Ralph S. (Ralph Stockman) Tarr.

North America : with an especially full treatment of the United States and its dependencies online

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The English represented in this book is primarily
my own: in a wider sense it is that employed by edu-
cated people, bom and bred in Northern England, between
the latitudes of Birmingham and Durham. The affinities
of native speech in that large area are such as to con-
stitute the inhabitants one speaking community, as con-
trasted with the Southern community, round London, the
metropolitan community, in London, the Western conmm-
nity, centring at Bristol, and the Northumbrian commu-
nity, at Newcastle. Historically, of course. Northern
English, like all other educated English, is London
English: but it is London English of two or three gene-
rations ago. Since then it has displayed a remarkable
stability, and has exerted a powerful conservative influence
upon the national speech. Herein it offers a most marked
contrast to metropolitan English, with lends itself cease-
lessly to fresh innovations. Its affinities with nearly all
English spoken outside of England are, for like reasons^
closer than those of the South. It is still premature to
set up any average world-wide standard. The most that
can be done is to register the most important local
standards faithfully. I have therefore attempted no com-
promises; and I make no apologies for putting before
the world in phonetic transcription the English of Glad-
stone and Bright.

LrvBRPOOL, January 1899. R. J. LLOYD.

Owing to the imtimely death of the author I have under-
taken to see this second edition through the press. In this
task I have been kindly assisted by Dr. Lloyd's daughter,
Mrs. E. L. Jones, M. A., of East Kilbride, Scotland. A few
footnotes have been added by Mrs. Jones or myself, and have
been marked with our respective initials.

Marburg, October 1907. W. VIETOR.



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Das Yorliegende BUndchen er5fi&iet eine Reibe von
„Skizzen lebender Sprachen", denen Sweets klassisches
„Eleinentarbucb des gesprocbenen Engliscb'^, d. b. Londoniscb,
ira grofien und ganzen als Muster dient. Als weitere Band-
cben sind bisber erscbienen:

Portugiesiscb von A. R. G. Vianna in Lissabon;

Hollandiscb von R. Dijkstra in Amsterdam.

Einricbtung and Umfang sind wesentlich die gleicben wie
bier. Die Lautscbriffc ist die der Association Phon^tique

Marburg, Oktober 1907.

W. Vigtor.


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Phonetics. Page

The Alphabet 1

Vocal Organs and their Powers 1

Impeded Phones 4

Labial Series 8

Dental and Alveolar Series 9

Palatal Series 18

Velar Series 18

Labio-Velar Series 14

Aspirates 14

Unimpeded Phones (Vowels) 16

Primary and Secondary Vowels 18

Palatal (= Front) Series 19

Labio-Velar (= Back) Series 20

Obscure Vowels 22

Coronal Vowels 22

General Features of English Phones 23

Phones in Combination 23

I. SyUables 23

Diphthongs 24

Effects of Contact 26

Effects of Phonic Stress 27

n. Words 27

m. Stress-Groups 28

General Character of Northern English 31


The Ari;icles 33

The Noun (Substantive) 88

The Adjective 36

The Pronouns 38


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VI Table of Contents.


The Verb 43

Compound Tenses 48

Subordinate and Hypothetical Construction: Sequence

of Tenses 56

Minor Auxiliaries 69

Obscuration of Auxiliaries 61

Adverbs 62

Prepositions 63

Conjunctions 64

Interjections 64


Preface to the Texts 66

Type A 66

Type B 78

Type C 120

Mixed Types 124


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1] Every living language possesses a limited number
of spoken sounds, out of which, in varied order, all its
locutions are built up, just as its printed discourse is
built up of letters. These primary sounds are called its
phones. It is best to leave out of sight at first the
distinction of them into vowels and consonants (107).

2] A logical alphabet has one letter for each phone,
and one phone for each letter. To study a living lan-
guage, as such, a logical alphabet is indispensable. The
alphabet used here is that of the Association phonetique

3] A phone is most easily defined to a learner in
terms of its articulation, i. e., of the actions and positions
of the vocal organs by which it is produced (10).


4] The lungs, in expiration, provide both the air,
which is the medium, and the pressure, which is the
generative force, of all vocal sounds. By variation of
pressure the limgs produce also all differences of stress,
whether as between words, or groups of words in a sen-
tence, or between syllables in a word, or between phones
in a syllable, or between successive parts of one phone.

Tie tor, Skizsen. I.: Lloyd, Nord-Englisoh. 8. Anfl. 1


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2-'! . '' ' / : ■ '. ^ ; * ; * * : : : MO^irETICS.

Inspiration, too, divides all speech, compulsorily, into

6] Tlie larynx, carrying the vocal bands, has three
distinct states: (l) the glottis (the space between the edges
of the bands) may be wide open, letting the breath pass
without audible firiction; (2) the bands may be closed,
edge to edge, so that the expired air sets them vibrating:
this creates tone-^ or (3) the bands may be firmly closed
and motionless, whilst the air hisses out through a very
small hole, left at one end between them: this creates

6] Plosive action of the glottis, glottal catchy so com-
mon before initial vowels in German, does not occur in
English, and is to be avoided by German learners.

7] The larynx thus contributes to every phone either a
tone, or a hiss, or silent breath. Hence, a first general
division of phones into toned, whispered, and spirate.

8] But it is the voice-channel and its mobile parts,
the tongue, the lips and the velum (veil of the palate)
which convert this tone, or hiss, or silent expiration into
a phone.

9] The voice-channel is the passage extending from
the larynx to the external air. Its shape can be changed
in numberless ways by movements of the tongue, lips,
velum (with uvula), and jaws

10] The voice-channel consists usually of the pharynx
and the mouth: but the velum has the power to transfer
the exit of the channel wholly or partly to the nose,
producing nasal or nasalised phones respectively.

11] Every phone is definitely associated with a cer-
tain shape or posture of the voice-channel, which is
called the configuration of that phone.


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12] Every such complex cavity has several resonances,
whose mutual relation is constant so long as the shape
of the whole configuration is constant.

13] The ear, recognising the composition of these com-
plex resonances, can infer the kind of configuration and
articulation from which they sprang.

14] This and similar facts (19) are our justification
for studying the sounds called phones principally through
their artictilations.

15] Second general division of phones: All phones
are either continuant, or gliding. A continuant phone
is capahle of retaining the same configuration, and there-
fore the same resonances, during its whole duration.

16] A gliding phone, c. ^., a plosive like t, a trill
like r, a hiant like W, or a diphthong like oi, is charac-
terised hy a series of rapid changes in configuration and
resonance. In these cases no single configuration fully
represents the phone, though most of them begin, or end,
or culminate in some characteristic position, which is
called, more loosely, its configuration. A diphthong, of
course, has two of these. For subdivisions see 22, 111.

17] Third general division of phones: All phones
are either impeded or imimpeded. An tmimpeded phone
possesses a configuration in which there is room for all
the air received from the larynx to pass out, without
exciting any fresh friction.

18] These unimpeded phones simply arouse and acquire,
in passing through a given configuration, the characteristic
resonance of that configuration, and graft it upon the
simple tone or hiss received from the larynx. They are,
as a class, much more sonorous than impeded phones, and
are therefore chiefly used as vowels (107).


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19] An impeded phone is so called because the exit
of air is more or less impeded by the configuration. New
noises then arise at the points of greatest constriction,
and these in their turn arouse resonances in the cavities
anterior and posterior to the constriction. These all com-
bine with the tone, hiss, or breath, received from the
larynx, to create the final character of the phone. Impeded
phones, being the less sonorous, are commonly used as
consonants (107).


20] Impeded phones may be further classified accord-
ing to the natui'e of the impediment. This impediment
may be such as to set up either a single (or double)
percussion, or a several times repeated percussion, or a
friction: that is, to create a plosive, a trilled^ or a frica-
tive phone. Plosives and trills are always gliding, but a
fricative may be either gliding or continuant (15).

21] A continuant spirate fricative may be either tense
like S; or lax like h. The difference between a tense and
a lax fricative position is that the one does, and the
other does not, impede an ordinary flow of breath. It
is only by an unusual expulsion of breath that the lax
spirate fricative becomes audible. It may therefore also
be called aspirate. The same observation applies partly,
of course, to the gliding spirate fricative.

22] Every gliding fricative, such as English j, or
imtrilled r, or hw, may be either appetent (= lax to
tense), or hiant (tense to lax), or appetent first and hiant
afterwards. Nasals will be seen to belong often to this
last class (31-4).

23] Plosives can also be made tense or lax. The sounds
which do duty for b^ d, g in. Saxon German are really


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lax p, t, k. But they do not exist in English, and
should be carefully avoided by those to whom they are
habitual in their own language.

24] In toned and whispered phones "tense" articulation
is never so tense as in spirates. The closed glottis di-
minishes the flow of the breath. If therefore the closure
of b, d, g, or Y, Z, j, were made as forcible as that
of p, t, k, or f, 8, X (= German ch in ach\ the re-
sistance would be too great to be promptly overcome by
the outgoing breath.

26] Hence in English, as in German, the distinction of
tense and lax is only found in spirates.

26] Plosives are distinguished into applosive (sometimes
awkwardly called implosive), explosive and hiplosive.
Applosion is a percussive shutting-off of the breath: ex-
plosion, a percussive release of it. Biplosion = applosion
plus explosion. In Eng. Oktober (oktoibA) the first con-
sonant is applosive, the second explosive, the third hi-
plosive. It is a rule in English that whenever two plo-
sives come together, the first is applosive and the second

27] An explosive phone glides rapidly from percussion
through tense and lax fricative positions to join the next
phone: an applosive phoDC does just the reverse: a hi-
plosive phone does both in succession.

28] But every auditory sensation has a certain duration:
and these glides are usually so rapid that all their ele-
ments overlap, and are largely simultaneous in and to
the ear. Thus it is that the ear accepts an applosive
or explosive, or hiplosive p, t, k, b, d, g, and an
appetent, or hiant, or appetent-hiant W, j or r, as prac-
tically always the same phone.


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29] In a biplosive phone there is really a silence
between the applosion and the explosion. But, for the
reason just stated, there is no silence to the ear. The
silence is subsensible.

30] And as soon as the silence is made long enough
to become sensible, there is no longer one phone, but
two, the first applosive, and the second explosive. Com-
pare satrap (satrap) and rat-trap (rattrap).

31] The complete (22) nasal possesses an oral on-glide,
or off-glide, or both. These are identical, so far as they
go, with those of the gliding fricative, or the plosive (27)
of the same series (36), e. ^., the glides of HI follow the
same lines as those of W and 1).

32] Organically in fact the closure of m, n, g is exactly
that of 1), d, g; but before the plosive, or even the tense
fricative, position is reached, the nose is thrown open,
and the breath escapes through that channel, without
plosion or further friction, but with marked nasal resonance.

33] Thus a nasal may be either appetent, or hiant, or
appetent-hiant in its oral glides, just like the correspond-
ing plosive or gliding fricative, but it differs from them
in the held, or strictly nasal, portion (22).

34] This held portion is not impeded. The breath can
always pass through the two nostrils without friction.
Hence arises sonorousness in nasals, which enables all
of them to be sometimes employed in colloquial English as
vowels; c. g.j open^ Oipill; hitlen^ Mtn; blacken, l)lakg;
where HI, n, g are all syllabic (l06).

35] In a trill the impeding organ (in English always
the tongue) vibrates to the breath, so as to produce inter-
mittent stoppage. A single repetition of stoppage is
enough to produce the sensation of trill. English rarely
goes further than that. Avoid uvular trill, or any uvular
sound, in English.


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Dental and


36] The modes of impediment familiar to English are:
Bilabial: Lip to lip. p 1)

Dentilabial: Lower lip to upper teeth. f T

Point and blade of tongue to upper

teeth. e Ct

Fore-blade to fore-gums. S

After-blade to after-gums. T

Point of tongue to gums. 1 1 d^ n^ 1^ r^ J
Palatal: Front of dorsum to hard palate j

Velar: Back „ „ „ soft „ k

Labio- Velar: Lip to lip, and back of dorsum
to hard palate, simultaneously.
Aspirate: In various places.

37] In the second column, i. c.y to the right of the black
line, each symbol has two distinct values, toned, or
whispered. But in English, as in German, the diflference
between tone and whisper is never significant, i. e., it
never affects meaning. The whispered phone can be
distinguished by italics, when necessary.

38] But the symbols of the first column must never be
italicised. A spirate phone can never be rightly said to
be whispered, even in whispered speech. For its sound
remains absolutely unchanged: and in fact, if we were
to talk about a whispered p, f, &c., we should simply
combine a noun which implies a glottis wide open with
an adjective which implies a glottis nearly shut.

39] Theoretically each one of the above indicated con-
strictions may give rise to impediments of at least five
different kinds — tense fricative, lax fricative, gliding frica-
tive, plosive, and nasal. Only one, two, or three, out of
each possible five, are actually to be found in our list.
Yet the missing members have mostly a real existence in
language somewhere.


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40] English, like most other languages, creates its lahial
phones by two diflferent closures, viz: its plosives and
nasal, p, b, m, by lip-to-lip (bilabial) closure: its fri-
catives, f, T, by lip -to -teeth (dentilabial) closure. The
former position lends itself best to vigorous plosion: the
latter to vigorous friction.

41] f, V. It is best to begin in every series from the
fricatives: f is here the tense spirate Mcative: T is the
continuant toned (or whispered) fricative. Both are denti-
labial: therefore avoid the bi- labial T sound, so often
given to German w. The latter tends also to become
hiant; but English v is well held.

4:2] Note that in a labial phone the impediment must
be at the lips only. The tongue must be kept low enough
to allow such a passage for the breath as will not be
itself frictional, though of course it will resound, like a
pipe, to the friction and percussion at the lips. If the
tongue is moved up into a frictional position, f, V become
0, ct, in spite of Up-closure.

43] p, b. Eng. b must be toned (or whispered) (23):
p must not be audibly aspii-ated. Remember however
that, in some degree, aspiration is always present in
every exploded spirate. The percussion of p is followed by
a rapid glide through the tense fricative ^ (bilabial f)
to the lax fricative (or aspirate) h*" (21). It is this alone
which distinguishes it plainly from the percussion of t
or k. This h' always, and of necessity, follows an ex-
ploded p. Whether it is separately sensible or not de-
pends on its duration. In English an easily audible
aspiration, such as is quite common in German, is always
to be avoided*


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H] m is also bilabial. There is a nasal spirate m^
witiiout oral glides, which occurs in the common inter-
jection mm or mm mm (/^'m; Wm^ h'm). It is of course
inaudible without forced breath (32) and belongs really
to the aspirates (21). Note how very little m, n, and
i^ differ to the ear; and also m^ n, Q themselves, when
deprived of their glides.


46] This series is the richest of all— in English even
more so than elsewhere. Formed by the most mobile
portion of the tongue, with liberty to create an anterior
as well as a posterior cavity, its phones, both possible
and actual, are far more varied than the labial. Note
in our table (36) the owerwhelming importance in English
of the group formed with the tongue-tip {corona). They
are hence called coronal,

46] 0, Ct, as in English thin (Bill) and then (cten),
are the fricatives most nearly adjacent to f and V. Like
them, they are both continuants: = tense spirate:
S. = toned (or whispered). Like them, too, they have no
external cavity, and therefore no external resonance. They
open straight into the outer air.

47] They differ essentially from f, T, in the oral tube,
which converges (cp. 42) rapidly, and becomes strongly
frictional near the outlet. The pupil will in the first
instance acquire this friction best by putting the tongue-
tip between the closed teeth. He should then try to
continue the sound while withdrawing the tongue-tip just
inside the teeth. This is the English position.
48] S^ Z are a similar pair of continuant Mcatives:
S = tense spirate = Ger. ss: z == toned (or whispered)
= Ger. 8 between vowels.


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49] In these phones the tongue-tip retires 4 or 5 milli-
metres from the upper teeth, and the inner tube, still
sharply convergent, terminates there, against the outer
slope of the alveolars. This leaves a small intra -dental
cavity of very high, shrill resonance, in front of the inner
tube. The phone attains special power when the reso-
nances of the inner tube and outer cavity are so adjusted
as to reinforce each other.

60] J*, 5, as in English passion (pajAn), vision (TijAll),
are another such pair: J*= tense spirate fricative : 5 = toned
(or whispered) continuant fricative.

61] In these two phones the tongue-tip is drawn back
4 or 5 mm. further than in S, Z: so that the constriction
is shifted to the inner slope of the alveolars. The ad-
justment is very like that of S, Z, save that it is
everywhere on a larger scale. The fore-cavity is, of course,
larger: a larger part of the tongue-blade comes into play
in forming the inner orifice: and it is probable that the
velum is so arranged as to carry the inner tube further
back. The same kind of adjustment of resonances appears
here as in S, Z; but at a pitch about 9 semitones deeper.
There is also an additional friction in S, Z, against the
tips of the lower teeth.

62] The gap in resonance between S, Z and J*, 5 is
probably due to the organic facility of forming a definite
tube, (a) as long as the hard palate, (6) as long as pa-
late and velum combined. In Eng. J* the lips are passive.
Do not round them or protrude them, as often in Ger-
man sch.

63] J, J are a fourth pair of dental fricatives. Unlike
the other three, they are not continuant, but gliding, and
can be either hiant, or appetent-hiant, or appetent (22).
They are commonly known as untiilled r, and are here
denoted by the inversion of that symbol. The toned (or


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whispered) J is very common in English (57): the spirate
J only arises incidentally and involuntarily after p, t, k;
e, g.^ in tried (tjaid), if the t is aspirated, the aspira-
tion partly covers the J, and converts it into J. Hence
Sweet's observation that to a foreign ear, Eng. Iried
(tijaid) sometimes sounds like chide (tJVlid): which re-
poses of course on a certain resemblance between J and J*.
For although, in a gliding phone, there cannot be the
adjusted duplicate sibilance of continuant J* (50), there
is in J a fugitive sibilance of the same character. After
vowels the true J of American and S. W. English is often
relaxed in N. Eng. so as to be no longer really impeded:
it is vocalic rather than consonantal, and is here written
A (103. 113). In other cases this postvocalic J survives
only in N. Eng. as a modification of the previous
vowel (100).

64] t, d in Eng. are normally coronal, and rank as
closures of J, J, rather than of 0, d; or 8, Z; or J*, 5.
These latter are all formed with the aid of the blade,
which is part of the upper surface or dorsum of the
tongue. Hence their closure creates varieties of t, d,

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Online LibraryRalph S. (Ralph Stockman) TarrNorth America : with an especially full treatment of the United States and its dependencies → online text (page 1 of 9)