convicted and unconvicted ........... 60 ..'.....

Number of years of depredation, at 12 years each ............... 720

Cost of depredation, $120 a year ................................ 86,400.00

Number of lives sacrificed by murder. . 7

/ . > . .



THE JUKES.



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THE JUKES.



COST.

Value, at $1,200 each $8,400.00

Number of common prostitutes 50

Average number of years of debauch 15

Total number of years of debauch 750

Cost of maintaining each per year $300.00

Cost of maintenance 225,000.00

Number of women specifically diseased 40

Average number of men each woman contaminates with permanent ....

disease 10

Total number of men contaminated 400

Number of wives contaminated by above men 40

Total number of persons contaminated 440

Cost of drugs and medical treatment during rest of life, at $200 each .... 88,000.00

Average loss of wages caused by disease during rest of life, in years 3

Total years of wages lost by 400 men 1,200

Loss, at $500 a year .... 600,000.00

Average number of years withdrawn from productive industry by

each courtesan 10

Total number of years lost by 50 courtesans 500

Value estimated at $125 a year .... 62,500.00

Aggregate curtailment of life of 490 adults, equivalent to 50 ma-
ture individuals 50

Cash cost, each life at $1,200 - ... 60,000.00

Aggregate of children who died prematurely 300

Average years of life of each child 2

Cash cost, each child at $50 15,000.00

Number of prosecutions in bastardy 3

Average cost of each case, $100 .... 3,000.00

Cost of property destroyed, blackmail, brawls * .... 20,000.00

Average capital employed in houses, stock, furniture, etc., for

brothels 6,000.00

Compound interest for 26 years at 6 per cent .... 18,000.00

Charity distributed by church 10,000.00

Charity obtained by begging 5>45 O>O

Total $1,308,000.00

Over a million and a quarter dollars of loss in 75 years, caused
by a single family 1,200 strong, without reckoning the cash paid for
whiskey, or taking into account the entailment of pauperism and
crime of the survivors in succeeding generations, and the incurable
disease, idiocy and insanity growing out of this debauchery, and
reaching further than we can calculate. It is getting to be time to
ask, do our courts, our laws, our alms-houses and our jails deal with
the question presented ?

* One house, with furniture worth $1,100, was burned by a mob.



THE JUKES. 71



II.

FURTHER STUDIES OF CRIMINALS.

STATE-PRISON CONVICTS.



THE State of New York has enacted thirty statutes or parts of
statutes which relate to the collection, accuracy, and preservation
of the statistics of crime, the administration of criminal justice, the
finances of penal institutions, the identification of the criminal
classes, and the indenture, conduct and fate of minors who have been
p'aced in reformatories. There are at least nineteen distinct classes
oi officers upon whom is imposed some part of the duty of mak-
ing these returns correct, or of preserving them when they are re-
ported to the proper officers, according to the provisions of law.
Before making an examination of the convicts in the prisons of this
State, which was ordered by resolution of the Association June 24,
1875, *t was thought advisable to examine the statistics which the
law has made such elaborate provisions to collect, so that the inquiry
might rest upon postulates indicating the right direction of study
and establish standards for the comparisons of associated facts.
For this purpose, the registers of State prisons and penitentiaries,
the returns of county magistrates, the records of jails and of county
clerks, and the archives of the Secretary of State have been exam-
ined, only to find that nothing exists sufficiently reliable to serve
in the study of crime or the movements of crime classes, and that
a beginning must be made from the foundation. The provisions of
the law itself are so incongruous that no just comparisons can be in-
stituted, even if every officer should make an exact return accordingto
the statute, for the schedules differ widely, the reports are made to



72 THE JUKES.

different officers, so that they are not gathered into one central office,
and the responsibility for neglecting to make returns is in some
cases dubious. Aside from these statutory defects, there are other
causes which greatly add to the faultiness of criminal statistics, and
may be divided into four general categories : First, the inefficiency
of the police ; second, the defects in the administration of justice \
third, the falsification and defectiveness of the records ; and, fourth,
public apathy.

Under the first we have : First, the undetected, who commit
crimes and evade punishment by covering their iniquities from
public knowledge. Among this class may be found defaulters,
guardians who appropriate trust funds, abortionists, various pan-
derers to vices and receivers of stolen goods, who are protected
by the craft because they are crime capitalists. Second, the unar-
rested who are represented by those who either have evaded or
made terms with the police, or who live in the rural districts where
practically no police exists ; also, such depredators as private indi-
viduals decline to appear against, either from indifference, from in
timidation, or by compounding their felonies.

Coming under the category of defects in the administration of
justice we have : First, the unprosecuted, a very large band who get
off either by nolle prosequi or by giving straw bail. Second, the un-
justly acquitted by sympathizing juries or other means. Third, the
acceptance of pleas of guilty of a minor offense when a major one
has been committed. Fourth, the convictions for constructive
crime, by giving the evidence against a prisoner an interpretation
which allows prosecution for a greater offense than that actually
committed, as where robbery from a woman is construed into
attempt at rape. Fifth, the immunity of those who turn State's evi-
dence against their confederates. In these ways we fail to get at
the actual quality of the crime for in a vast number of convictions
there has been no trial we only get the name of certain offenses
which do not have even the merit of being accurately defined.

As to the defectiveness and falsification of records, these are
very numerous : First, The neglect of country justices to transmit
duplicate copies of commitments and finable cases to county clerks,



THE JUKES.

as required by law. In some counties, not one-fourth of the cases
adjudged are reported, and in almost every county they are defect-
ive. So far is this kind of negligence carried that we have found
men locked up in jail without a mittimus. Second, The neglect of
many sheriffs to keep jail registers, and the consequent inability to
make returns to the Secretary of State of the persons committed to
the county jail for offenses punishable by imprisonment in such
prisons. Third, The neglect of county clerks to furnish correct month-
ly returns of the indictments and sentences in courts of record to the
Secretary of State. Fourth, The negligence of clerks in transcribing
copies of returns. Fifth, The mutilation of the records of the courts
f record, successive pages being in some instances bodily cut out.
Sixth, The failure to identify habitual criminals, so that we know
absolutely nothing of the proportion of first offenders to habitual
criminals. One man, aged forty-one, who figures on the records as
committed for second offense, began prison life at seven years' of
age, has been twice in the house of refuge, once in the juvenile
asylum, and altogether sixteen times in prisons of some degree
(mostly penitentiary), each time committed from New York city.
Another, aged seventy-four years, who also appears on the registers
of a State prison as committed for second offense, is now serving
his seventh consecutive term in the same prison in which this regis-
try is made, the sum of his united sentences amounting to seven-
teen years. Out of 233 cases examined, 79.40 per cent are undoubt-
edly habitual criminals ; of these only twenty-six per cent are regis-
tered upon the books as such. Seventh, The falsification of ages,
names, nativities, by convicts, to protect themselves in various ways
from severe sentences. Boys of sixteen give their ages as nineteen,
because they do not want to be sent to the house of refuge ; while
others of nineteen give their ages as sixteen, because they do. In
Buffalo and Albany, offenders give their ages as older, so as to be
sent to State prison instead of the Penitentiary, because " you get
better food and less work to do ; " but in New York city they give
ages younger than the facts, preferring to go to Blackwell's Island,
" because there you don't work and you get shorter time." Many
give false names, because their own is too notorious, or to protect



74 THE JUKES.

their relations from disgrace, or to save themselves from the odium
of appearing on prison registers, resuming their real names on dis-
charge. Eighth, The registering, as facts, statements made by pris-
oners which are purely fictions. Thus, under the name " religious
training," the convicts figure as Catholic or Protestant, when the
most superficial examination demonstrates they are absolutely in-
different to either faith and equally ignorant of the tenets of both.
Under the head " education," many are registered as " read and
write " who can only write their name and can hardly spell, while
under " social condition " the married are registered as single, those
who have never lived in any other than illicit relations are regis-
tered as married, and under that aegis are allowed to write letters to
their concubines serving sentence in the female prison or in some
penitentiary, because the law allows correspondence only between
man and wife.

There is therefore every possible variety of error to impair the
value of what are called our criminal statistics. Under the circum-
stances, we can fully appreciate the candor of Gen. Francis A.
Walker when he says, in his preface to the Statistics of Crime and
Pauperism in United States Census for 1870:* "The results are
now submitted with the remark, that neither the statements of crime
nor those of pauperism for the year are regarded as possessing any
high degree of statistical authority." * Although " the

numbers reported respectively as receiving poor support and as in
prison on the ist of June, 1870, are regarded as quite accurately de-
termined."

In view of these facts, it was found necessary to make a tenta-
tive examination of the prisoners themselves, to get at some approxi-
mately correct data which might serve in the study of crime charac-
ter, crime causes and the unfolding of crime careers. The numbers
who have been examined, however, are too few to be accepted as
finally conclusive statistics upon the subject ; but they prove how
entirely practicable it is to get quite trustworthy information on a
very wide range of inquiries covering the entire life of the individual,
and on many points respecting his parentage and his relations.

* Vol. i., page 567.



THE JUKES. 75

To test to its fullest extent the possibility of gathering such materials,
the following schedule was used in the examinations :

SCHEDULE USED IN THE EXAMINATION OF CONVICTS.
I. Parental Antecedents.

i. Are the parents consanguineous. What degree ? 2. What
has been the family example of father and mother as to temperance,
industry, chastity, debauchery, pauperism, crime, education, religion ;
also property, trade, present age, age at death, disease? 3. Has he
criminal uncles, aunts or cousins, and how many ?

II. Personal History.

4. Legitimate birth. 5. Color. 6. Age. 7. Single. 8. Mar-
ried. 9. Divorced. 10. Widowed. n. Illicit relation. 12. Num-
ber of children, boys, girls, legitimate, illegitimate. 13. Homeless
childhood by abandonment of father, mother, by death of father,
mother, by imprisonment of father, mother, by pauperism of father,
mother. 14. Was other guardian provided ? 15. Was it a kinsman,
a stranger, an institution ? 16. Character of guardian. 17. How
many brothers and sisters had he ? 18. Their order of birth ?

III. Pauperism,

19. What form ? Poor-house. Out-door relief. Vagrancy.
20. At what age ? 21. How long? 22. How did home g*t un-
fixed ? By death of. Abandonment of. Imprisonment of.
Want of work. Loss of property.

IV. Industrial Training.

23. Industrious. 24. Lazy. 25. Apprenticed. 26. Served
. . . . years. 27. What trade. 28. Profession? 29. Was it fully
learned? 30. Why not? 31. How much time lost since? 32. Use
of spare time. 33. Character of companions. 34. Where he met
them. 35. How many of them since convicted ? Sent to State
prison. 36. Ever in army. Kept rum shop. 37. Or brothel.



THE JUKES.

V. Education.

38. Reads. 39. Writes. 40. Cyphers. 41. Common school
education. Years. Truant. 42. Higher education. Its degree.
43. Accomplishments. 44. Intelligence. 45. Useful knowledge.
46. Ignorant. 47. Stolid.

VI. Religious Training and Moral Traits.

48. Moral sense. 49. Realizes criminal nature of offense com-
mitted. 50. Acknowledges obligations to Divine law. 51. What
denomination ? 52. Dominant traits.

VII. Physical and Mental Characteristics.

53. General health. 54. Constitutional temperament. 55. Ap-
pearance of countenance. Head. Skin. Eyes. Posture. Gait.
56. Blind. Deaf and dumb. Malformed. Injured. Insane.
Paralyzed. Mentally defective. 57. Description of sane.
58. Cause. 59. Consequences. 60. Age when first symptoms ap-
peared. 61. General feebleness of mind. 62. General feebleness
of body. 63. Moral perversion leading to morbid practices. 64.
What practices. 65. Diseases. Nervous. Chorea. Epilepsy.
Insomnia. Hallucinations.

Other diseases Constitutional. Respiratory system. Circula-
tory system. Nutritive system. Osseous system. Generative and
urinary organs. 66. Is it hereditary ?

VIII. Vices.

67. Gambling. 68. Opium habit. 69. Prostitution. When
practiced first time. 70. How habit began. 71. Inebriety, occa-
sional. Periodical. Habitual. 72. At what age was habit begun.
Fixed. How long fixed. 73. Its effects.

IX. Property.

74. Has inherited property. When. 75. Acquired property.
When. 76. Lost it. When. 77. How lost. Prisoner's name.
Offense. Prison Register No. List No. Name of prison or peni-
tentiary. Date.



THE JUKES. 77

X. Addresses.

A table of addresses as follows : Where born. Where resid-
ing. Crime, where committed. Where tried. Person injured.
Best friend. Worst enemy. Family physician. Birth-place, father.
Birth-place, mother. Criminal haunts. Came to United States
in

XI. Criminal History,

78. First seduction into culpable offense, what age ? 79. What
necessity led to it ? 80. What temptation or agency? 81. What
vice or passion? 82. What disease? 83. Out of employment.
Sick. 84. What was the offense? 85. First trial, at what age?
Acquitted. 86. Innocent. Guilty. 87. By what influence caused.

88. What necessity led to it? 89. What temptation or agency?

9 o. What vice or passion ? 91. Aggregate number of offenses be-
fore first trial. 92. Total number of arrests. 93. Indictments
pending.

XII. Criminal Status.

94. First offender. 95. Habitual criminal. 96. Contriver of
crime. 97. What kind ? 98. At what age? 99. On what scale.'

XIII. Reformation.

100. What is the probability of reform. 101. By what means ?
102. Needs industrial training. 103. Needs guidance.

XIV. Criminal Commerce.

104. Mode of business. 105. How was property disposed of ?
1 06. What is its aggregate value ? 107. Aggregate booty. 108.
Aggregate offenses during career. 109. Largest steal.

XV. Table of Imprisonments.

Crime ? When committed ? Article stolen, its value ? If murder,
what instrument ? If rape, age of woman. Sentence. Name of
prison. Time served.



THE JUKES.

When this schedule was first used in the State Prisons, its
employment was greatly discouraged by officials whose long acquaint-
ance with criminals led them to believe that it would be impossible
to get any correct information from the convicts. Indeed, so per-
sistent were the representations that felons will rather lie than tell
the truth, that I adopted the policy of informing each man that, if any
question I asked involved an answer he did not wish to make, he
might decline without having his reasons for so doing questioned.
In addition, and as a test of accuracy and before credit was given to
the statements thus made, the schedules of a certain number of
convicts were verified by entering into correspondence with the offi-
cers of a number of institutions, with members of the local commit-
tees of this Association, and with the police of different cities. The
result of these inquiries has been substantially to yield a useful study
in human nature and to relieve the criminal class from an aspersion
which it does not deserve. It is common to accept the legal assump-
tion that if a man falsifies about one fact he will falsify about all
facts. There is no such consistency in human nature ; the assump-
tion is a legal fiction so far as criminals are concerned ; for, as a
class, they do not falsify the truth except when they hope to gain
something they desire, to hide something they fear, or to conceal
some fact about themselves of which they are ashamed, in which
respects they do not materially differ from the average man. Upon
matters which they consider indifferent, their answers are as accu-
rate as their knowledge extends, but on the questions relating to the
number of their commitments or offenses, many declined to answer,
although substantially admitting they were habitual criminals, and
confessing their besetting crime. Another class of subjects which
it was impossible to reach, about which only indirect questions were
asked, was that relating to the good name of the mother and
sisters. In only two cases have the convicts acknowledged the
bad repute of their mothers, and in both cases it was given volun-
tarily. In both cases also it turns out that the men were serv-
ing terms for rape, and seemed to have absolutely no sense of honor
about women, one of them being almost an imbecile.



THE JUKES. 79

THE STATISTICAL RESULTS.

At Auburn 152 males and one female were examined, at Sing Sing
ninety-two males and six females, a total of 251 persons. Of this
number eighteen have been totally rejected. As each man was ex-
amined, whenever there was doubt as to the veracity or the intelli-
gence of his reply, such answer was recorded on the schedule togeth-
er with a note of interrogation, and when the tabulation was made,
such answer was excluded. In this way a portion of one hundred
of the schedules was thrown out, which explains why the following
tables do not balance exactly in every item. These tables are
strictly an enumeration of certain ascertained facts respecting the
persons who were examined, and conform strictly to the requirements
of positive statistics. They must not be used as a basis to reason on
as to the relative frequency of different offenses, or to compute any
ratios on any of the points they contain to be applied to the criminal
class in general, because the numbers are insufficient, because they
exclude offenders in penitentiaries and common jails, and because
they represent a limited experience in only two State prisons (Sing
Sing and Auburn), the effect of transferring convicts from these to
Clinton prison being equivalent to the selection of certain ages and
classes of convicts, so that a true average cannot be found in any
one prison. The tables are constructed in such a manner that the
total number under any one heading are in the black figures run-
ning diagonally across the table, the light figures on the same line
giving the number in sub-headings. Thus in table I., habitual crim-
inals 40, of whom 34 were sane, 6 of neurotic stock, 15 refuge boys,
33 no trade, &c., &c.



So



THE JUKES.



TABLE I. BURGLARY.
Sane, 39 Neurotic Stock* 9 Total, 48.













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Online LibraryR. L. (Richard Louis) DugdaleThe Jukes; → online text (page 7 of 12)