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Memoir, .........

The Preface, ........

The Introduction and Division of this Essay,


An Account of the Romans, of the Midland Buitains or M^ats,
AND OF the Caledonians or Picts, in the Northern Parts of
Britain or Scotland, ......


Of the Romans in Britain, ......

Art. 1. Of the Settlement of the Romans in Bi-itain, and Divisions of it
into Provinces, ......

Art. 2. Of the Roman Walls in Britain,

1. Of Julius Agricola's Fences,

2. Of the Emperor Adrian's Wall, a.d. 121.

3. OfthatofLolliusUrbicus, .\.D. 138,

4. Of Severus' Wall, a.d. 210,

5. Of Carausius, .....

6. Of the Fences made, A.D. 367, by the General Theodosius,

7. OfStilieho'sFences, a.d. 398,

8. Of the Wall repaired A.D. 421,

9. Of the last Wall, A.D. 426,

Of the Britains in Scotland, or Midland Britains,

Art, 1. State of the Midland Britains in the Roman times,
Art. 2. Of the Kingdom of the Midland Britains,
Art. 3. The Walenses, or remains of the Midland Britains in th
Western Parts of Scotland, incorporated with the Scots, .

Of the Caledonians or Picts, ......

Art. 1. Of the Antiquity of the Settlement of the Picts in Britain ; that

they were the same as the Caledonians, and the most Ancient and

first known Inhabitants of the Northern Parts of the Island,

Art. 2. Of the Occasion of the Name of Picts given to the Caledonians

or Britains of the North, ......

Art. 3. Of the Origin of the Caledonians or Picts, and from whence they
first came into Britain, ....











J 3





Art. 4. Of tlie Pictish Language, . . . . .58

Art. 5. Of the Extent of the Pictish Dominions, . . .61

Sec. 1. Extent of the Caledonian or Pictish Dominions to the North ;
that they reached to the extremities of the North of Scotland, or
northern parts of Britain, . . . . .62

Sec. 2. Extent of the Pictish Dominions towards the South, on this

side of the Friths of Clyde and Forth, . . . .68

Art. 6. Of the Nature or Form of the Pictish Government, . . 70

Art. 7. Of the Antiquity of the Pictish Monarch j% 'and of the Number

and Series of their Kings, ...... 72

Irish Account of them, ...... 72

Of the Chronica de Origine Antiquormn Pictorum, . . .74

Scotish Account of them, . . . . . .75

Series or Succession of the Pictish Kings — First Part, . . 89

Second Part, . . 91

Art. 7. Of the Union of the Pictish and Scotish Kingdoms in one

Monarchy, ........ 93

Art. 9. That the present Inhabitants of Scotland are as well the

Offspring and Race of the Picts as of the Scots, . . 95


BOOK 11.

Of the Scot.'<, .... ... 106

Introduction AND Division OF THIS Second Book, . . . 106


Of the Antiquity of the Settlement and Monarchy of the Scots in Britain,
upon Supposition of the Certainty or Probability of the High Anti-
quities of Ireland ; together with a full Discussion of the Story of the
Forty Ancient Kings before Fergus, Son of Erch, . . . 108

Chapter I.

Of the Debates of the Scotish and Irish Writers about the Antiquity of
the Settlement of the Scots in Britain : that the Present Inhabi-
tants of Scotland ought to be very indifferent about the issue of these
Debates ; and that the Irish are more interested to maintain the
Ancient Settlement of the Scots in Britain than the Scots them-
selves, ........


Chapter II.

That if the Settlement of the Milesian Scots in Ireland, twelve or thirteen
Ages before the Incarnation, be once admitted, that of the Scots in
Britain, before the Romans entei'ed it, will follow in course, as being
supported by proofs of the same nature, ....


Chapter III.

Of the Government of the Scots in Britain, upon Supposition of their
Ancient Settlement ; Discussion of the various Accounts of the Scotish


Historians concerning the Government and Kings of the Scots in
Britain before King Fergus, the Son of Erch, . . .122

Art. 1. Of the Account given by John Fordun and his Followers con-
cerning the Kings of the Scots in Britain before the Reign of
Fergus (called the Second), Son of Erch, .... 123

Art. 2. Of Hector Boece, and his Account of the iirst Forty Kings of

the Scots in Britain, . . . . . .130

Sec. 1. Of Hector Boece, and his History in general, . . 132

Sec. 2. Of the Vouchers or Authorities on which H. Boece's History

is grounded, ....... 132

Of Bower, ....... 132

Of Elphinston, ...... 132

OfTurgot, ....... 133

Of Veremundus, ...... 133

Sec. 3. Proof Finst against the Vouchers of Boece's History : the

Silence of all former Writers, . . . . .135

Sec, 4. Proof Second against Boece's History : the most part of the
Names of his Forty Kings forged upon Names of the Old
Genealogy, and a New Genealogy di-awn up, . . . 140

Genealogical Tables of the Kings of Scots, in which the Old

Genealogy is compared to Boece's New Draft of it, . .140

Account and Authority of the Old Genealogy, . . .144

Sec. 5. Proof Third against Boece's History : the Forty Kings'
Names forged upon corrupted Names of the Old Genealogy in
or near Boece's time, . . . . . .146

Sec. 6. Proof Fourth : Boece's History stuffed with Fables, . 1 48

Sec. 7. Proof Fifth : New Principles of Government, . .149

Sec. 8. Principles of Scotish Government according to the Old Laws

of Scotland, . . . . . . .151

Sec. 9. Eight of the Scotish Monarchy according to Old Histories, . 152
Occasion and Growth of Popular Power over the King, . . 160

Rebellion against King James in. Act of Debate of the Field of

Striveling, . . . . . . .163

Veremund's History forged to serve a turn, . . . 166

Art. 3. Of John Lesly, Bishop of Ross, and his History of Scotland, . 169

Art. 4. Of David Chambers of Ormond, his Abridgment of the Scotish

History, and Citations from Veremund, . . . .171

Art. 5. Of George Buchanan's Account of the first Forty Kings of the

Scots in Britain, ....... 176

Sec. 1. The Introduction to Buchanan's History ; the Progress of

the Doctrine of the Deposing Power in Scotland, . . 176

Sec. 2. Of M. George Buchanan ; of his "Writings against his Sove-
reign, Mary Queen of Scotland, . . . .181

Sec. 3. Of Buchanan's History of the Scots, .... 205

Sec. 4. (1) That Buchanan had no other Ground nor Authority for
all that he hath set down in his Fourth Book (over and above
what Fordun contains) of the Names, Lives, and Reigns of the
first Forty Kings, than Boece's History, . . . 209

Sec. 5. (2) That Buchanan was persuaded that all that Boece had
written of these first Forty Kings (over and above what is in



Fordiin) was fabulous, and witliout any probable ground, and
deserved no credit, ...... 209

Sec. 6. (3) That notwithstanding Buchanan himself did not believe
the Accounts that Boece gave of the first Forty Kings (as we
have seen), yet he did all that lay in his power to render them
credible, and wrote his own History with that design, . .215

Sec. 7. (4) Buchanan's chief intention in writing his History was to
support the Principles of Government of his Dialogue De Jure
Regni, or the Subjects' Power to Depose and Punish their Kings, 218

Chapteu IV.
Conclusion of this First Section, ...... 223


An Inquiry into the Antiquity of the First Settlement of the Soots in

Ireland and in the Northern Parts of Britain, . . . 226


On the Account that the Irish give of the Remote Antiquities of Ireland,

and of the First Settlement of the Scots in that Island, . . 226

Chapter I.

Containing the Difficulties and Doubts which occur in the Particular Ac-
counts that tlie Modern Irish Writers, such as Keating, O'Flaherty,
and others, give, on the credit of their Bards and Seanachics, of the
Remote or High Antiquities of Ireland, .... 231

Art. 1. A Short Account of the Irish Remote Antiquities — First Objec-
tion, ........ 232

Art. 2. The Second Objection, drawn from the means by which the
Irish pretend that their High Antiquities were preserved and con-
veyed down ; and of their Ancient Literature and Polity before the
times of Christianity, ...... 235

Art. 3. That the Inhabitants of Ireland were still unpolished and bar-
barous, and, by consequence, without the use of Letters, in the
first Ages of Christianity, according to all the Accounts that we
have of them from the most Ancient Writers, and in the Opinion
of the most Learned among the Modern, .... 239

Art. 4. That in all appearance the use of Letters was not introduced
into Ireland tiU the Preaching of the Gospel among them in the
Fifth Century of Christianity, . . . . .246

Art. 5. That even supposing that the Irish had the use of Letters be-
fore the Gospel was preached among them, their pretended
Ancient Writers, the Bards, deserve no credit, . . . 259

Sec. 1. Of the Bards in general, ..... 259

Sec. 2. Of the Irish Bards, . . . . . .262

Art. 6. The Uncertainty of the Remote Antiquities of Ireland appears
by the contradictory Accounts given of them, and the many Altera-
tions made in them by posterior Writers, .... 265



Art. 7. That the Irish shunning to publish their pretended Ancient
Original Histories or Chronicles, such as they are, without addition
or retrenchment, gives a just ground to suspect the credit of them,
and of the Remote Antiquities built upon them, . . . 276

Chapter II.

That supposing even the certainty or probability of the Ancient Settle-
ment and Monarchy of the Milesians in Ireland, or in general that
of the Irish Remote Antiquities, yet it does not follow that these
Milesians were properly Scots ; but that, on the contrary, it seems
certain that the Scots were not settled in Ireland till about the time
of the Incarnation, or rather after it, .... 279

Answer to Objections, . . . . . • 287

Chapter III.

Of the Origin of the Scots, of their Name, and of the Time of their

Settlement in Ireland, ...... 294


Of the Writers of the Scotish History, of the Time of the First Settlement

of the Scots, and of the Beginning of their Monarchy in Britain, . 299

Chapter I.
Of the Writers of the Scotish History, . . . . .300

Art. ]. Of the Writers of the Scotish History in general, . . 300

Art. 2. Of the many Disasters befallen the Monuments of the Scotish

History in past Ages, ...... 301

Sec. 1. Ot Casual Accidents, ...... 302

Sec. 2. Destruction of our Historical Monuments by King Edward i. , 302
Sec. 3. Destruction of Historical and other Ancient Monuments at

the Scotish Reformation, ..... 307

Chronological Index of such of the National Councils of the Church

of Scotland as I have found mentioned in History and Records, 320
Art. 3. An Account of the Monuments, Writers, and Records of the

Scotish History that yet remain, .... 325

Sec. 1. Containing such Remains as we have of our Ancient History

written before the year 1291, ..... 326

Sec. 2. Of Records or Monuments of our Ancient History, written

since the year 1291, and before the publisliing Fordun's Chronicle, 333
Sec. 3. Of John Fordun, of his Continuators and Followers, and

other Writers of our Ancient History, till the year 1526, . 343

Sec. 4. Our Fourth Class of Scotish Writers ; of Boece, Buchanan,

and their Followers, ...... 345

Chapter II.

Of the True Epoch of the First Settlement of the Scots, and Beginning of

their Monarchy in Britain, ..... 345

Art. 1. Of the First Settlement of the Scots in Britain, . . 346



Art. 2. Of the First King of the Scots in Britain, . . .360

Art. 3. Of the Time of the Beginning of the Reign of Fergus, Son of

Erch, and proper Epoch of the Monarchy of the Scots in Britain, 372

ChapteFw III.

Of the different Steps and Degrees by which the High Antiquities of the
Scots grew up by length of time, in the several hands through which
they passed, into the Plan of History in which they were afterwards
delivered by Modem "Writers, ..... 375

Sec. 1. First step or foundation of the High Antiquities of the Scots
in Britain : the opinion of the Scots having been settled in Ireland
several Ages before the Incarnation, .... 378

Sec. 2. The Settlement of the Scots in Britain placed before the Incar-
nation, but no Kings till Fergus, Son of Erch, . . . 379
Sec. 3. First rise or origin of the opinion of Ancient Kings of the Scots
in Britain before the Incarnation, but nothing yet determined as
to theii' Number or Names, ..... 381
Sec. 4. The Number of those Ancient Kings first mentioned, but no
account as yet of their Names, not even that of the first King or
Founder of the Monaichy, nor the time of the Beginning of the
Monarchy as yet fixed, .... . 383
Sec. 5. John Fordun's labours in the Remote Antiquities of the Scots :

Antiquities reduced into a fixed plan and chronological order, . 388


Sec. 6. Growth of these Antiquities by the labours of H. Boece and

Buchanan, ........ 406


Catalogue of the Kings of Scots, . . . .410

1. De Situ Albanie, que in se Figuram Hominis habet, quomodo fuit

primitus in Septem Regionibus Divisa, quibusque Nominibus
Antiquitus sit vocata, et a quibus inhabitata, . . .411

2. Cronica de Origine Antiquoriun Pictorum, . . . .413

3. Excerpta ex veteri Chronico de Regibus Scottorum a Kenetho Mac-

Alpiu ad Kenethum Mac-Malcolm, ..... 416

4. Cronica Regum Scottorum, ccc. et iiij. Annorum, . . . 418

5. Nomina Regum Scottorum et Pictorum, .... 421

6. Breve Chronicon Scoticum sive Chronicon Rythmicum, . . 425

7. Extract of the Chronicle of Andrew Winton, Prior of Lochleven, . 431

8. Instrumentum publicum, continens copiam et exemplar de verbo in

verbum quarundam literarum Edwardi regis Anglie super renuncia-
tione et quieta clamatione omnium obligationum, jurium, pactorum
et conventorum factorum inter reges Scctie et Anglie, aut suorum
regnorum status, super subjectione et jurisclamio regis Scotie et
ipsius regni. Et res est bene notanda, .... 434


9. The Proposition of the Debate of the Field of Striveling, . . 438
10. Rescriptum Innocentii papee viii. quo facultatem impertit absolvendi

eos qui in Jacobum regem III. insurrexerant et de perpetrate crimine

ab intimis se dolere protestabantur, &c., . . - - 439

M E M I R;

Little is known of the life of Thomas Innes, tlie author of
the Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of Scotland, and
of the Civil and Ecclesiastical History of Scotland. I will in-
corporate, in these prefatory remarks, the substance of what
has already been given in the only biographical notices ^ of
which I am aware, and will add any further information which
I have been able to obtain.

Thomas Innes was born at Drumgask, in the parish of Aboyne
and county of Aberdeen, in the year 1662. He was the second
son of James Innes, wadsetter of Drumgask, by his wife Jane

Eobertson, daughter of Eobertson, merchant in Aberdeen.^

The family of Drumgask was descended from the Inneses of
Drainie, in the county of Moray. The father of Thomas Innes
held Drumgask in mortgage from the Earl of Aboyne, but it
afterwards became the irredeemable property of the family.
James Innes of Drumgask appears in the lists of the Commis-
sioners of Supply named for the sheriffdom of Aberdeen in the
first Parliament of King James vii., and in the Convention of
Estates in 1689.* As he was a conscientious member of the
Church of Kome, it is not likely that he acted on the latter of
these occasions. In the Parliament of King James he was,
with several others, exempted by name from taking the oath of

1 The following Memoir appeared for the most part in Innes' Civil and
Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, published by the Spalding Club.

- These are the following :— First, the Life of Thomas Innes in Chambers's
Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen, 1st edit. vol. iii. pp. 182-186 ;
second, a notice in the Preface to the second volume of the Miscellany of the
Spalding Club, pp. cxiv.-cxxi. ; third, a notice in the Preface to the Chartu-
lary of the Church of Glasgow, pp. vi.-viii.

^ The date of Thomas Innes' birth is mentioned on the fly-leaf of a missal
belonging to the late family of Ballogie. He himself alludes to Aboyne as the
parish of his birth, in his History, p. 301, at the conclusion of his remarks on S.
Adamnan, to whom the parish church was dedicated.

* Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, vol. viii. p. 463, and vol. ix. p. 272.


supremacy and the test.' A letter from him to his eldest son
Lewis, dated 7th May 1683, is printed in the second volume
of the Miscellany of the Spalding Club. It conveys a very-
agreeable impression of the writer, and shows the religious
principle and mutual affection which bound together the family
of Drumgask.

In 1677, Thomas Innes, then fifteen years of age, was sent to
Paris, and pursued his studies at the College of Navarre. He
entered the Scots College on the 12th of January 1681, but still
attended the College of Navarre.' On the 26th of May 1684
he received the clerical tonsure, and on the 10th March 1691
was promoted to the priesthood. After this he went to Notre
Dame des Vertues, a seminary of the Oratorians, near Paris,
where he continued for two or three months. Keturning to the
Scots College in 1692, he assisted the principal, his elder
brother Lewis, in arranging the records of the Church of Glas-
gow,^ which had been deposited partly in that college, partly in
the Carthusian monastery at Paris, by Archbishop James Beaton.
In 1694 he took the degree of Master of Arts in the University
of Paris, and in the following year was matriculated in the
German nation.*

After officiating as a priest for two years in the parish of
Magnay, in the diocese of Paris, he came again to the Scots
College in 1697. In the spring of 1698 he returned to his
native country, and officiated for three years at Inveravon as a
priest of the Scottish Mission.^ The church at Inveravon was
the prebend of the chancellor of the diocese of Murray, and he
alludes to this circumstance, and to his three years' residence in
that parish, in his dissertation on the reception of the Use of
Sarum by the Church of Scotland.^ He again went to Paris in
October 1701, and became Prefect of Studies in the Scots Col-
lege, and mission agent. ^

I have been unable to trace any external change in the con-

^ Wodrow's History, Bums' edit. vol. iv. p. 347.

* Spalding Club Miscellany, vol. ii. p. cxvi. There is in the library at Blairs
a copy of Dion Cassius, awarded to him by the College of Navarre, 19th August
1681, for a Greek oration.

3 Spalding Club Miscellany, vol. ii. p. 370. Registrum Episcopatus Glas-
guensis, Preface, p. vi.

* Spalding Club Miscellany, vol. ii. p. cxvi. '' Ibid.

^ Ibid. p. 366. '' Ibid. p. cxvi.


dition of Thomas Innes for more than twenty years after the
event last mentioned. He was no doubt occupied in the quiet
discharge of his duties, and in those literary pursuits by which
his name is now known. One circumstance appears to have
caused him considerable uneasiness. He fell, with some, under
the suspicion • of Jansenism. There is no evidence of any
formal accusation having been made against him ; ' but in France,
in the beginning of last century, the mere suspicion of Jan-
senism was enough to cause serious injury to a clergyman, not
only in popular estimation, but with the authorities in Church
and State. His known intimacy with EoUin, Duguet, and
Santeul may probably have given rise to the suspicion. He
himself was much vexed in consequence ; and, in the year 1720,
his brother Lewis, in what appears to have been a formal letter
to the vicar-general of the Bishop of Apt, contradicted a report
that he had concurred in the appeal to a General Council against
the condemnation of Quesnel's Moral Bejicdions by Pope Clement
xi.^ There is no appearance of Jansenism in his historical works,
although they mark clearly his decided opposition to Ultra-

After a long absence he again visited his native country.
The object of his visit was probably to collect materials for his
Essay and his History. I have not ascertained the date of his
leaving France, or how long he continued in Britain. It is
known that he was in Edinburgh during the winter of 1724,
and that he had come thither through England. This appears
from a notice in the Analeda of Wodrow,^ whose curiosity was
naturally excited by the appearance of a Eoman Catholic priest
from abroad. This notice is valuable, and may be given at
length : —

There is one Father Innes, a priest, brother to Father Innes
of the Scots College at Paris, who has been in Edinburgh all
this winter, and mostly in the Advocates' Library, in the hours

^ The statement quoted in the Miscellany of the Spalding Club, vol. ii.
p. cxviii., is avowedly destitute of much authority, and, in point of time, is
irreconcilable with the true order of events in Innes' life, unless James ii. be
a mistake for James in.

^ Spalding Club Miscellany, vol. ii. p. cxvii.

^ Analecta, vol. iii. pp. 516, 517. These passages are quoted, although not
altogether at full length, in Cliambers's Biographical Dictionary, vol. iii. p. 183
and in the Miscellany of the Spalding Club, vol. ii. pp. cxviii., cxix.


when open, looking books and manuscripts. He is not engaged
in politics, so far as can be guessed, and is a monkish, bookish
person, who meddles with nothing but literature. I saw him at
Edinburgh. He is upon a design to write an account of the
first settlement of Christianity in Scotland, as Mr. Paiddiman
informs me, and pretends to show that Scotland was Chris-
tianized at first from Eome, and thinks to answer our ordinary-
arguments against this from the difference between the keeping
of Easter from the custom of Eome ; and pretends to prove
that there were many variations as to the day of Easter, even at
Rome ; and that the usages in Scotland, pretended to be from
the Greek Church, are very agreeable to the Eomish customs,
and, he thinks, were used by the popes about the time which
he gives account of our difference as to Easter.

' This Father Innes, in a conversation with my informer, my
Lord Grange, made an observation which, I fear, is too true.
In conversation with the company, who were all Protestants, he
said he did not know what to make of those who had separated
from the Catholic Church : as far as he could observe generally,
they were leaving the foundations of Christianity, and scarce
deserved the name of Christians. He heard that there were
departures and great looseness in Holland ; that, as he came
through England, he found most of the bishops there gone off
from their Articles, and gone into Dr. Clarke's scheme ; that
the Dissenters were, many of them, falling much in with the
same methods and coming near them ; and that he was glad to
find his countrymen in Scotland not tainted in the great doc-
trine of the Trinity, and sound. Some in the company said, it
seems he had not heard of what was thrown up here as to
Mr. Simson. He said he knew it, but the ministers were
taking him to task and mauling him for his departure from
the faith.'

As has been said, the duration of his sojourn in Britain on
this occasion has not been ascertained. Either now or at other
times he must have made a stay of considerable length. His
Essay, his History, and his manuscript collections show that
he had carefully examined the chief public and private reposi-
tories of books and manuscripts connected with his subject,
both in England and in Scotland. In his letter to ' The King,'
transmitting the newly published volumes of his Critical Essay,


he speaks of having spent many years in the search and

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