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none are found. These ratios are not quite reliable, because those
* Dr. Wm. A. Guy, F.R.S. ( Tournal of Statistical Society, voL TITO, p. 16.)



THE JUKES. 87

who committed crimes against the person come from stocks who
know their ancestry better than those who commit crimes against
property, the orphanage of the former being 30.95 per cent or
nearly one-third, of the latter 42.93 per cent or nearly one-half. It
has been said that " whatever is physiologically right is morally
right," * and here we have a confirmation of that saying by its con-
verse, that whatever is physiologically unsound is morally rotten ;
for we find that murder, rape and arson, crimes which arouse our
abhorrence and indignation the most, for which the law awards the
most severe penalties, and which all men in all nations are agreed
to look upon as unpardonable, are perpetrated by a class of men
whose probable capacity for self-government is twice and a-half
less than that of criminals who prey upon property, and whose prob-
able mental unsoundness, taking Dr. Guy's experience as the basis
of calculation, is thirty-four times greater than that of the average
community.

Inebriety. Under the term " habitual drunkards " are included
all such persons as get drunk at least once in three weeks, or whose
passion for drink unfailingly induces them to intoxication whenever
the opportunity presents itself, even if the intervals between de-
bauches should be more than three weeks. It has been the aim of
the investigation to establish if possible, the age at which inebriety
was first begun, and the age at which the habit was fixed as an
appetite. It was impracticable to make a discrimination between
the occasional and the periodical drunkard, but other facts in the
lives of those examined enable the construction of a series of four
tables which illustrate the order of events in each career according
to the plan of study set forth in " The Jukes ! " f

In table XII. it will be found that 42.49 per cent of the total
number of criminals are of intemperate family, while 39.05 per cent
are habitual drunkards. With the house-of-refuge boys the ratios
rise, respectively, to 51 per cent of intemperate family, and 51 per
cent of habitual drunkards ; but when we come to compare the
habitual criminals to the first offenders we find that only 30 per
cent of these latterbelong to this class against 42.61 per cent of the

Dr. Edmunds. t See pages 39, 41.



THE JUKES.



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THE JUKES.



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THE JUKES.





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THE JUKES.

habitual criminals and 52 per cent of refuge boys. It must not,
however, be argued from these figures that inebriety is the cause of
these men becoming habitual criminals, because there are othei
causes of crime which, it is more than probable, are the common
causes of both crime and intemperance, notably sexual excess and
insane ancestry. To get at some indication of what are other ele-
ments, tables XIII., XIV., XV. and XVI. have been prepared.

Table XIII. gives habitual drunkards concerning whom the
sexual habits have been unascertained and the venereal diseases
are unknown or doubtful. Table XIV., gives habitual drunkards
concerning whom the sexual habits have been learned. Table
XV. gives occasional drunkards and Table XVI. temperate.

The average age at which the habitual drunkards began to
drink is, according to Table XIII. 14.69 years and table XIV. 15.13,
while the age at which the habit becomes fixed is (table XV.) 24.52
and (table XVI.) 21.56, or three years younger. In table XV., which
tabulates the occasional drinkers, the average age when they begun
is 15 years, bat, on comparison of their average age at time of con-
viction, which is 21, we find it is below the average age at which
the habit becomes fixed among the habitual drunkards (Tables
XIII. and XIV.), which is 21.56 and 24.52 respectively, so that there
is yet time for a portion of them to become habituals within the
next three years and a half, which brings them to the average age
when the habit was fixed as found in Table XIII. An examination
of the rest of the table shows that there is less inebriety and nervous
derangement in the ancestry of the occasionals, which may account
for the age of fixed habits being retarded.

Coming down to particulars, we find that of 53 felons who are
habitual drunkards, one began alcoholic indulgence at 6 years and
is now insane ; one at 7, whose mother died of paralysis at 54 ; one
at 8, whose mind is defective ; two at 9, one of whom is of weak
mind, and four at 10, one of whom is now insane. Thus, out of
nine boys, who began to drink at 10 years old or under, five of
them are either insane, weak-minded, or the children of parents
afflicted with brain disease. Of those who began to drink at 15
vears or under, there are 25, of whom ten are either mentally de-



THE JUKES. 93

ranged or the blood relations of those who have been thus affected,
while of the 28 who have begun to drink at ages above 15, only
five belong to that class. The age at which these 53 persons had
the habit fixed was, one at 9 years old who is insane ; five at 16,
one of whom is of defective mind ; five at 17, and six at 18, three of
whom are insane or epileptic, and one whose mother died of paraly-
sis ; while, of the twenty-nine who are 21 and under when the
habit became fixed, eleven are either mentally deranged or be-
long to neurotic stock, and eleven are the children of habitual
drunkards. Of the twenty-four who became habitual drunkards
after they have reached their majority only four are afflicted with
brain disease or belong to such families, and 7 are the children of
habitual drunkards.

In the first three tables we find 6 cases where the mothers were
intemperate. Of these four are mentally defective or deranged,
the other two having blood relations who suffered from nervous
disease. While the average age at which the total number began
drinking is 14.72 years, that of these six is 12 years, and the average
age at which the former became habituals is 23.04 years, of the
latter it is 17.66 or five and one half years sooner. Whether these
facts indicate that intemperance in the mother is more destructive
than in the father, or that nervous disorders are a cause of inebriety
or the reverse can hardly be decided by such meager facts.
It is also noticeable that although the occasional drunkards and
the temperate make an aggregate of 16, or nearly one-third as many
as the habituals, not one of them is insane or nervously deranged ;
while of the 53 habituals 8 are so affected.

On a comparison of tables XIII. and XIV., it- appears that in the
former, which contains a list of those inebriates with whom prosti-
tution has not taken place at an early age, or who have declined to
make any statement respecting this matter, we find that, while the
average age at which they begin inebriety is six months earlier than
in the other table, the average age at which they become habituals
is 24.52, while in table XIV., where we find the average age at which
prostitution begins is 15.60, the average at which habitual inebriety
becomes fixed is 21.56, or three years younger. Nor is this all.



94 THE JUKES.

Out of thirty men in table XIV. seventeen of them have begun pros-
titution before or at the same time they have begun the habit of
alcoholic indulgence, and the average age at which those who have
contracted diseases resulting from sexual passion is actually below
that at which they become habitual drunkards, the average age of
infection being 20.84, tnat f habitual inebriety 21.56 a difference
of nearly nine months.

In the present stage of positive knowledge respecting inebriety,
it would seem that, in a certain number of cases, intemperance is
the cause of crime. "The best and most unprejudiced observers
are agreed that the families of inebriates develop forms of nervous
and brain diseases which could only be referred to the habits of
drinking in the parent. Dr. Magnus Huss, of Stockholm, declared
that drinking produced partial atrophy of the brain, which was
handed down to the children. The brain was then too small for its
bony case, and lunacy was the result. The same fact had been
observed in the lunatics of Massachusetts. In France, t)r. Morel
had observed the same result of diminished brains, through several
generations, leading to imbecility, homicidal insanity, idiocy and
final extinction." *

In another class of cases both inebriety and crime are the
results of a common antecedent cause or causes ; sometimes in-
sanity or epilepsy in the parents, which, by transmission, changes
its character to dipsomania ; sometimes by physical exhaustion
induced by starvation carried to a point that breaks down the con-
stitution, or by habits of sexual debauch which create an appetite
for alcoholism, or by other causes. What the specific cause may
in each case be, must be determined if we wish to apply remedial
measures, and the character of the remedy must differ with a differ-
ence in the initial, cause. With such inebriates as have acquired
the habit, an appeal to reason, to tender memories and to self-
respect may avail, because there may yet be will power left to affect
a cure, when no such appeal will be of the least use where this
failing is congenital, because it must be first and primarily treated

* Alcoholic Ebriety. Discourse by Elisha Hvris, M. D., before the National Temperance
Society, January 21, 1875.



THE JUKES. 95

as a medical question before it is approached as a moral one ; or
rather, the moral treatment must be accomplished through the
channel of physical cure as an antecedent and essential requisite.

Intermittent Industry. Dr. Bruce Thomson, surgeon to the
General Prison of Scotland, of eighteen years' experience, thus
speaks of disease among criminals : " In all my experience I have
never seen such an accumulation of morbid appearances as I witness
in the post mortem examinations of the prisoners who die here.
Scarcely one of them can be said to die of one disease, for almost
every organ of the body is more or less diseased ; and the wonder
to me is that life could have been supported in such a diseased
frame. Their moral nature seems equally diseased with their
physical frame ; and whilst their mode of life in prison reanimates
their physical health, I doubt whether their minds are equally
benefited, if improved at all. On a close acquaintance with crimi-
nals, of 1 8 years' standing, I consider that nine in ten are of inferior
intellect, but that all are excessively cunning." *

These remarks, although substantially true of our own criminals,
would present an overdrawn picture, and, after all, when we come
to analyze cunning, it is a modified form of intellectual aptitude, the
result of a very careful education of the faculties to escape detec-
tion, which training, had it been directed to other modes of gaining
a living, would probably have produced the intelligence which Dr.
Thomson here contrasts with cunning. Nor can the results of post
mortem examinations be held to express the general physical condition
of convicts, for those who die must necessarily be those in whom dis-
ease has worked its utmost ravages. But the substantial truth ex-
pressed in the foregoing statement makes the question one of the
important branches of investigation, and one on which much of our
treatment of the criminal class must depend if we propose to deal
with the crime problem intelligently. Let us look to the effect of
sickness upon the reputable classes. See how a bad cold, which
" stops up the head," and brings with it ear-ache, stiff neck and sore
throat, causes the most industrious man to lay up for a few days be-

* Tto Hereditary Nature of Crime, in Journal of Mental Science, vol. xv. p. 487.



9 6 THE JUKES.

cause he cannot work. How many of our merchants retire from
business, preachers from their pulpits, lawyers from their offices, be-
cause ill health compels cessation from labor. Now, during the time
these gentlemen are recuperating, away from their professional
duties, be it one or more years, no one thinks of accusing them of
laziness ; we justly call them invalids of different degrees. But when
we cast our severe eye upon the criminal class, human beings who, in
many cases, have inherited or acquired deep-seated constitutional
diseases, we cease to reckon that disease with them will produce the
same inability for continuous labor which we admit to be true among
the worthy, and stigmatize their inaptitude for work as laziness. Now,
the word laziness explains nothing. It merely describes a state which
may be the result of any given twenty causes, or any combination
of these, the true explanation becoming as complex a problem as
human nature itself. But where we note the effect of physical and
mental disease on the ability to work, we have at least one tangible
and definite reason furnished to us for the laziness of the unbalanced,
and we can then appreciate that certain congenital mental deficien-
cies and hereditary diseases have the effect of depriving the man of
the power of sustained energy and account for those cases where
" indolence is stronger than all the passions."

We find in table XII. that 79.40 per cent of the criminals ex-
amined have never learned a trade ; and while it is true that physical
disease does not account for all the inaptitude of criminals, it does
account for a great deal. As was said in the " Jukes," * one of the
most conspicuous of the characteristics of the criminal is that, if he
does work, he adopts some kind of intermittent industry which
requires no special training. This view is sustained by the list of
occupations on page 97.

See"Juke,"p.59.



THE JUKES.



97



True Trades Requiring Skill.





Against Against
property, person.
8


Against Against
property, person.
Cabinet-maker i






Brush-maker 2






i


Confectioner I






2 ...


Plumber 2






I


Blacksmith 2




Tailor




Photographer I




Wagon-maker


. . . I


Tinsmith i




Machinist


I


Naval architect I




Brass-finisher


I


Carpenter . I


2
I
I


Jeweller


...... I


Cooper , . .


Umbrella-maker .


. i


PiidHW. .


Plasterer *


True Trades Affected by Seasons.

l i Mate* i


Stone Cutter*. ..


I


Engineer * 3




Painter *


4.


Total 50


7

57










7 2


Aggregate, all offenses


Compositor *. . . .




Occupations Requiring School Education.


Lawyer




DruETsrist /


Actor*


i . .


Total .. 21


3
4


Bookkeeper


e


Clerk


7 2


Aggregate, all offenses




Trades Requirin^


f Slight Skill.

Cook I


Press-feeder *. . .


6


Barber


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RiitrHf*?* 2






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Aggregate, all offenses. . . .







The occupations marked with asterisks are classed as intermittent industries.



9 8



THE JUKES.
Occupations Requiring no Skill.



Laborer*

Newsboy
C a nailer *
Teamster *
Boot-blai
Messengi
Waiter *
Soldier *
Farm lat
Jockey *



Against
property.
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Against
person.
6


Sailor *


Against
property.
6


Against
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I




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5


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Aggregate,


all offenses


73



No Occupation.



Against property.
Against person . .



Total



55
9

64



Recapitulation.



Total persons 233 Number requiring slight skill 15

Number of skiful mechanics 57 Number requiring no skill 73

Number requiring school education ... 24 Number who have no occupation 64

In a total of 233 persons, we find only 57, or 20.60 per cent, who
have a trade which requires skill, 24 occupations requiring school
education, 15 occupations that require but very slight skill, 73
requiring no skill, and 64 who have no occupation whatever. Of
the total occupations, numbering 169, we find 113, or over 66 per
cent, are of an essentially intermittent character, either by the in-
terruption of the seasons, the daily exigencies of the weather, or the
necessity of living away from home for longer or shorter periods.
If we add the 64 who have no occupation, then we have 76 per cent
who belong to the class who lack continuity of effort. But these
figures do not express the true case ; for it does not follow that even
those who have a trade have the perseverance to work steadily.

Without entering into an extended argument as to why the
irregularity of diseased physical functions produces, at a second
remove, irregularity in the voluntary efforts which we familiarly

* The occupations marked with asterisks are classed as intermittent industries.



THE JUKES. 99

call want of perseverance, we are justified by the highest medical
authorities in saying that we thus get a series of social phenomena
which are primarily physiological conditions. The physical dis-
abilities which arrest the orderly growth of the body produce in the
course of years a fitful character, partaking of the defects of the
constitutional temperament which, because it is temperamental,
dominates the habits of thought, of action and of sensation, and
gives to the moral nature a vacillating form identical to its own
spasmodic development. In this way the unfortunate victim un-
consciously feels that continuous effort is the direction of greatest
resistance, and falls into the position of a procrastinating and inef-
ficient ne'er-do-weel if he escapes contaminating associations, or
becomes an habitual criminal if he fall among thieves.

In discussing the importance and bearing of disease on the for-
mation of industrial habits, the more remote causes and cure of
criminal tendencies are being anticipated. Nor must the inference
be drawn that, because it is of very great importance, it is the only
cause for this defect of industrial aptitude ; there are two others of
at least equal prominence. The first is one which is at the basis
of all civilization, and without which it would be impossible ; it is
that desire of the human race to secure the largest returns of enjoy-
ment for the least expenditure of effort, and has led to the introduc-
tion of all the labor-saving machinery which so much multiplies our
enjoyments. The other is education, which is capable of counteract-
ing the effects of a defective physical organization, by correcting it
through the formation of habits of regular application, which them-
selves react upon the vacillating temperament and contribute to the
more healthy operation of the physical functions. We have here,
then, three prime causes, which are so related to each other that we
must reject the implication that, because a man has a defective
physical organization, therefore he is necessarily irresponsible for
his acts. That the insane are often irresponsible is true ; it is no
less true that they commit criminal acts which are referrible only to
physical disease ; but it is by no means true of the persons who are
now under discussion.

Habitual criminals. If we should rely upon the official figures
to determine the ratio of habitual criminals, we should find they are



ioo THE JUKES.

set down at about 26 per cent, when an actual examination shows
conclusively that the total for all crimes 1575.63 per cent; for


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Online LibraryR. L. (Richard Louis) DugdaleThe Jukes; → online text (page 9 of 12)