Rafael Diez de la Cortina.

The Cortina method intended for self-study and for use in schools: Spanish ... online

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4 Parr-tee-re' , -ras', -ra', -ray'-mos, -ray'-is, -rang'.

• Kbh-may-ree'-ahi -ahs, -ah, -ah-mos, -ah-is, -ahng.

• Ihrr-tee-ree'-ah, -ahs, -ah, -ah-mos, -ah-is, -ahng.



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REGULAR VERBa



61



MODOS STTBJUNTIVOS.
PRESENTES.



Que yo com-a, That I may eat,
que tti com-as, etc.

el,
que ■{ ella, y com-a.



Que yo part-a, That I may leave,
que tu part-as, etc.



\ ella, }
( Vd,, )



que



\ ella, i
( Vd., )



part-i



Que nos. cora-amos, That we
que vos. com-ais, may eat, etc.



que



ellas,
Vds.,



com-an.



Que nos. part-amos, That we may
que vos. part-ais, leave, etc

ellos,
que < ellas, [ part-an.



( ellos, j
\ ellas, [
( Vds., )



IMPEEFECTOS, PRIM EE AS FORMAS.

Yo com-iera, T I might eat, etc. Yo part-iera, 8 I might leave, etc



tu com-ieras,

a, i

ella, y com-iera.

Vd.,)

Nos. com-ieramos, We

vos. com-ierais,

ellos, \

ellas, >• com-ieran.

Vds.,)



etc.



tu part-ieras,
61, >

ella, >• part-iera.
Vd.,)
eat, Nos. part-ieramos,
vos. part-ierais,
ellos, \

ellas, y part-ieran,
Vds., )



We might
leave, etc



IMPERFECTOS, SEGUNDAS FORMAS.

Yo com-iese, 9 I might eat, etc Yo part-iese, 10 I might leave, etc

til com-ieses, tu part-ieses,

ft ) ft )

ella, V com-iese. ella, V part-iese.

Vd., ) Vd.,)

Nos. com-iesemos, We might eat, Nos. part-iesemos, We might

vos. com-ieseis, etc vos. part-ieseis, leave, etc

ellos, \ ellos, \

ellas, [• com-iesen. ellas, y part-iesen.

Vds., ) Vds., )



7 Kb7b-me&-ay'-rah, -rahs, -rah, -rah-mos, -rah-is, -rahng.

8 jforr-tee-ay'-r&h, -rahs, -rah, -rah-mos, -rah-is, -rahng.
• Kbh-mee~ay'-8a.y, -says, -say, -say-mos, -say-is, -sayng.

M /torr-ta-ay'-say, -says, -say, -say-mos, -say-is, -sayng.



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62 VERBOS REGULARES.

FUTUBOS CONDICIONALES.
Singulares.
Si yo com-iera or com-iese, Si yo part-iera or part-iese,

si tu com-ieras or com-ieses, si tu part-ioras or part-ieses,

/el, * rel, ^

si -J ella, v com-iera or com-iese. «i -( ella, V part-iera or part-iese.
( Vd., ) ( Vd., )

If I ate, etc If I left, etc

Phirales.
iS* nos. com-ieramos or Si nos. part-ieramos or

com-iesemos, part-iesemos,

8i vos. com-ierais or com-ieseis, «i vos. part-ierais or part-ieseis,

ellos, \ . c ellos, \ , .

j ^™ ,^,™ ^« i j part-ieran or



r ellos, \ . ( elios, \

ri \ ellas, V . si < ellas, >

( Vds., * <*»-iesen. | Vd& ; (



» — » ' — -• » * ' part-iesen.

Jjf we ate, etc. if tue Ze/tf, etc.

MODOS IMPEBATIVOS.

PBESENTES.
Singulares.



Com-e tu, eat thou. Part-e tii, learn thou.

i el, let him eat. i el, let him leave.

'Com-a -J ella, let her eat. Part-a -j ella, let her leave.

\ Vd., eat you (sing.). ( Vd., leave you (sing.).

Plurales.

Com-amoe nos., let us eat. Part-amos nos., let us leave.

Com-ed l vos., eat ye. Part-id * vos., leave ye.
ellos > I i.4 *i^ »„* ( ellos >



{ el ™>\letthemeat. v ^ ( e os ' 1
Com-an < ellas, ) Part -an ■< ellas, )

( Vds., eat you (pi.). ( Vds., lei



let them have*
Vds., eat you (pi.). I Vds., leave you (pi.).



Hints for learning the Terminations easily.

SEGUNDA T TERCEBA CONJUGACIONES.

As may be seen by comparing the endings of the tenses in these
two verbs, there is only a very slight difference between them, and the
reason for having them printed together is to show more practically

1 Koh-mayd'. * Parr-teed'.



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KEGULAR VERBS. 63

in what respects they differ. For the formation of the endings in the
different tenses and persons let us observe :

1. As we have said, the first person singular of the indicative
present ends in o, the partial termination of the tense being e, which
is the ending of the third person singular, to which the general ter-
minations s, mos, and n must be added. The third conjugation changes
this partial: termination e to i in the first person plural, and it loses it
iii the second person, making imos, is, both of these endings being
used instead of emos and Sis,

2. The partial termination for the imperfect is la, the emphasis
always being placed over the i,

3. To form the past definite the partial termination will be i,
which is the ending of the first person, to which the termination 6 of
the past for verbs of the first conjugation will be added to form the
third singular, ste for the second, mos first plural, steis, i. e., the same
as the second singular, followed by the general termination is for the
second plural, and eron for the third.

4. For the future and conditional the general terminations I, as,
d, emos, Us, an, and ia, ias, ia, iamos, iais, and ian, must be added
to the infinitive. Compare these two endings with the terminations
of the indicative and subjunctive present for the first, and that of the
imperfect for the later.

5. The subjunctive present of verbs ending in er or ir has a for
the partial termination, contrary to that of verbs of the first conju-
gation, which is e.

6. The partial terminations for both forms of the imperfect sub-
junctive are iera and iese respectively.

7. The imperative we know is like the subjunctive present — the
only difference being that the pronouns are always placed after the
verb— with the exception of the two second persons, which are c and ed
for the second conjugation and e and id for the third.

Note. — The subjunctive present and the most important persons
of the imperative, viz., third, sing., and first and third, pi., are formed
with the partial termination, opposite to that of the infinitive or in-
dicative present ; i. e. :

Being or the inf. ; a ind. pres. ; e subj. and imp.

" fir " )

« ir « \ e a



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64 VERBOS REGULARES.

Some Orthographic Changes necessary in the Boots or
Stems of Regular Verbs.

Verbs ending in car, gar, zar, cer, ger, cir, gir, guir (u
silent), quir (u silent), require in some persons and tenses
a slight orthographic change in the root, so as to enable
the latter to preserve the sound which it takes in the
infinitive.

FIRST CONJUGATION.

Verbs ending in car, gar, and zar.

1. In the first place, they change the c of oar into qu
before e (see letter C, page 9) ; as in tocar (toh-karr'), to
play:

Pres. Subj. 1 : toque* toques, toque, toquemos. toquSis, toquen.

Imperative : toca, toque, toquemos, tocad, toquen.

Past Def . : toquS* tocaste, toc6, tocamos, tocasteis, tocaron,

instead of toce (toh'-thay), etc., and toci (toh-thay').
Like this are :

Aplicar, to apply, Marcar, to mark,

etc. etc.

2. In the second instance they change the g of gar into
gu before e (see letter (?, page 10) ; as in pagar (pah-garr'),
to pay :

* For the termination of the subjunctive present of verbs, see •* note,"
page 68 ; i. e.,

When the termination of the infinitive is ar the subjunctive is e.

M U U it U U qp U it u a#

Ct it cc u cc cc fr Ci cc cc a<

It has been said the imperative, with the exception of the two second per-
sons, is like the subjunctive present. This rule is general for all verbs.

* Toh'-kay, toh'-kays, toh'-kay, toh-kay'-mos, etc.

* Toh-kay', toh-kahs'-tay, toh-ko', toh-kah'-mos, etc. The termination
of the first person singular of the past of verbs of the first conjugation is like
the partial termination of the subjunctive present with an accent See re-
mark 8, page 58.



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. REGULAR VERBS. 65

Pres. Subj. : pague, 1 pagues, pague, paguemos, paguHs, paguen.

Imperative: paga, pague, paguemos, pagad, paguen.

Past Del : pague* pagaste, pago, pagamos, pagasteis, pagaron,

instead of page (pah '-hay), etc., and pagi (pah-hay').
Like this are :

Entregar, to hand, Prorrogar, to extend time,

etc. etc.

3. In the third case they change the z of zar into c
before the same letter e (see letter Z> page 14) ; as in rezar
(ray-thahrr'), to pray :

Pres. Subj. : recef reces, reee, recemos, reeiis, reeen.

Imperative : reza, rece, recemos, rezad, recen.

Past Def . : recS* rezaste, rez6, rezamos, rezasteis, rezaron,

instead of reze, etc., and rezi, according to the grammatical
rule given when treating of the pronunciation of the letter z 9
page 14. In no case can this letter be written before e or *.
Like this are :

Amenazar, to menace, Oozar, to enjoy,

etc etc.

SECOND CONJUGATION.

Verbs ending in cer and ger.

4. In the first instance they change the c of cer into z
before the letters and a, and this case will be contrary
to number 3 ; as in veneer (vayng-thayr'), to vanquish :

Pres. Ind. : venzof vences, vence, vencemos, veneris, vencen.
Pres. Subj. 6 : venza,' 1 venzas, venza, venzamos, venzdis, venzan.
Imperative • : vence, venza, venzamos, venced, venzan,

instead of venco (vayng'-koh), and venca (vayng'-kah),
vencas (vayng'-kahs), etc.

> Pah'-gay, pah'-gays, etc. • Pah-gay\ See note 3, page 64.

» Ray'-thay, ray -thays, etc * Ray-thay'. See note 8, page 64.

• Vayng'-thoh. • See note 1 on page 64.

* Vayng'-thah, vayng'-thas, etc.



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66 VERBOS REGULARE&

like this are :

Mecer, to swing, Oonvencer, to convince,

etc. etc.

5. In the second case they change the g of ger into j
before o and a (see letters C and J, pages 9-11) ; as in
coger (koh-hairr'), to catch :

Pres. Ind. : cojo, 1 coges, coge, cogemos, cogeis, cogen.
Pres. Subj. : cqfa,* cqfas, cqfa, cqfamos, cqfdis, cqfan.
Imperative : coge, cqfa, cqfamos, coged, cqfan,

instead of cogo (koh'-goh), and coga (koh'-gah), cogas
(koh'-gas), etc.
Like this are :

Proteger, to protect, Becoger, to pick tip,

etc. etc.

THIBD CONJUGATION.
Verbs ending in cir, gir, guir (u silent), and quir (u silent).

6. In the first case, like verbs ending in cer, number 4,
they change the c of cir into z before the endings o and a ;
as in zurcir (thoor 3 -thir'), to darn :

Pres. Ind. : zurzof 4 zurces, zurce, zurcimos, zurcis, zurcen.
Pres. Subj. 5 : zurza f zurzas, zurza, zurzamos, zurzdis, zurzan.
Imperative 6 : zurce, zurza, zurzamos, zurcid, zurzan,

instead of zurco (thoor' -koh), and zwrcb, (thoor'-kah), zurcas
(thoor' -kahs), etc.

Like the model are :

Esparcir, to spread, Besarcir, to compensate,

etc. etc.

» Koh -hoh, -hays, -hay, koh-hay' -mohs, -is, koh'-hayng.

• Koh'-h&h, -has, -ha, ioh-hah' -mohs, -is, koh '-hang.

• Th of thoor to be pronounced as in think. See "Table of Sounds,"
page 5, number 13. * Thoor'-thoh.

• See note 1 on page 64 for the formation of the imp. and pres. subj.

• Thoor'-ih&h.



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REGULAR VERB& 67

7. In the second case, like those ending in get, change
the g of gir into j before the terminations o and a ; as
in the verb dirigir (dee-ree-heer'), to address, to direct :

Pres. Ind. : dirijo, 1 diriges, dirige, dirigimos, dirigis, dirigen.
Pres. Subj. : dirija, 9 dirijas, dirija, dirijamos, dirijdis, dirijan*
Imperative : dirige, dirija, dirijamos, dirigid, dirijan,

instead of dirigo (dee-ree'-goh), diriga (dee-ree'-gah),
dirigas (dee-ree'-gahs), etc.
Like the model are :

Srigir, to erect, Afligir, to afflict,

etc etc.

8. In the third case they change the gu of guir (u
silent) into g ; i. e., they lose the u whenever the termina-
tions are o or a, which case will be contrary to number 2 ;
as in the verb distinguir (dis-ting-geer'), to distinguish,
to differ :

Pres. Ind. : distingo? distingues, distingue, distinguimos, distinguis,
distinguen.

Pres. Subj.: distinga,* distingas, distinga, distingamos, distingdis,
distingan.

Imperative: distingue, distinga, distingamos, distinguid, dis-
tingan,

instead of distinguo (dis-ting'-gwoh), and distinguu (dis-
ting'-gwah), distinguas (dis-ting'-gwas), etc. See letter
G, page 10, "note."

9. In the fourth case they change the qu of quir (u
silent) into c whenever the terminations are o or a, which
will be the contrary case to number 1 ; as in the verb
delinquir (day-ling-keer'), to transgress the law :

1 Dee-ree'-hoh, -hays, -hay, dee-ree-hee'-mohs, etc.
a Dee-ree'-hah, dee-ree'-has, etc.

• Dis-Ung'-goh, -gays, -gay, dees-ting-gee' -mobs, etc

* Dis-ting'-gah, dis-ting'-gas, etc.



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68 VERBOS REGULAREa

Pros. Ind. : delineo, 1 delinques, delinque, delinquimos, delinqufs, de-

linquen.
Pres. Subj. : delinca? delincas, delinca, delincamos, delincdis, delincan.
Imperative : delinque, delinca, delincamos, delinquid, delincan,

instead of delinquo, and delinqua, delinquas, etc., there
being in Spanish no such a combination of letters. See
letter Q, page 13.

1 Day-ling' -koh, -kays, -kay, day-Ung-keo'-mohSy etc
a Day-ling'-kah, day-ling'-kas, etc



FIN DEL LIBSO Io



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LIBRO SEGUNDO.



PAKTE PEIMEKA.



LECCI6N QUINTA. 1



Nuevo Vocabulario.

Estado (ays-tah'-doh) been.

Oeupado (oh-koo-pah'-doh) .... busy, occupied.
Escribiendo (ays-kree-bee-aing'-doh) . . writing.

Escrito (ays-kree'-toh) written.

Hecho (ay'-choh) made, done.

Correspondencia (koh-rrais-pohng-daing'-thie-ah) correspondence.
Correaponsal (koh-rrais-pohng-sahl') . . correspondent.

Hay (ah'-ee) there is, there are.

Belaciones (ray-lah-thie-oh'-nays) . . . relations.
Gomerciales (koh-mairr-thie-ah'-lays) . . commercial.
Hacer efectiva (ah-thairr' ay-faik-tee'-vah) . to cash.

Letra (laZ-trah) draft.

Inmediatamente (ing-may-deeah'-tah-maing'-tay) immediately.
En seguida (ayng say-gee'-dah) . . . directly (right away).

Mandar (mahng-dahrr') to send.

Mercancias (mairr'-kahng-thie-ahs) . . . merchandise.
Telegrama (tay-lay-grah'-mah) . . . . telegram.
Al momento (ahl moh-maing / -toh) . . .at once.

Agente (ah-haing'-tay) agent.

Mea (mays') month.

Cada (kah'-dah) each.

Correo (koh-rray'-ok) mail.



i King'-tah, fifth lesson.



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70



LECCltfN QUINTA.



Nftmeroa Cardinales}



0. Cero (thay'-roh).
1 ( Uno * (oo'-no), masc. ;
* \ Una 8 (oo'-nah), fern.

2. Dos (dohs).*

3. Tres (trays).

4. Cuatro (kwah'-troh).

5. Cinco (thing'-koh).

6. Seis (say'-ees).

7. Siete (seeay'-tay).

8. Ocho (oh'-choh).

9. Nueve (nway'-vay).

10. Diez (dee-ayth').

11. Once (ong'-thay).

12. Doce (doh'-thay).

13. Trece (tray'-thay).

14. Catorce (kah-torr'-thay).

15. Quince (king'-thay).

16. Dieciseis 4 (deeay'-thie-say'-

ees) or diez y seis.

17. Diecisiete (deeay' - thie-

seeay'-tay) or diez y siete.

18. Dieciocho (deeay 7 -thie- oh'-

choh) or diez y ocho.
10. Diecinueve (deeay' - thie-
nway '-ray) or diez y nueve.

20. Veinte (vay'-ing-tay).

21. Veintiuno 4 (vay'-ing-tee-oo'-

noh) or veinte y uno.



22. Veintidos (vay'-ing-tee-

dos*) or veinte y dos.

23. Veintitres (vay' - ing - tee-

trays') or veinte y tres.

24. Veinticuatro (vay'-ing-tee-

kwah'-troh) or veinte y
cuatro.

25. Veinticinco (vay'-ing-tee-

thing'-koh) or veinte y
cinco.

26. Veintiseis (vay'-ing-tee-say -

ees) or veinte y seis.

27. Veintisiete (vay' - ing - tee-

seeay'-tay) or veinte y
siete.

28. Veintiocho(vay'-ing-tee-oh-

choh) or veinte y ocho.

29. Veintinueve (vay' - ing - tee-

nway'-vay) or veinte y
nueve.

30. Treinta (tray'-ing-tah).

31. etc. Treinta y uno, etc. 6

(tray'-ing-tah ee oo'-noh).

40. Cuarenta (kwah-raing'-tah).

41, etc. Cuarenta y uno, etc. 5

(kwah-raing'-tah ....).
50. Cincuenta (thing -kwaing-
tah).



1 Noo'-may-rohs kahr-dce-nah'-lays, cardinal numbers,
9 Uno (one) loses its final o before a masculine noun. In the feminine it
is always una.

* Dos, etc., up to ciento, are indeclinable ; as, dos hombres, two men ;
dos mvjeres, two women.

4 It is correct to use either diez y seis, diez y siete, etc., or simply dieciseis,
diecisiete, etc. ; the latter form is preferable, as only one word is used instead
of three, as in the former. The same may be said of veinte y uno, etc., and
vetntiuno, etc.

• Etcetera (ayt-thay'-tay-rah), etc.



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FIFTH LESSON.



71



51, etc. Cincuenta y uno, etc.
(thing-kwaing'-tah).

60. Sesenta (say-saing'-tah).

61, etc Sesenta y uno, etc.

(say-saing'-tah).

70. Setenta (say-taing'-tah).

71, etc. Setenta y uno, etc.

(say-taing'-tah).

80. Ochenta {oh-chaing'-tah).

81, etc. Ochenta y uno, etc.
90. Noventa (noh-vaing'-tah).
01, etc. Noventa y uno, etc.

100. Ciento 6 (thie-aing'-toh).

101. Ciento uno 7 (thie-aing'-

toh oo'-noh).
122. Ciento veintid6s.
140. Ciento cuarenta.
153. Ciento cincuenta y tres.'

200. Doscientos 8 (dobs' -thie-

aing'-tos).

201. Doscientos una 7
800. Trescientos. 8
400. Cuatrocientos. 8

500. Quinientos (kee-nee-aing'-

tos).
525. Quinientos veinticinco.



600. Seiscientos (say'-ees-thie-

aing'-tos).
620. Seiscientos veintinueve.
700. Setecientos (say-tay-thie-

aing'-tos).
750. Setecientos cincuenta.
800. Ochocientos.
900. Novecientos.
999. Novecientos noventa y

nueve.
1,000. Mil* (mill).
1,200. Mil doscientos 10 (lit., one
thousand two hundred).
2,000. Dos mil.
2,003. Dos mil tres. 7
10,000. Diez mil.
100,000. Cien' mil.
500,000. Quinientos mil.
1,000,000. XJn mill6n (raeel-

lyong').
2,000,000. Dosmillones(meel-

lyoh'-nays).
1887. Mil ochocientos ochen-
ta y siete.
1889. Mil ochocientos ochen-
ta y nueve.



• Ciento loses its final syllable to (ton) when placed immediately before
a noun or adjective; as in cien Hbros (lee'-bros), one hundred books; cien
buenos Ubros, one hundred good books.

1 1t must be noticed that the y (and) is omitted where cero (zero) is the
figure before the last ; thus, ciento uno instead of ciento y uno ; ciento dos,
ciento tres, etc., instead of ciento y dos, ciento y tres, etc.

8 Doscientos, etc., up to novecientos, have a feminine form in as; viz.,
doscientos casas, two hundred houses ; quinientas personas (pair-soh'-nahs),
five hundred persons.

* Mil is indeclinable as a numeral ; thus, cien mil, doscientos mil. When
used as a noun it has a plural ; as, muchos miles (mee'-lays) de pesos (pay'-sos),
many thousands of dollars.

10 Such English expressions as eleven hundred, eighteen hundred, etc, are
rendered in Spanish by one thousand one hundred (mil ciento), one thousand
eight hundred (mil ochocientos), etc.



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72 LECCH5N QUINTA.

ESPAffOL.

* 1. i Qu6 ha 1 estudiado Vd. hoy ?

* 2. i Han * estudiado Vds. mucho ?

3. Hemos 1 estado muy ocupados, escribiendo la corres-
pondencia.

* 4. i Ha escrito 2 Vd. las cartas en espafiol ?

* 5. No, sefior ; yo 8 he hecho 4 la correspondencia alema-

na 5 y el corresponsal espafiol escribio la espafiola.

*6. i Hay 6 mucha correspondencia espafiola en su casa
deVdJ

*7. $Tiene 7 Vd. 8 relaciones comerciales con paises es-



* traducci6n literal.

1. What has studied you to-day I

2. Have (pi.) studied you much f

4. Has written you the letters in Spanish!

5. No, sir, I have made the correspondence German and the corre-
spondent Spanish wrote the Spanish.

6. Is there much correspondence Spanish in your house of you t

7. Have you relations commercial with countries Spanish I

1 Ha (ah), he or she has, you have, is the third person singular, present
indicative, of the auxUiary verb haber (ah-bairr'), to have; he (ay), / have;
hemos (ay'-mos), we have; ~kan (abng'), they have. This verb, when used as
an auxiliary, must always be followed by the past participle of the principal
verb, as in English.

» Escrtio (ays-kree'-toh), written, is the past participle of the irregular
verb etcribir (ays-kree'-beer). This is the only irregularity in this verb.

s The personal pronoun yo (yoh) is used in this case as an emphasis, in
order to more clearly express the fact of there being two writers.

4 Hecho (ay'-choh), made, done, is the past participle of the irregular verb
hacer (ah-thairr'), to make, to do.



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FIFTH LESSON.



73



pronunciaci6n.

1. 4. ... ah ays-too-deeah'-doh

.... oh'-ee I

2. |Ahng I

8. Ay'-mos ays-tah'-doh .... oh-
koo-pah'-dohs, ays-kree-bee-
aing'-doh lah koh-rrays-
pohng-dayng'-thie-ah.

4. 4 Ah ays-kree'-toh .... kahrr'-
tas I

5 ay ay'-choh .... ah-lay-

mah'-nah ....



4 Ah'-ee .... koh-rays-pohng-
daing' - thie - ah ays - pah-
nyoh'-lah .... I

^Teeay'-nay .... ray-lah-thie-
oh'-nays koh-mair-thie-ah'-
lays kohng pah-ee'-says . . . f



tbaducci6n.

1. W hat have you studied to-

day f

2. Have you (pL) studied much f

3. We have been very busy writing

- letters.



4. Have you written the Spanish

letters f

5. No, sir y I have attended to

the German correspondence,
and the Spanish corre-
spondent wrote the Spanish.

6. Is there a large Spanish corre-

spondence at your house t

7. Have you any 8 commercial re-

lations with Spanish coun-
tries t



8 In Spanish the noun is placed before the adjective, which must agree in
gender and number with the noun it qualifies.

• Hay (ah'-ee), there is or there are, is the present indicative of the imper-
sonal form of the verb haber (ah-bairr'), to be there. This verb, as an im-
personal, is only used in the third person singular ; there- is no plural, and
tenses of it are the same as the third person singular of the auxiliary haber
(to have), except the indicative present, which instead of being ha (he has)
is hay (there is or there are).

T Tiene (teeay'-nay), from tener (tay-nairr'), to have, to possess, to hold.
Tengo (taing'-goh), I have; tenemos (tay-nay'-mos), we have; tienen (teeay'-
neng), tltey have. There are two verbs in Spanish, haber and tener, corre-
sponding to the English to have. Tener is the possessive principal verb, and
haber the auxiliary, which must always be followed by the past participle of
the active verb ; as, he tenido dinero (I have had money). He, first person
singular, present indicative, of the auxiliary verb haber ; tenido, past parti-
ciple of the active verb tener, to possess, to hold. To be more explicit, tengo
an Ubro (I have a book) can not be expressed by yo he un Ubro.

• The words some or any before a noun need not be translated in Spanish.
Not any, or no are expressed by no placed before the verb ; as, I have not
any coffee, no tengo cafe (literally, / not have coffee).



Digitized



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74 LECCltfN QUINTA.

ESPASfOL.

8. Si ; tenemos * negocios con la America del Sur.
* 9. Hoy he hecho ef ectiva una letra de M6jico.

* 10. i Quiere Vd. hacQrme ef ectiva esta letra? Necesito

2 dinero americano y no tengo sino espafioL

11. Con mucho gusto, sefior; jcudnto desea Vd. ?

* 12. i Hemos de 8 ir al banco inmediataraente ?

* 13. Si, sefior ; hemos de ir en seguida, porque los bancos

cierran 4 & las tres.

* 14. i Cuando ha de enviar Vd. esos efectos?

15. i He de mandar 5 las mfercancias inmediatamente ?

16. j No desea Vd. enviar antes un tlespacho d su

agente ?

*17. Si; he de mandarle 5 un telegrama 6 al momento,
porque necesito salir esta noche. 7



* teaducci6n literal.
9. To-day (1) have made effective (he hecho ef ectiva) a draft from
(of) Mexico.

10. Will you make me effective (hacerme ef ectiva) this draft f I
need money American and not (I) have but Spanish.

12. Have (we) of to go to the bank immediately f

13. Yes, sir, we have of to go right away (en seguida), because the
banks close at the three (hours [floras] understood).

14 When has of to send you those goods I

17. Yes ; (I) have of (he de) to send him a telegram at the moment
(at once), for that (because) (I) need to leave this night.

* See note 7 on page 78. * See note 8 on page 73.



Digitized



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FIFTH LESSON.



75



PRONUNCIACI6N.

8. . . . . tay-nay'-moar nay-goh'-

thie-ohs ....

9. Oh'-ee ay ay'-choh ay-fayk-

tee'-vah .... May'-hee-koh.

10. |Keeay'-ray .... a-thairr/-

may .... ays'-tah lay'-traht



11.'. . . . goos'-toh, say-nyorr/;

jkwhang'-toh ... .1
12. 1 Ay'-mos .... ing-may-deeah'-

tah-raaing'-tayf
13 ay'-mos .... ain-say-gee'-

dah ....

14 1 Kwahng'-doh .... ay'-sohs 14,
ay-fayk'-tohsf

15. ^Ay day mahng-dahrr/ lahs

mayrr'-kahng-thie-ahs ... .1

16. £. . . . ahng'-tays oong days-

pah'-choh .... ah-haing'-
tayf

17. ; . . . tay-lay-grah'-mah ....



traducci6n.

8. Yes, we have business with

South America.

9. To-day I have cashed a draft

from Mexico.

10. Will you cash this draft for

me? I need some * Ameri-
can money, and have noth-
ing but Spanish.

11. With pleasure, sir; how much
do you wish t

12. Have we to go to the bank im-
mediately t

13. Yes, sir, we must go directly,
because the banks close at
three o'clock:

When have you to send those
goods t

15. Must I send the merchandise
immediately f

16. Dorit you wish to send a dis-
patch to your agent first t



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