CALIFORNIA STATE SERIES
TAKE AND McMURKY
THE STATE TEXT-BOOK COMMITTEE
AND APPROVED BY
THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
A NATIVE DAUGHTER
W. W. SHANNON, SUPERINTENDENT OF STATE PRINTING
COPYRIGHT, 1904, 1910,
THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA.
COPYRIGHT, 1900, 1907,
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
In the compilation of this work, certain matter from the Elementary
Geografjiytby Ealph 8. Tarr and Frank McMurry has been used. All
*. .*siio*iJr$a(iteJis protected by the copyright entries noted above.
1 E 50 M 3 '10
THIS is the first of a series of geographies; the more
advanced treatment deals at greater length with the
world and its inhabitants. Since Part I of the present
volume is a radical innovation, it perhaps needs an
NECESSITY OF HOME GEOGRAPHY. The final basis
for all study of geography is actual experience. Yet
text-books on that subject rarely treat Home Geography
at all, and those that do, devote but feAV pages to it.
- This subject should, we think, receive far more careful
NECESSITY OF OTHER BASAL NOTIONS. Home ex-
perience alone, however, cannot offer a complete basis
for the later study of geography, because no one locality
presents all the features required. From this it happens
that the best books have contained some definitions and
illustrations, as of mountain, river, valley, harbor, and
factory, and have planned to build the later text with
the ideas these gave as a foundation. Such conceptions
are certainly necessary in the early part of geography ;
but mere definitions fail to produce vivid, accurate pic-
tures. The average pupil who has pursued geography
for a year has little notion of the great importance of
soil, of what a mountain or a river really is, of the value
of good trade routes, and why a vessel cannot find a
harbor wherever it will cast anchor along the coast.
Yet such ideas are the proper basis for the study of
geography in the higher grades. The fact that they
are so often wanting is proof that our geography still
How THESE NEEDS ARE MET. The first 110 pages of
this volume attempt to supply this foundation by treating
first, such common things as soil, hills, valleys, industries,
.climate, and government, which are part of every child's
environment ; and secondly, other features, as mountains,
rivers, lakes, and the ocean, which, though absent from
many localities, are still necessary as a preparation for
later study. Definitions, however, are not relied upon
for giving the child this extra knowledge, but detailed
descriptions and discussions instead. This by no means
involves neglect of the child's own environment from the
time the unfamiliar matter is introduced, for through-
out the geographies home experiences are frequently
used. We believe that our plan gives a fuller guarantee
of fitness for advanced study than has heretofore been
RELATIONSHIP TO MANKIND. According to the defi-
nition of geography, which treats of the relation be-
tween man and the earth, a hill or a lake is worthy
of mention only because it bears a relation to us, the
men upon the earth ; considered by itself it is not a part
of geography. Therefore each chapter which takes up
one of the above subjects, either closes with the bearing
of the given topic upon mankind, or it deals with the
human relationship throughout.
EARTH A8 A WHOLE. The most difficult portion of
our task has been that which presents the Earth as a
Whole. That a bird's-eye view should be given at an
early period in the child's instruction is not questioned;
but it is not easy, in limited space, to support the prin-
cipal facts with sufficient detail to produce vivid and
interesting pictures. The authors have found that some
topics commonly included in the early study, such, for
instance, as latitude and longitude, should be postponed.
They have also found that many other minor subjects
usually presented are comparatively irrelevant to the
geographical knowledge necessary to a pupil. By setting
these aside for the time, space has been secured for a
physiographic basis, and for a fairly close sequence in
tracing the effects of physical conditions upon plants
and animals, and also upon mankind. Throughout each
chapter much care has been taken to present a closely
related chain of thought, and at the same time to keep
the leading facts in their proper foreground.
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER HOME STUDY. A study
of books alone can never furnish an adequate knowl-
edge of geography. Therefore it has been thought ex-
pedient to add numerous suggestions at the end of each
section, in order to remind both teacher and pupil of
suitable excursions, experiments, etc., and to show at the
same time the breadth of the subject. In this way physi-
cal activity the love of exercise may be employed in
the service of the study, and a habit of investigating the
home environment encouraged.
FREQUENT REVIEWS. Believing in the value of fre-
quent reviews, the authors have suggested review material
in frequent comparisons and contrasts, and in introducing
new topics through others that have already been pre-
sented. This method has been used throughout this
book, and in the more advanced treatment.
MAPS. Contrary to the usual custom, the political maps
include the principal physical features, so that any place is
always seen in connection with its physiographic surround-
ings. The colors have been so selected as to secure har-
mony, and at the same time to show the boundaries clearly.
Unimportant names are excluded, even where space might
have permitted their introduction ; and, to an unusual
degree, the size of print is proportionate to the importance
of places, so that the names of leading divisions, cities,
etc., can be distinguished at a glance.
ILLUSTRATIONS. The illustrations have been selected
with great care to illustrate specific points ; and for the
sake of accuracy, photographs have in most cases been
employed. They are not inserted merely for the purpose
of entertainment, but in every case bear a direct relation-
ship to the text. They are not intended as mere pictures,
but as illustrations; and being numbered and referred to
frequently, they pay for their space by contributing mate-
rially to the book's fund of instruction.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The photographs have been ob-
tained from many sources ; the globe drawings were made
by Mr. Murray of the Matthews-Northrup Company; and
the other drawings were mostly prepared by Mr. C. W.
Furlong, instructor in Cornell University. The maps
have been prepared by the Matthews-Northrup Company
of Buffalo, who have obtained an enviable reputation as
map engravers for the Century Atlas.
The authors of this book are responsible for any short-
comings that it may prove to have. They have had the
benefit of much criticism of the best sort. Space does
not permit them to refer to each one who has kindly
extended aid ; yet mention should be made of the ex-
ceedingly valuable criticisms and suggestions of Mr. Philip
Emerson of the Gobbet School, Lynn, Mass.
The State Text-book Committee is under obligations to
the following parties for photographs : S. P. Co. ; S. F.
0. & S. J. Ry. ; P. C. Steamship Co. ; State Fish Commis-
sion; California Promotion Committee; Standard Oil Com-
pany; South Africa British Company; Holt Mfg. Company;
Superintendents J. G. O'Neill, E. B. Wright, H. F. Pin-
nell, James E. Reynolds, Belle S. Gribi, Florence Boggs,
Hettie Irwin; Maud A. Minthorn ; D. A. Munger; L. E.
Chenoweth ; George E. Knox ; Major J. A. Driffill ; Lewis E.
Aubury; Senators E. S. Birdsall, W. F. Price; Warden
W. H. Reilly, Capt. Peter Jensen ; also to Chambers of
Commerce of Sacramento, Stockton, San Jose', Fresno, Oak-
land, San Diego, Minneapolis, Minn., and the Sacramento
Valley Development Association.
Entrance to the Campus of the University of California.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I. HOME GEOGRAPHY
SECTION I. THE SOIL .
SECTION II. HILLS ....
SECTION III. MOUNTAINS
SECTION IV. VALLEYS ....
SECTION V. RIVERS ....
SECTION VI. PONDS AND LAKES .
SECTION VII. THE OCEAN
SECTION VIII. THE AIR.
SECTION IX. INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE
SECTION X. GOVERNMENT .
SECTION XI. MAPS ....
REFERENCES TO BOOKS, ETC. .
PART II. THE EARTH AS A WHOLE
SECTION I. FORM AND SIZE OF THE EARTH . 119
ITS FORM, 119. SIZE OF THE EARTH, 121.
SECTION II. DAILY MOTION OF THE EARTH AND ITS RESULTS . 123
THE Axis AND POLES, 123. THE EQUATOR, 124. GRAVITY,
124. SUNRISE AND SUNSET, 125. DAY AND NIGHT, 125.
SECTION III. THE ZONES 128
BOUNDARIES OF THE ZONES,. 128. TORRID ZONE, 129. TEM-
PERATE ZONES, 129. FRIGID ZONES, 130. HEMISPHERES, 131.
SECTION IV. HEAT WITHIN THE EARTH AND ITS EFFECTS . . 132
HEAT IN MINES, 132. MELTED ROCK, 133. THE EARTH'S
"CRUST, 133. CAUSE OF MOUNTAINS, 134. CAUSE OF CONTI-
xii TABLE OF CONTENTS
NENT8 AND OCEAN BASINS, 134. CHANGE IN THE LEVEL OF
THE LAND, 135.
SECTION V. THE CONTINENTS AND OCEANS ..... 137
LAND AND WATER, 137. The Continents, 137. NORTH AMER-
ICA, 138. SOUTH AMERICA, 138. EURASIA, 139. AFRICA,
142. AUSTRALIA, 143. The Oceans, 143. THE ARCTIC
AND ANTARCTIC, 143. THE ATLANTIC, 144. THE PACIFIC,
144. THE INDIAN, 144. THE OCEAN BOTTOM, 144. MOUN-
TAINS IN THE OCEANS, 145. CORAL ISLANDS, 145.
SECTION VI. MAPS . . . . ' . . . . .149
SECTION VII. NORTH AMERICA . . . . . . 151
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, 151. POLITICAL DIVISIONS, 152.
SECTION VIII. THE UNITED STATES . . ... . 153
SECTION IX. NEW ENGLAND . . . . . . . .154
NAMES, 154. SEAPORTS, 154. FISHING, 155. FARMING, 155.
QUARRYING, 156. LUMBERING, 157. MANUFACTURING, 158.
SECTION X. MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES 161
THE COAST LINE, 161. THE SEAPORTS, 161. Reasons for the
Great Size of New York City, 161. CITIES NEAR BY,
161. WATER ROUTE TO THE INTERIOR, 162. LUMBERING,
163. FARMING, 163. SALT, 164. MANUFACTURING, 164.
COMMERCE, 165. Reasons why Philadelphia has become
a Great City, 165. CITIES NEAR BY, 165. FARMING, 165.
IRON, 166. COAL, 166. OIL AND GAS, 168. COMMERCE,
168. Other Cities, 168. BALTIMORE, 168. WASHINGTON,
168. VIRGINIA AND WEST VIRGINIA, 169.
SECTION XI. SOUTHERN STATES 171
RELIEF, 171. COAL AND IRON, 172. COTTON, 172. RANCH-
ING, 173. SUGAR AND RICE, 174. FRUITS, 174. LUMBER-
ING, 175. MANUFACTURING, 175. NEW ORLEANS, 176.
OTHER SEAPORTS, 177. OKLAHOMA, 177. CLIMATE, 177.
SECTION XII. CENTRAL STATES 180
RAW PRODUCTS, 180. THE MANUFACTURING AND TRADE CEN-
TERS, 183. REVIEW AND COMPARISONS, 188.
SECTION XIII. WESTERN STATES . 190
REASONS WHY THERE ARE so FEW PEOPLE, 190. WONDERFUL
TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii
SCENERY, 192. MINING, 193. RANCHING, 196. THE DESERT,
196. IRRIGATION, 197. FRUIT RAISING, 198. INDUSTRIES
ALONG THE PACIFIC COAST, 198. THE ClTIES OF THE PACIFIC
SECTION XIV. ALASKA . 203
SECTION XV. CANADA AND OTHER COUNTRIES NORTH OF THE
UNITED STATES ......... 205
Canada and Newfoundland, 205. INDUSTRIES, 205. CITIES,
207. THE FAR NORTH, 208. Islands North of North
SECTION XVI. COUNTRIES SOUTH OF THE UNITED STATES . . 211
MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA, 211. THE WEST INDIES AND
SECTION XVII. SOUTH AMERICA ....... 216
RELIEF, 216. CLIMATE, 216. HISTORY, 218. BRAZIL, 218.
VENEZUELA AND GUIANA, 220. LA PLATA COUNTRIES, 221.
ANDEAN COUNTRIES, 222.
SECTION XVIII. EUROPE 225
THE BRITISH ISLES, 225. NORSE COUNTRIES, 229. RUSSIA,
231. GERMANY, 238. HOLLAND, 234. BELGIUM, 236.
FRANCE, 236. SPAIN AND PORTUGAL, 238. ITALY, 240.
SWITZERLAND, 241. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, 242. GREECE, 243.
SECTION XIX. ASIA 250
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, 250. SOUTHWESTERN ASIA, 251. SIBE-
RIA, 254. THE CHINESE EMPIRE AND KOREA, 255. JAPAN,
257. INDIA AND INDO-CHINA, 258.
SECTION XX. AFRICA . 263
THE DARK CONTINENT, 263. NORTHERN AFRICA, 264. CEN-
TRAL AFRICA, 267. SOUTH AFRICA, 269.
SECTION XXI. AUSTRALIA, THE EAST INDIES, PHILIPPINES, AND
OTHER ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC 271
AUSTRALIA, 271. THE EAST INDIES, 274. THE PHILIPPINE
ISLANDS, 275. ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC, 276.
SECTION XXII. CALIFORNIA SUPPLEMENT .... 279
MAP QUESTIONS, 282. EXTENT, 285. RELIEF, 285. DRAIN-
AGE, 287. CLIMATE, 288. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, 291.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
AGRICULTURE, 294. FRUIT RAISING, 297. STOCK RAISING,
301. MANUFACTURING, 305. MINING, 308. LUMBERING,
310. FISHERIES, 311. COMMERCE, 312. CITIES, 313. RE-
VIEW QUESTIONS, 319. APPENDIX TO SUPPLEMENT, 321.
INDEX TO SUPPLEMENT, 323.
BOOKS OF REFERENCE ......
APPENDIX TABLES OF AREA, POPULATION, ETC. .
Public Playgrounds near Lincoln School, Santa Barbara.
LIST OF MAPS
FIGURE FACING PACK
91. TO ILLUSTRATE THE MEANING OF MAPS 114
119. THE HEMISPHERES 149
120. MERCATOR MAP OF THE WORLD 149
121. RELIEF MAP OF NORTH AMERICA .... On page 150
123. NORTH AMERICA 152
124. UNITED STATES 153
126. NEW ENGLAND 154
132. MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES . . . . . .161
140. SOUTHERN STATES . 171
149. CENTRAL STATES 180
157. WESTERN STATES 190
177. SOUTH AMERICA 216
183. EUROPE 225
203. ASIA . . " 250
214. AFRICA . 263
221. AUSTRALIA, EAST INDIES, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, AND ISLANDS
OF THE PACIFIC ......... 271
225. RAILROAD MAP OF CALIFORNIA 278
227. CALIFORNIA (NORTHERN SECTION) 280
228. CALIFORNIA (SOUTHERN SECTION) . . ... . . 281
229. RELIEF MAP OF CALIFORNIA 283
230. SAN FRANCISCO AND VICINITY 284
244. Los ANGELES, SAN DIEGO, SANTA BARBARA AND VICINITY . 299
Mariposa " big trees " ; on the road to Yosemite Valley. Notice that the -four-
horse stagecoach is driven through a hole cut in the trunk of the tree.
I. THE SOIL
You have often played in the dirt. Did you ever stop
to think what it is made of ? It was not always what it
now is. You know that the wood in your desk was not
always a part of the desk ; it used to be part of a tree,
and has a long story to tell about itself before it was
brought to your school. So all the dirt or soil that you
have ever seen has a long story to tell about how it be-
came what it is now. Let us see what that story is.
When mud dries upon your hands and you rub them
together, you can notice an unpleasant, gritty feeling.
This is caused by the scraping together of hard bits of
something in the soil. If you rub some of this dirt
against a smooth piece of glass, you can often hear it
scratch the glass. This shows that these little bits must
be very hard, for if they were not, they could not scratch
anything so hard as glass. They must be even harder
than a pin, for you cannot scratch glass with a pin.
It will help you to find out what these bits are if you
examine some sand. The grains in it are tiny bits of
rock, large enough to be clearly seen. When they are
2 HOME GEOGRAPHY
rubbed against glass, they scratch it, because they are
hard and sharp.
Sand is made of rock that has been broken up into very
fine pieces. Soil is also made of rock, but the pieces are
,4ner Jbi}lj ; r Tfcs soil that you have seen, such as that in
**he school ^aVd,* or. by the side of the walk, was once rock.
\ Sf&f&'&nb Tfeeii>m&de from rock.
Since soil is found almost everj^where, you may wonder
how so much rock has been changed to it. The answer is
not hard to find. Did you ever pound a brick up into
bits until you made brick dust ? You can change a stone
to dust in the same way. Break one into small bits and
see how much it resembles dirt.
Sometimes one sees men drilling holes into stone ; the tiny pieces
that are broken oft' collect in and round the hole, and look much like
dirt. When a grindstone is used to sharpen tools, small pieces of the
stone are ground off, and if water is poured upon it, this dust makes
the water muddy, just as soil would.
Much rock has been changed to dirt by the rubbing of
pieces of stone against one another. In this way tiny
bits have been worn off, as chalk is worn away when
rubbed against the blackboard, or slate pencils against the
slate. Perhaps some of the dirt that you have seen has
been made in this manner. Later you will learn about
the glaciers which have caused much of this rubbing.
The grinding of rocks together has made much soil.
But this is not the only way in which rock has been
changed into soil. Much of it has decayed and fallen to
pieces as wood does. Yon know that, after a long time,
stumps of trees, and the boards in sidewalks, grow so
soft that they fall to pieces. Perhaps you have called
A decaying stump of a tree.
it rotting, but this means the same as decaying. The pic-
ture (Fig. 1) shows such a stump.
Other things even harder than wood decay in much the
same way, although per-
haps more slowly. Hard
nails, at first bright and
shiny, decay until they
become a soft, yellow
rust. Iron pipes and tin
pails rust until holes ap-
pear in them and they
You may not have
thought that stones also \
decay, but they do. The
headstones in old grave-
yards are often so crumbled that the letters can scarcely
be read, and sometimes the stones have even fallen apart.
The decay of rock may
also be seen in old stone
buildings, boulders, and
rock cliffs. Have you
ever noticed this ?
Soil has been formed,
also, by the decay of
There are several things
that help to cause this de-
A rocky cliff containing many cracks. ca y- A11 rocks have cracks
Point to some of them. in them (Fig. 2). Usually
some of these are so large
that they can be plainly seen; but there are many others so tiny that
they cannot be seen without a magnifying glass. When it rains, the
water steals into them, and by eating and rotting the rock, very slowly
changes it to a powder.
The water may also freeze in these cracks and pry the stone apart.
If you have seen iron water pipes, or water pitchers, burst in cold
weather, you know how this is done. Some of the pieces of rock
pried off in this way are very small, others quite large (Fig. 3).
Pieces of rock broken from a cliff by the weather. Can you also see the
cracks in the rock of the cliff ? Find some broken pieces in Fig. 2.
. Plants help the water in this work. In search of food they push
their hair-like roots into the cracks, and there remain until they grow
so large that they also pry off pieces.
The earthworms that you may often see after a heavy rain also help
in crumbling the rock. In order to get food, they take soil into their
bodies and grind the coarse bits together until they become very fine.
Water stealing into the cracks causes rock to decay and
crumble. Plants and earthworms also help to break it up.
THE SOIL 5
Rock changes to soil most rapidly near the surface ; for
the rain, roots of plants, and earthworms can reach it
more easily there than elsewhere. So the deeper into the
earth one goes, the less the rock is changed (Fig. 4) ; and,
no matter where you live, if you should dig deep enough,
you would come to solid rock.
A section, as if the earth were sliced through, like a loaf of bread, so that the
part below the surface is seen. Tell what you see in this picture. Notice
the roots of the tree on the left side.
Figure 5 shows soil about one and one half feet deep.
Sometimes there is much more than this, and men may
even dig deep wells without finding rock ; but in many
places there are only a few inches of soil, or, sometimes,
not even enough to hide the rock.
One reason for such differences in the depth of soil is that some
rocks decay more easily than others. Another reason is that in some
places the rain washes the bits away as fast as the rocks crumble.
This may leave the rock quite bare in one place and make the soil
very deep in another.
There is solid rock beneath all soil.
6 HOME GEOGRAPHY
How different it would be if no rock had ever changed
into soil ! There could then be no grass, flowers, or trees
around your home, because they grow by means of the
food that they get from the soil.
Without grass there could be no cattle, horses, or sheep ;
in fact, few animals such as are found upon the land could
live ; for what would they eat ? What, then, could you
yourself find to eat ? There would be no vegetables, no
A picture showing solid rock beneath the soil. Notice the cracks in the rock.
bread, butter, and milk, and no meat. You see that, if
there were no soil, few people could live ; so that the
dirt under our feet is a very valuable substance.
Without soil, few plants, animals, or people could live
on the land.
Soil is needed by plants because it holds water. They
become thirsty as well as you. Where the dirt is only
a few inches deep, it may dry out on hot summer days,
and then the plants die ; but where it is deep, the roots
may reach down several feet till they find damp earth.
It is surprising how long the roots of some small plants are
(Fig. 6) . For example, the clover in the picture is less than a foot high,
but its roots are longer than you are tall. They reach so deep down
that even in dry weather the clover is green while other plants, with
shorter roots, are withered and dry. Some trees push their roots
down a greater distance still. Can
you find out how long the roots of
any weeds are ?
The soil holds food, as well
as water, for plants. In it is
found something which plants
need, and which they take up
through their roots ; it is a part
of the soil itself, and is called
plant food. Each blade of grass
and each limb of a tree contains
some of it ; and when a piece
of wood is burned, some of this
food is left behind in the ashes.
Every person even has a
quantity of it in his body; your
bones and teeth are partly made
of it. But you did not take
it directly from the soil; the
plants took it for you, and you
received it from them in flour
and other foods that you have
Soil furnishes water and food to plants.
All plants do not need the same kind of food any more
than all animals do. Horses eat hay and grain, while
dogs eat meat ; so some plants need .one kind of food,
Some of the roots of the clover
that the boy is picking have
reached out into the air
through the side of the bank.
They are seeking water.
8 HOME GEOGRAPHY
others another. These different kinds of plant food are
found in the different kinds of soil, of which there are
For example, some soils are fine, while others are coarse, because
some rocks have crumbled to finer bits than others. Then, too, there
are many kinds of rock, such as granite, marble, and sandstone; and
when they decay they make different kinds of soil.
In some places great numbers of plants have grown up and died.
During their growth they took substances from the air, as well as
from the soil, and when they died and decayed they returned some
of these to the soil. These plant remains have become mingled with
the soil, making it dark and sometimes almost black. In some places
this dark-colored layer -may be several feet deep, as in forests, or in
swamps, where plants have been growing and decaying for hundreds
of years. This is an excellent soil for farming, because it produces
There are many different kinds of soil.
Soil that has much plant food in it is said to be rich or
fertile; if it has little, it is said to be poor or sterile. The
plants are taking away some of this food ; they are really
robbing the soil. But when weeds and trees fall and
decay on the spot where they grew, they pay back what
they took away. In fact, some of this food is returned to
the earth every autumn when the leaves fall from the trees.
But if plants are carried away from the spot where
they grew, there is danger lest fertile land shall be robbed
of so much plant food that it will become sterile. Now
this often happens ; for farmers send away their wheat to
make flour, and haul their corn, hay, and oats to market.
Some farmers have done this for so many years that they
are no longer able to support their families on their land,
but have been obliged to move away to find other farms
where the soil has not been robbed of its plant food.
THE SOIL 9
The wise farmer takes care to put some plant food back upon the
soil to pay for what he has taken, so that he may continue to raise