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The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India

By

R.V. Russell
Of the Indian Civil Service Superintendent of Ethnography, Central
Provinces
Assisted by
Rai Bahadur Hira Lal
Extra Assistant Commissioner


Published Under the Orders of the Central Provinces Administration

In Four Volumes
Vol. I.

Macmillan and Co., Limited St. Martin's Street, London.

1916







PREFACE


This book is the result of the arrangement made by the Government
of India, on the suggestion of the late Sir Herbert Risley, for the
preparation of an ethnological account dealing with the inhabitants
of each of the principal Provinces of India. The work for the Central
Provinces was entrusted to the author, and its preparation, undertaken
in addition to ordinary official duties, has been spread over a number
of years. The prescribed plan was that a separate account should
be written of each of the principal tribes and castes, according
to the method adopted in Sir Herbert Risley's _Tribes and Castes of
Bengal_. This was considered to be desirable as the book is intended
primarily as a work of reference for the officers of Government, who
may desire to know something of the customs of the people among whom
their work lies. It has the disadvantage of involving a large amount
of repetition of the same or very similar statements about different
castes, and the result is likely therefore to be somewhat distasteful
to the ordinary reader. On the other hand, there is no doubt that this
method of treatment, if conscientiously followed out, will produce
more exhaustive results than a general account. Similar works for some
other Provinces have already appeared, as Mr. W. Crooke's _Castes and
Tribes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh_, Mr. Edgar Thurston's
_Castes and Tribes of Southern India_, and Mr. Ananta Krishna Iyer's
volumes on Cochin, while a Glossary for the Punjab by Mr. H.A. Rose
has been partly published. The articles on Religions and Sects were
not in the original scheme of the work, but have been subsequently
added as being necessary to render it a complete ethnological account
of the population. In several instances the adherents of the religion
or sect are found only in very small numbers in the Province, and
the articles have been compiled from standard works.

In the preparation of the book much use has necessarily been made of
the standard ethnological accounts of other parts of India, especially
Colonel Tod's _Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan_, Mr. J.D. Forbes'
_Rasmala or Annals of Gujarat_, Colonel Dalton's _Ethnology of Bengal_,
Dr. Buchanan's _Eastern India_, Sir Denzil Ibbetson's _Punjab Census
Report_ for 1881, Sir John Malcolm's _Memoir of Central India_, Sir
Edward Gait's _Bengal and India Census Reports_ and article on Caste
in Dr. Hastings' _Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics_, Colonel
(Sir William) Sleeman's _Report on the Badhaks_ and _Ramaseeana or
Vocabulary of the Thugs,_ Mr. Kennedy's _Criminal Classes of the Bombay
Presidency_, Major Gunthorpe's _Criminal Tribes of Bombay, Berar and
the Central Provinces_, the books of Mr. Crooke and Sir H. Risley
already mentioned, and the mass of valuable ethnological material
contained in the _Bombay Gazetteer _ (Sir J. Campbell), especially the
admirable volumes on _Hindus of Gujarat_ by Mr. Bhimbhai Kirparam,
and _Parsis and Muhammadans of Gujarat_ by Khan Bahadur Fazlullah
Lutfullah Faridi, and Mr. Kharsedji Nasarvanji Seervai, J.P., and
Khan Bahadur Bamanji Behramji Patel. Other Indian ethnological works
from which I have made quotations are Dr. Wilson's _Indian Caste_
(_Times_ Press and Messrs. Blackwood). Bishop Westcott's _Kabir and the
Kabirpanth_ (Baptist Mission Press, Cawnpore), Mr. Rajendra Lal Mitra's
_Indo-Aryans_ (Newman & Co., Calcutta), _The Jainas_ by Dr. J.G. Bühler
and Mr. J. Burgess, Dr. J.N. Bhattacharya's _Hindu Castes and Sects_
(Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta), Professor Oman's _Mystics, Ascetics
and Saints of India, Cults, Customs and Superstitions of India_,
and _Brahmans, Theists and Muslims of India_ (T. Fisher Unwin),
Mr. V.A. Smith's _Early History of India_ (Clarendon Press), the
Rev. T.P. Hughes' _Dictionary of Islam_ (W.H. Allen & Co., and Heffer &
Sons, Cambridge), Mr. L.D. Barnett's _Antiquities of India_, M. André
Chevrillon's _Romantic India_, Mr. V. Ball's _Jungle Life in India_,
Mr. W. Crooke's _Popular Religion and Folklore of Northern India_,
and _Things Indian_, Captain Forsyth's _Highlands of Central India_
(Messrs. Chapman & Hall), Messrs. Yule and Burnell's _Hobson-Jobson_
(Mr. Crooke's edition), Professor Hopkins' _Religions of India_, the
Rev. E.M. Gordon's _Indian Folk-Tales_ (Elliot & Stock), Messrs. Sewell
and Dikshit's _Indian Calendar_, Mr. Brennand's _Hindu Astronomy_,
and the late Rev. Father P. Dehon's monograph on the Oraons in the
_Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal_.

Ethnological works on the people of the Central Provinces are not
numerous; among those from which assistance has been obtained are Sir
C. Grant's _Central Provinces Gazetteer_ of 1871, Rev. Stephen Hislop's
_Notes on the Aboriginal Tribes of the Central Provinces_, Colonel
Bloomfield's _Notes on the Baigas_, Sir Charles Elliott's _Hoshangabad
Settlement Report_, Sir Reginald Craddock's _Nagpur Settlement Report_,
Colonel Ward's _Mandla Settlement Report_, Colonel Lucie Smith's
_Chanda Settlement Report_, Mr. G.W. Gayer's _Lectures on Criminal
Tribes_, Mr. C.W. Montgomerie's _Chhindwara Settlement Report_,
Mr. C.E. Low's _Balaghat District Gazetteer_, Mr. E.J. Kitts' _Berar
Census Report_ of 1881, and the _Central Provinces Census Reports_
of Mr. T. Drysdale, Sir Benjamin Robertson and Mr. J.T. Marten.

The author is indebted to Sir J.G. Frazer for his kind permission to
make quotations from _The Golden Bough_ and _Totemism and Exogamy_
(Macmillan), in which the best examples of almost all branches of
primitive custom are to be found; to Dr. Edward Westermarck for
similar permission in respect of _The History of Human Marriage_,
and _The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas_ (Macmillan);
to Messrs. A. & C. Black in respect of the late Professor Robertson
Smith's _Religion of the Semites_; to Messrs. Heinemann for those
from M. Salomon Reinach's _Orpheus_; and to Messrs. Hachette et
Cie and Messrs. Parker of Oxford for those from _La Cité Antique_
of M. Fustel de Coulanges. Much assistance has also been obtained
from Sir E. B. Tylor's _Early History of Mankind_ and _Primitive
Culture_, Lord Avebury's _The Origin of Civilisation_, Mr. E. Sidney
Hartland's _Primitive Paternity_, and M. Salomon Reinach's _Cultes,
Mythes et Religions_. The labours of these eminent authors have made
it possible for the student to obtain a practical knowledge of the
ethnology of the world by the perusal of a small number of books; and
if any of the ideas put forward in these volumes should ultimately be
so fortunate as to obtain acceptance, it is to the above books that I
am principally indebted for having been able to formulate them. Other
works from which help has been obtained are M. Emile Senart's _Les
Castes dans I'Inde_, Professor W. E. Hearn's _The Aryan Household_,
and Dr. A.H. Keane's _The World's Peoples_. Sir George Grierson's great
work, _The Linguistic Survey of India_, has now given an accurate
classification of the non-Aryan tribes according to their languages
and has further thrown a considerable degree of light on the vexed
question of their origin. I have received from Mr. W. Crooke of the
Indian Civil Service (retired) much kind help and advice during the
final stages of the preparation of this work. As will be seen from the
articles, resort has constantly been made to his _Tribes and Castes_
for filling up gaps in the local information.

Rai Bahadur Hira Lal was my assistant for several years in the
taking of the census of 1901 and the preparation of the Central
Provinces District Gazetteers; he has always given the most loyal and
unselfish aid, has personally collected a large part of the original
information contained in the book, and spent much time in collating
the results. The association of his name in the authorship is no
more than his due, though except where this has been specifically
mentioned, he is not responsible for the theories and deductions
from the facts obtained. Mr. Pyare Lal Misra, barrister, Chhindwara,
was my ethnographic clerk for some years, and he and Munshi Kanhya
Lal, late of the Educational Department, and Mr. Aduram Chandhri,
Tahsildar, gave much assistance in the inquiries on different
castes. Among others who have helped in the work, Rai Bahadur
Panda Baijnath, Diwan of the Patna and Bastar States, should be
mentioned first, and Babu Kali Prasanna Mukerji, pleader, Saugor,
Mr. Gopal Datta Joshi, District Judge, Saugor, Mr. Jeorakhan Lal,
Deputy-Inspector of Schools, and Mr. Gokul Prasad, Tahsildar, may be
selected from the large number whose names are given in the footnotes
to the articles. Among European officers whose assistance should be
acknowledged are Messrs. C.E. Low, C.W. Montgomerie, A.B. Napier,
A.E. Nelson, A.K. Smith, R.H. Crosthwaite and H.F. Hallifax, of
the Civil Service; Lt.-Col. W.D. Sutherland, I.M.S., Surgeon-Major
Mitchell of Bastar, and Mr. D. Chisholm.

Some photographs have been kindly contributed by Mrs. Ashbrooke Crump,
Mrs. Mangabai Kelkar, Mr. G.L. Corbett, C.S., Mr. R.L. Johnston,
A.D.S.P., Mr. J.H. Searle, C.S., Mr. Strachey, Mr. H.E. Bartlett,
Professor L. Scherman of Munich, and the Diwan of Raigarh State. Bishop
Westcott kindly gave the photograph of Kabir, which appears in his
own book.

Finally I have to express my gratitude to the Chief Commissioner,
Sir Benjamin Robertson, for the liberal allotment made by the
Administration for the publication of the work; and to the publishers,
Messrs. Macmillan & Co., and the printers, Messrs. R. & R. Clark, for
their courtesy and assistance during its progress through the press.


September 1915.






CONTENTS


Part I - Volume I


Introductory Essay on Caste
Articles on the Religions and Sects of the People of the Central Provinces
Glossary of Minor Castes and Other Articles, Synonyms, Subcastes,
Titles and Names of Exogamous Septs or Clans
Subject Index


Part II - Volumes II, III and IV

Descriptive Articles on the Principal
Castes and Tribes of the Central Provinces




DETAILED LIST OF CONTENTS

Part I

Articles on Religions and Sects

The articles which are considered to be of most general interest
are shown in capitals


ARYA SAMAJ RELIGION 201
BRAHMO SAMAJ RELIGION 208
Dadupanthi Sect 215
Dhami Sect 216
JAIN RELIGION 219
KABIRPANTHI SECT 232
Lingayat Sect 244
MUHAMMADAN RELIGION 247
Nanakpanthi Sect 277
Parmarthi Sect 281
PARSI OR ZOROASTRIAN RELIGION 284
Saiva Sect 302
Sakta Sect 304
SATNAMI SECT 307
Sikh Religion 317
Smarta Sect 325
Swami-Narayan Sect 326
VAISHNAVA SECT 330
Vam-Margi Sect 333
Wahhabi Sect 335


Articles on Minor Castes and Miscellaneous Notices Included in the
Glossary


Agamudayan.
Alia.
Arab.
Are.
Arora.
Bahelia.
Bahrupia.
Banka.
Bargah.
Bayar.
Belwar.
Besta.
Bhand.
Bhatia.
Bhima.
Bhona.
Bind.
Birhor.
Bopchi.
Chenchuwar.
Chero.
Dangur.
Daraihan.
Dhalgar.
Dhera.
Dohor.
Gandli.
Girgira.
Goyanda.
Hatwa.
Jasondhi.
Jokhara.
Kamad.
Kamathi.
Kamma.
Kammala.
Kandra.
Kast.
Khadal.
Khadra.
Kotwar.
Kumrawat.
Kundera.
Londhari.
Madgi.
Malyar.
Mangan.
Marori.
Medara.
Mirdha.
Mukeri.
Mutrasi.
Nagarchi.
Otari.
Pabia.
Pahalwan.
Panchal.
Pandra.
Parka.
Periki.
Redka.
Rohilla.
Sais.
Santal.
Satani.
Segidi.
Siddi.
Sidhira.
Sikligar.
Solaha.
Sonkar.
Tanti.
Tirmale.
Tiyar.
Vellala.
Wakkaliga.


Part II - Vol. II

Articles on Castes and Tribes of the Central Provinces in Alphabetical
Order


Agaria (_Iron-worker_) 3
Agharia (_Cultivator_) 8
Aghori (_Religious mendicant_) 13
Ahir (_Herdsman and milkman_) 18
Andh (_Tribe, now cultivators_) 38
Arakh (_Hunter_) 40
Atari (_Scent-seller_) 42
Audhelia (_Labourer_) 45
Badhak (_Robber_) 49
Bahna (_Cotton-cleaner_) 69
Baiga (_Forest tribe_) 77
Bairagi (_Religious mendicants_) 93
Balahi (_Labourer and village watchman_) 105
Balija (_Cultivator_) 108
Bania (_Merchant and moneylender_) 111

Subcastes of Bania


Agarwala.
Agrahari.
Ajudhiabasi.
Asathi.
Charnagri.
Dhusar.
Dosar.
Gahoi.
Golapurab.
Kasarwani.
Kasaundhan.
Khandelwal.
Lad.
Lingayat.
Maheshri.
Nema.
Oswal.
Parwar.
Srimali.
Umre.


Banjara (_Pack-carrier_) 162
Barai (_Betel-vine grower and seller_) 192
Barhai (_Carpenter_) 199
Bari (_Maker of leaf-plates_) 202
Basdewa (_Cattle-dealer and religious mendicant_) 204
Basor (_Bamboo-worker_) 208
Bedar (_Soldier and public service_) 212
Beldar (_Digger and navvy_) 215
Beria (_Vagabond gipsy_) 220
Bhaina (_Forest tribe_) 225
Bhamta (_Criminal tribe and labourers_) 234
Bharbhunja (_Grain-parcher_) 238
Bharia (_Forest tribe_) 242
Bhat (_Bard and genealogist_) 251
Bhatra (_Forest tribe_) 271
Bhil (_Forest tribe_) 278
Bhilala (_Landowner and cultivator_) 293
Bhishti (_Water-man_) 298
Bhoyar (_Cultivator_) 301
Bhuiya (_Forest tribe_) 305
Bhulia (_Weaver_) 319
Bhunjia (_Forest tribe_) 322
Binjhwar (_Cultivator_) 329
Bishnoi (_Cultivator_) 337
Bohra (_Trader_) 345
Brahman (_Priest_) 351

Subcastes of Brahman


Ahivasi.
Jijhotia.
Kanaujia, Kanyakubja.
Khedawal.
Maharashtra.
Maithil.
Malwi.
Nagar.
Naramdeo.
Sanadhya.
Sarwaria.
Utkal.


Chadar (_Village watchman and labourer_) 400
Chamar (_Tanner and labourer_) 403
Chasa (_Cultivator_) 424
Chauhan (_Village watchman and labourer_) 427
Chhipa (_Dyer and calico-printer_) 429
Chitari (_Painter_) 432
Chitrakathi (_Picture showman_) 438
Cutchi (_Trader and shopkeeper_) 440
Dahait (_Village watchman and labourer_) 444
Daharia (_Cultivator_) 453
Dangi (_Landowner and cultivator_) 457
Dangri (_Vegetable-grower_) 463
Darzi (_Tailor_) 466
Dewar (_Beggar and musician_) 472
Dhakar (_Illegitimate, cultivator_) 477
Dhangar (_Shepherd_) 480
Dhanuk (_Bowman, labourer_) 484
Dhanwar (_Forest tribe_) 488
Dhimar (_Fisherman, water-carrier, and household servant_) 502
Dhoba (_Forest tribe, cultivator_) 515
Dhobi (_Washerman_) 519
Dhuri (_Grain-parcher_) 527
Dumal (_Cultivator_) 530
Fakir (_Religious mendicant_) 537


Part II - Vol. III


Gadaria (_Shepherd_) 3
Gadba (_Forest tribe_) 9
Ganda (_Weaver and labourer_) 14
Gandhmali (_Uriya village priests and temple servants_) 17
Garpagari (_Averter of hailstorms_) 19
Gauria (_Snake-charmer and juggler_) 24
Ghasia (_Grass-cutter_) 27
Ghosi (_Buffalo-herdsman_) 32
Golar (_Herdsman_) 35
Gond (_Forest tribe and cultivator_) 39
Gond-Gowari (_Herdsman_) 143
Gondhali (_Religious mendicant_) 144
Gopal (_Vagrant criminal caste_) 147
Gosain (_Religious mendicant_) 150
Gowari (_Herdsman_) 160
Gujar (_Cultivator_) 166
Gurao (_Village Priest_) 175
Halba (_Forest tribe, labourer_) 182
Halwai (_Confectioner_) 201
Hatkar (_Soldier, shepherd_) 204
Hijra (_Eunuch, mendicant_) 206
Holia (_Labourer, curing hides_) 212
Injhwar (_Boatman and fisherman_) 213
Jadam (_Cultivator_) 217
Jadua (_Criminal caste_) 219
Jangam (_Priest of the Lingayat sect_) 222
Jat (_Landowner and cultivator_) 225
Jhadi Telenga (_Illegitimate, labourer_) 238
Jogi (_Religious mendicant and pedlar_) 243
Joshi (_Astrologer and village priest_) 255
Julaha (_Weaver_) 279
Kachera (_Maker of glass bangles_) 281
Kachhi (_Vegetable-grower_) 285
Kadera (_Firework-maker_) 288
Kahar (_Palanquin-bearer and household servant_) 291
Kaikari (_Basket-maker and vagrant_) 296
Kalanga (_Soldier, cultivator_) 302
Kalar (_Liquor vendor_) 306
Kamar (_Forest tribe_) 323
Kanjar (_Gipsies and prostitutes_) 331
Kapewar (_Cultivator_) 342
Karan (_Writer and clerk_) 343
Kasai (_Butcher_) 346
Kasar (_Worker in brass_) 369
Kasbi (_Prostitute_) 373
Katia (_Cotton-spinner_) 384
Kawar (_Forest tribe and cultivator_) 389
Kayasth (_Village accountant, writer and clerk_) 404
Kewat (_Boatman and fisherman_) 422
Khairwar (_Forest tribe; boilers of catechu_) 427
Khandait (_Soldier, cultivator_) 436
Khangar (_Village watchman and labourer_) 439
Kharia (_Forest tribe, labourer_) 445
Khatik (_Mutton-butcher_) 453
Khatri (_Merchant_) 456
Khojah (_Trader and shopkeeper_) 461
Khond (_Forest tribe, cultivator_) 464
Kir (_Cultivator_) 481
Kirar (_Cultivator_) 485
Kohli (_Cultivator_) 493
Kol (_Forest tribe, labourer_) 500
Kolam (_Forest tribe, cultivator_) 520
Kolhati (_Acrobat_) 527
Koli (_Forest tribe, cultivator_) 532
Kolta (_Landowner and cultivator_) 537
Komti (_Merchant and shopkeeper_) 542
Kori (_Weaver and labourer_) 545
Korku (_Forest tribe, labourer_) 550
Korwa (_Forest tribe, cultivator_) 571
Koshti (_Weaver_) 581


Part II - Vol. IV


Kumhar (_Potter_) 3
Kunbi (_Cultivator_) 16
Kunjra (_Greengrocer_) 50
Kuramwar (_Shepherd_) 52
Kurmi (_Cultivator_) 55
Lakhera (_Worker in lac_) 104
Lodhi (_Landowner and cultivator_) 112
Lohar (_Blacksmith_) 120
Lorha (_Growers of_ san-_hemp_) 126
Mahar (_Weaver and labourer_) 129
Mahli (_Forest tribe_) 146
Majhwar (_Forest tribe_) 149
Mal (_Forest tribe_) 153
Mala (_Cotton-weaver and labourer_) 156
Mali (_Gardener and vegetable-grower_) 159
Mallah (_Boatman and fisherman_) 171
Mana (_Forest tribe, cultivator_) 172
Manbhao (_Religious mendicant_) 176
Mang (_Labourer and village musician_) 184
Mang-Garori (_Criminal caste_) 189
Manihar (_Pedlar_) 193
Mannewar (_Forest tribe_) 195
Maratha (_Soldier, cultivator and service_) 198
Mehtar (_Sweeper and scavenger_) 215
Meo (_Tribe_) 233
Mina or Deswali (_Non-Aryan tribe, cultivator_) 235
Mirasi (_Bard and genealogist_) 242
Mochi (_Shoemaker_) 244
Mowar (_Cultivator_) 250
Murha (_Digger and navvy_) 252
Nagasia (_Forest tribe_) 257
Nahal (_Forest tribe_) 259
Nai (Barber) 262
Naoda (_Boatman and fisherman_) 283
Nat (_Acrobat_) 286
Nunia (_Salt-refiner, digger and navvy_) 294
Ojha (_Augur and soothsayer_) 296
Oraon (_Forest tribe_) 299
Paik (_Soldier, cultivator_) 321
Panka (_Labourer and village watchman_) 324
Panwar Rajput (_Landowner and cultivator_) 330
Pardhan (_Minstrel and priest_) 352
Pardhi (_Hunter and fowler_) 359
Parja (_Forest tribe_) 371
Pasi (_Toddy-drawer and labourer_) 380
Patwa (_Maker of silk braid and thread_) 385
Pindari (_Freebooter_) 388
Prabhu (_Writer and clerk_) 399
Raghuvansi (_Cultivator_) 403
Rajjhar (_Agricultural labourer_) 405
Rajput (_Soldier and landowner_) 410

Rajput Clans


Baghel.
Bagri.
Bais.
Baksaria.
Banaphar.
Bhadauria.
Bisen.
Bundela.
Chandel.
Chauban.
Dhakar.
Gaharwar.
Gaur.
Haihaya.
Huna.
Kachhwaha.
Nagvansi.
Nikumbh.
Paik.
Parihar.
Rathor.
Sesodia.
Solankhi.
Somvansi.
Surajvansi.
Tomara.
Yadu.


Rajwar (_Forest tribe_) 470
Ramosi (_Village watchmen and labourers, formerly thieves_) 472
Rangrez (_Dyer_) 477
Rautia (_Forest tribe and cultivators, formerly soldiers_) 479
Sanaurhia (_Criminal thieving caste_) 483
Sansia (_Vagrant criminal tribe_) 488
Sansia (Uria) (_Mason and digger_) 496
Savar (_Forest tribe_) 500
Sonjhara (_Gold-washer_) 509
Sudh (_Cultivator_) 514
Sunar (_Goldsmith and silversmith_) 517
Sundi (_Liquor distiller_) 534
Tamera (_Coppersmith_) 536
Taonla (_Soldier and labourer_) 539
Teli (_Oilman_) 542
Thug (_Criminal community of murderers by strangulation_) 558
Turi (_Bamboo-worker_) 588
Velama (_Cultivator_) 593
Vidur (_Village accountant, clerk and writer_) 596
Waghya (_Religious mendicant_) 603
Yerukala (_Criminal thieving caste_) 606



Note. - The Gonds are the most important of the non-Aryan or primitive
tribes, and their social customs are described in detail. The
Baiga, Bhil, Kawar, Khond, Kol, Korku and Korwa are other important
tribes. The two representative cultivating castes are the Kurmis and
Kunbis, and the articles on them include detailed descriptions of Hindu
social customs, and some information on villages, houses, dress, food
and manner of life. Articles in which subjects of general interest are
treated are Darzi (clothes), Sunar (ornaments), Kachera and Lakhera
(bangles), Nai (hair), Kalar (veneration of alcoholic liquor),
Bania (moneylending and interest), Kasai (worship and sacrifice of
domestic animals), Joshi (the Hindu calendar and personal names),
Bhat (suicide), Dahait (significance of the umbrella), and Kanjar
(connection of Indian and European gipsies). The articles on Badhak,
Sansia and Thug are compiled from Sir William Sleeman's reports on
these communities of dacoits and murderers, whose suppression he
achieved. For further information the Subject Index may be consulted.





MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS


Maps


Map of India _Frontispiece_
Map of the Central Provinces
Map of the Central Provinces, showing principal linguistic or
racial divisions 6



Illustrations

Volume I


1. Hindu temple of the god Siva 16
2. Hindu sculptures 26
3. Peasant's hut 40
4. Group of religious mendicants 56
5. Drawing water from the village well 72
6. Gayatri or sacred verse personified as a goddess 108
7. Image of the god Jagannath, a form of Vishnu 118
8. The god Rama, an incarnation of Vishnu, with attendant
deities 144
9. Hindu bathing party 158
10. Pilgrims carrying Ganges water 184
11. A meeting of the Arya Samaj for investing boys with the sacred
thread 202
12. Jain temples at Muktagiri, Betul 220
13. Jain ascetics with cloth before mouth and sweeping-brush
224
14. Jain gods in attitude of contemplation 228
15. Jain temple in Seoni 230
16. Kabir 232
17. Beggar on artificial horse at the Muharram festival 248
18. Carrying the horse-shoe at the Muharram festival 252
19. Tazia or tombs of Hussain at the Muharram festival 256
20. Famous Tazia at Khandwa 260
21. Representing a tiger at the Muharram festival 272
22. Temple of Siva at Bandakpur, near Damoh 302
23. Images of Siva and his consort Devi, or Parvati, with the
bull and tiger 304
24. Devotees, possessed, embracing each other, while supported
on tridents, at Siva's fair at Pachmarhi 306
25. Image of the prophet Swami Narayan in the Teli temple at
Burhanpur 326
26. Images of Rama, Lachman and Sita, with attendants 330
27. Image of Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth, the consort of Vishnu,
with attendant 332
28. Image of the boar incarnation of Vishnu 334
29. Bahrupia impersonating the goddess Kali 344
30. Dasari religious mendicant with discus and conch-shell of
Vishnu 406


Volume II



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