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WORLD GEOGRAPHY



':j^^y^'



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW YORK ■ BOSTON • CHICAGO
SAN FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN & CO., Limited

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TORONTO



WORLD GEOGRAPHY



ONE -VOLUME EDITION



BY

RALPH S. TARR, B.S., F.G.S.A.

Vi
PROFKSSOH OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY

AND

FRANK M. McMURRY, Pii.D.

PROFESSOR OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION AT TEACHERS COLLEGE
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY



WITH MANY COLORED MAPS AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS
CHIEFLY PHOTOGRAPHS OF ACTUAL SCENES



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1912

All rights reserved



\



9 O



Copyright, 1912,
By the MACMILLAN COMPANY.



Set up and electrotyped. Published January, 1912.



Xorinaati i^rtgs

J. 8. Gushing Co. —Berwick & Smith Co.

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.



PREFACE



Heretofore it has been necessary for
pupils desiring to study geography witk

a fair degree of thorough-
Need of a

one-volume H^SS to purchase two ex-
complete pensive books, at least, and
geograp y study each from cover to
cover. This plan involves much useless
repetition, since, owing to the nature of
the subject, most of the fundamental
notions of geography must appear in the
first volume as well as in the second.
Moreover, a geography treating all topics
in a single volume is more useful as a
book of reference.

The ultimate basis for all study of
geography is experience. Hence Home
Necessity of Geography should receive
Home Geog- careful attention. Yet text-
other basal books rarely treat this sub-
notions ject at all, and those that do
devote but few pages to it.

Home experience alone, however, can-
not offer a complete basis for the later
study of geography, because no one lo-
cality presents all the features required.
For this reason the best books have
contained some definitions and illustra-
tions, as of mountain, river, valley,
harbor, and factory, and have planned
to build the later text upon the ideas
these gave as a foundation. But mere
definitions do not produce vivid, accu-
rate pictures. The average pupil who
has pursued geography for a year has
little notion of the great importance of
soil, of what a mountain or a river



really is, of the value of good trade
routes, and why a vessel cannot be sure
of finding a harbor wherever it may cast
anchor, along the coast. Yet such ideas
are the proper foundation for the study
of geography in the higher grades.

The first 185 pages of this volume
attempt to supply this foundation by
treating, first, such common How this need
things as food, clothing, shel- is met
ter, soil, hills, valleys, industries, climate,
and government, which are part of every
child's environment ; secondly, such fea-
tures as mountains, rivers, lakes, and
the ocean, which, though absent from
many localities, must be taught in prep-
aration for later study ; and thirdly,
country and city contrasted with each
other. Definitions and abstract state-
ments, however, are not relied upon for
giving this knowledge, but detailed de-
scriptions and discussions instead. This
by no means involves neglect of the
child's own environment after the intro-
duction of the unfamiliar matter, for
throughout the geographies, home ex-
periences are used. We believe that this
plan gives a fuller guarantee of fitness
for advanced study than is now fur-
nished by any other common school text.

One of the most important features of
this volume is the establish- „ . .

. . . , . How relation-

ment oi a closer relationship ship to man
between man and the earth ^^^ been
than has usually been at-
tempted in geography texts. A large



25780A



VI



PREFA CE



number of the topics, instead of being
coldly presented, as so much fact to be
learned, both have been approached, and
also have received their full treatment,
from the viewpoint of maiis interest in
them.

For example, for typical treatment of
a continent turn to Asia (p. 415), and
of -a single country, to China (p. 426).
Asia is declared to be the largest and
most populous of all the continents, and
also to have the oldest civilization. Be-
sides, it lies next to Europe, the best
known continent. Yet, possibly, except
Africa, it is the least known of all the
continents. Why it should be so little
known becomes then a question of real
interest ; and the answer, as presented
on pages 415-419, involves considera-
tion of its surface features, climate, and
inhabitants. Likewise in the study of
China (pp. 426-433), the former prog-
ress of its inhabitants first receives at-
tention. This is contrasted with their
present backwardness. Then, since the
future progress of the Chinese is one of
the live questions of the day, the area and
population of the country, the variety of
its climate, its surface features, resources,
manufacturing, and facilities for trans-
portation, are all considered with refer-
ence to this one problem. Finally, the
recent advances of China are discussed
and its principal cities located. Thus,
as far as possible, each continent and each
country has been approached from the
point of view of the learner, and the
questions raised at the beginning con-
trol the presentation that follows.

Organization of subject
The danger matter, however, is perhaps
TzatiZan?''' ^^6 task that has required
how avoided the greatest effort by the au-



thors. Organization is as great a factor
in the mastery of knowledge as in the
conduct of business or of politics.

The tendencies in geographies are, on
the one hand, to list the facts as inde-
pendent entities regardless of sequence
and perspective. The extreme of this
method is found in the treatment of the
United States by individual states, in
which case the demand for any real
organization is ignored. Or, all the
continents and countries are treated
according to exactly the same outline,
i.e. in the order of location, area, sur-
face, climate, agriculture, etc. This is
sometimes called a scientific organiza-
tion ; but the deadly routine that it
establishes shows it to be about as psy-
chological as it would be to describe
the appearance of several persons under
the order of head, body, and extremities
in each case. And, again, no matter
what outline is followed, there is a strong
tendency to include many statements that
are irrelevant even to the loose headings
under which they fall, and that, there-
fore, destroy sequence and unity.

In order to avoid these tendencies the
authors have first fairly drilled them-
selves in the fact that good literature
is organized around ideas of live in-
terest to man ; and that any text what-
ever, intended for children, if it is to
possess the earmarks of good literature,
must be organized on this basis, with
most careful attention to sequence and
perspective. With this principle in
mind, they have set to work to do two
things : —

First, for each page, more or less, they
have fixed upon some central thought
that binds firmly together the details
underlying it, and secures their unity.



PREFACE



Vll



What this central idea is in each case is
clearly shown in the marginal heading ;
and by grasping it early, the child is
enabled to master a lesson much more
quickly and easily than otherwise.

In the second place, the authors have
selected for the unifying thoughts, not
merely scientific abstractions, but ideas
likely to- prove of peculiar interest to
young students. The treatment of
Africa, beginning on page 446, well
illustrates this, as well as that of Asia
and of China, to which reference has
already been made.

The unifying thought just mentioned
is usually some vital problem, from the
point of view of which facts
IxlentT/ are selected and arranged,
physiography j^ solving • such problems
full use is made of the truth that geog-
raphy must rest upon a physiographic
foundation. The authors believe that,
when the physiographic truths about
a given region are clearly grasped,
most of the other geographic facts easily
arrange themselves as links in a causal
chain. Thus the many details touching
a particular locality are taught in relation
to one another, so that they approach
the form of a narrative.

Physiography has, therefore, been in-
troduced freely ; but under two limita-
tions. First, only such physical facts
are included as are shown really to
function in man's relation to the earth.
Physiography that is clearly shown to
have a real bearing upon man greatly
enriches geography; it is the unused
physical geography that is a stumbling
block. Second, these physical facts are
presented in connection ivith their use,
not entirely apart from it and in a dif-
ferent part of the book.



Few teachers will deny that clearness
of comprehension, and interest in any
sub] ect, are greatly dependent ^g^^ig
upon the abundance of care- i. whyabun-
fuUy selected details. Good ^
stories, such as that of Robinson Crusoe,
reveal this fact very plainly. Accord-
ingly, while this volume treats only of
the same subjects as other geographies,
it contains more detail than any one of
them, as is shown by the larger amount
of page surface.

One very common objection to such
detail is that it makes lessons long, and
therefore difficult. That may 2. Danger of

. abundant de-

easily happen, tor unorgan- ^^. ^nd how
ized details render a line of avoided
thought circuitous and confusing, and
more to be dreaded than even a skele-
ton outline. But on the other hand,
well organized details make a subject
not only interesting but simple and easy.
It is partly good organization that
makes it possible for one to reproduce a
long story with ease after a single read-
ing ; and it is often largely because of
poor organization that even a half page
of text is difficult to reproduce.

Accordingly, such topics as farm, cat-
tle ranch, irrigation, lumber camp, and
factory are treated at unu- 3. Examples of
sual length in connection unusual detail
wdth the section of country in which
each is most prominent.

For example, lumbering, fishing, and
the manufacture of cloth, boots, and shoes
receive their most detailed treatment m
connection with New England ; the mining
of coal and iron ore and the manufacture
of iron goods are discussed in connection
with the Middle Atlantic States; and gold
mining, irrigation, and grazing are natu-
rally included under the Western States.



Vlll



PREFACE



The industries and objects thus de-
scribed, being fairly typical of industries
and objects found elsewhere, are on that
account worthy (5f being called types.

The study of the United States has
furnished occasion for detailed treatment
of most geogr&,phic types. Some impor-
tant features and occupations, however,
are not found in the United States, but
to these the authors have given the same
careful consideration. For instance, the
Brazilian forest is presented as a type of
tropical forests (pp. 318-319). Other il-
lustrations may be found in the treatment
of the linen industry on page 344, and
of the silk industry on page 363.

A common defect in the teaching of
geography is that pupils are allowed to
Extent of forget about one country
review and while studying others, and
comparison ^^le result is that, by the
time Australia is reached, most of what
previously has been learned about the
United States, as well as other coun-
tries, has faded from memory. Yet the
relation between North America and the
other continents is so marked that this
defect is quite unnecessary. For ex-
ample, most of the industries and basal
principles of physiography and climate
have received the child's attention when
he has completed a general study of the
United States. Foreign lands illustrate
the same great ideas as our own country,
under different conditions. This means
that the comprehension of foreign coun-
tries may best be gained, if one uses one's
previous knowledge of the United States
as a basis of comparison. If, then, this
old similar knowledge is carefully called
to mind when the physiography, climate,
and industries of a foreign land are ap-
proached, pupils will not only secure a



fuller appreciation of that region, but
will also freshen their knowledge of the
United States.

Such review of the United States is
a prominent feature of this volume.
For example, in approaching the physi-
ography of South America (p. 3l0), the
physiography and climate of Europe
(p. 334), etc., the authors have reproduced
at some length the corresponding condi-
tions found in our own country.

To supplement this kind of review,
several sets of questions, which call for
still different comparisons with the
United States, are included, one series
being found at the close of the treatment
of each continent. These reviews are
likewise rich in motive, inasmuch as
they recall leading facts in regard to
the United States from varying points
of view. It should be kept in mind,
also, that each set at the same time
reviews another continent from a new
point of view.

Pages 273-291 present an organized
review of North America alone, which
includes the principal facts about our
continent that every pupil should
know on completing the grades. The
last section, " Review of the United
States and Comparisons with Other
Countries," provides for still further
review. It has seemed to the authors
an anticlimax to close several years"
study of geography with the Islands of
the Pacific, lands farthest away from
us and of least interest. On the other
hand, it has been deemed highly impor-
tant that, after all the countries of the
world have been treated, the closing
chapter should show in summary the
rank of our own land and its relation
to others.



PREFACE



IX



The most difficult part of common
school geography is that dealing with the
Place of gen- motions of the earth, lati-
erai geography tude and longitude, winds,
rainfall, ocean currents, and tempera-
ture. Yet these subjects are generally
placed at the beginning of the advanced
book, so that their treatment follows
immediately upon Primary Geography.
This arrangement requires children to
move abruptly from a meager study of
the simplest facts to the broadest ab-
stractions, which is thoroughly bad.

In this volume practically all of this
difficult subject matter is delayed till
after the middle of the course (p. 292),
with the exception of a very brief treat-
ment of latitude and longitude on page
92. Whatever facts in regard to winds,
rainfall, temperature, etc., are needed
in the intensive study of North America
have been plainly stated, when wanted,
like other concrete facts.

After the study of our continent has
been completed, and a fair number of
concrete data bearing on these matters
has been presented, winds and rain, and
ocean movements and distribution of
temperature, are treated in detail. By
this arrangement, the study of these
difficult subjects has been postponed at
least one year, until so many of the
facts that are necessary to their apprecia-
tion have been presented concretely that
they then may be approached somewhat
inductively. The detailed treatment of
latitude, longitude, and standard time,
and of the revolution of the earth, with
its effects, is not included in the main
text at all, but is placed in the Appendix.
The authors are convinced that the latter
topic should not be studied in the elemen-
tary school, and that the former should



be omitted by many schools. This ar-
rangement is one of the most important
among the distinguishing features of
this volume.

The general principles regarding in-
dustries, distribution of inhabitants, mu-
tual relation of city and country, and
dependence of various sections upon one
another, contrary to custoni, are also
presented in the last part of the volume.
One reason is that these principles ap-
proach abstractions in their nature, and
are, therefore, too difficult to be earlier
understood by children. They are, more-
over, to a large extent, a summary of
what has preceded, and therefore natu-
rally come late, where a more inductive
approach is possible. The guiding prin-
ciple is that comparison of facts (of
countries, in this case) should not be
undertaken until after the facts them-
selves have been studied.

While there is no reason why a text-
book in geography, more than any
other text, should offer sug- _

, , , 1 1 r How the text

gestions about methods Ot may teach

study, every one knows that proper method
children's ways of studying ° ^ " y
are often, extremely crude, involving
great waste. On this account it seemed
advisable to include definite suggestions
on this subject, applicable both to this
and to other books. These are found
on pages 10, 30, 53, 66, and 80. They
occupy little space ; but they will have
accomplished much, if they are influen-
tial in leading children to do the things
suggested, and if, in addition, they di-
rect the attention of both children and
teachers to a more careful consideration
of proper methods of study.

Also, by the insertion of marginal
headings, so carefully worded that they



PREFACE



usually suggest a single and definite
question for the text to answer, it is
expected that children will be materi-
ally influenced to master their lessons
by ^'points" rather than by pages — a
very vital factor in the proper method
of study.

Half-tones from photographs are used
whenever possible, and these have been
Useofilius- selected with great care
trations from collections .of many

thousands. In all cases they are in-
troduced, not as mere pictures, but as
illustrations of topics treated in the
text. It is expected that they will be
studied, as well as the text. It is be-
lieved that the book is as thoroughly
illustrated as is desirable for the needs
of the student, and the authors have
used care not to overillustrate by throw-
ing together a heterogeneous mass of
pictures unrelated to the text. It is
their belief that a geography should not
be a picture album.

The maps in this book have been
made by The Williams Engraving Com-
Acknowledg- p^ny, with the exception of
ments ^.he relief maps, which were

prepared by E. E. Howell, of Washing-
ton.

Mr. Philip Emerson of the Cobbett
School, Lynn, Massachusetts, and Pro-



fessor R. H. Whitbeck of the Univer-
sity of Wisconsin have aided in various
ways in the preparation of this volume.
Valuable assistance in gathering statistics
and making lists of books of reference
has been rendered bv Mr. Irvine Perrine
and Miss Kathryn Kyser of Cornell Uni-
versity. The sources of the material
for the text have been many, of course ;
but among them Mills' "International
Geography," "The Statesman's Year
Book," The United States Census Re-
port, and Ratzel's " History of Man-
kind " call for special mention.

For the illustrations, many of the
drawings have been prepared by Mr.
C. W. Furlong, the well known artist.
In addition, the authors are especially
indebted to William Ran of Philadel-
phia, from whose extensive collection
they have selected a large part of
the photographs from which half-tones
were made. To other photographers
whose pictures have been used — a list
far too long to incorporate here — the
authors' thanks are due. Special men-
tion should also be made of the as-
sistance rendered by the Philadelphia
Commercial Museum, in supplying a
series of world product maps, and in
giving permission to reproduce certain
photographs.



THE AUTHORS



TABLE OF CONTENTS



PART I. HOME GEOGRAPHY

SECTION

I. Food, Clothing, and Shelter .

1. Among the People of our own Couii-

try

2. Among the Negroes of Central

Africa ......

3. Among the Eskimos

4. Among the People of the Desert
II. Land, Wateh, and Air

1. The Laud . . . .

2. Water

3. Air



III.



IV



II.



III.



Industry, Commerce, and Govkrn
ment ....

1. Industry and Commerce

2. Country and City

3. Government
Maps ....

PART II. WORLD GEOGRAPHY

(ieneral Facts about the Earth
1. Form and Size of the Earth
Daily Motions of the Earth
Zones ....
Latitude and Longitude .
The Continents
The Oceans



PART in. NORTH AMERICA
General Facts
L Divisions of North America
2. Map of North America .

United States

General Facts .

The Northeastern States*.

The Southern States

The Central States .

The Western States .

Territories and Dependencies
United States .
L Alaska ....
2. Cuba and Porto Rico



The
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.



PAGE
1



3
5

7

10
10
31
54

59
59
67
75
81



86
88
91
92
93



101
101
102
104
104
111
147
174
202

238
238
241



IV.



V.



VL



3. Panama Canal Zone . . . 244

4. The Hawaiian Islands . . . ^\^^

5. Other Small Island Possessions . 246

6. The Philippine Islands . . .246
Countries North of thS United

States 249

1. Canada and Newfoundland . . 249

2. Greenland 261

Countries South of the United

States . . . • . . 263

1. Mexico 263

2. Central America .... 268

3. The West Indies . . . .270

4. The Bermuda Islands . . .272
Review of North America . . 273

1. The United States . . . .273

2. Other Countries of North America 289

3. Relation of the United States to

Other Countries .... 290

4. Value of Steam and Electricity in

Development of North America 290



IL



IH.



I.

n.

IIL

IV.

V.

VL

VII.



PART IV. GENERAL GEOGRAPHY

Winds and Rain .....

1. Winds

2. Rain

Ocean Movements and Distribu-
tion of Temperature .

1. Tides . ...

2. Ocean Currents ....

3. Distribution of Temperature
The Races of Mankind . .

PART V. SOUTH AMERICA

General Facts

Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay

Brazil

The Guianas and Venezuela .
The Tropical Andean Countries .

Chile

Islands near the Continents .



292
292
293

299
290
299
303
306



310
316
317
320
321
326
328



XI



Xll



TABLE OF CONTENTS — LIST OF MAPS



PART VI. EUROPE

BEOTION

I.' General Facts about Europe
II. The Great Powers of Europe

1. The British Isles

2. German Empire

3. France

4. Italy.

5. Austria-Hungary

6. Russia




III.



The Lesser Powers of Europe

1. Norway and Sweden

2. Denmark .
The Netherlands
Belgium .
Spain and Portugal
Switzerland
Greece
Turkey and Balkan Countries




330
337
337
350
360
368
376
381

387
387
391
392
395
398
403
407
410



PART Vir. ASIA, AFRICA, AUSTRALIA,

AND ISLAND GROUPS
I. Asia 415



1. General Facts about Asia

2. The Turkish, or Ottoman, Empire

3. Arabia, Persia, and Afghanistan

4. Russia in Asia . . .

5. The Chinese Empire

6. The Japanese Empire and Korea

7. Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula



415
419
423
425
426
433
437



SECTION

II. Africa



1. General Facts about Africa

2. Northern Africa

3. Southern Africa

4. Central Africa .

5. Islands near Africa .

III. Australia, the East Indies, and
Other Islands of the Pacific

1. Australia .....

2. New Zealand ....

3. The East Indies

4. Islands of the Pacific



PAGE

446
446
452
457
460
463

464
464
472
473
475



PART VIII. REVIEW OF UNITED STATES
AND COMPARISONS WITH OTHER
COUNTRIES

APPKNDIX

I. Latitude, Longitude, and Standard

Time 493

1. Latitude and Longitude . . . 493

2. Standard Time . . . .496
IL Revolution of the Earth and its

Effects 498

III. References to Descriptions, in Prose

AND Poetry, of Topics treated in
this Geography, for Teacher and
Pupil 501

IV. Tables of Area, Population, etc. . 511

Index 521



LIST OF MAPS



COLORED MAPS



106.
107.
116.
133.



134.

136.
138.
140.
144.

147.

187.

192.
194.
233.
235.
270.



Eastern and Western Hemispheres facing
The World on Mercator's Projection "
The Zones . .... on

Claims of France, England, and Spain
upon the Central Part of North America,

facing



86
86
91



101

" 102

" 103

between 104 and 105

facing 105



1760

North America, Political

North America, Physical

United States, Political

United States, Physical .

Northeastern States, Political

between 111 and 112

Northeastern States, Physical . facinf/ 113

New York City, Philadelphia, and Balti-
more facing 141

Southern States, Political between 147 and 148

Southern States, Physical

Central States, Political

Central States, Physical

Western States, Political



facing 148
between 174 and 175

facing 175
between 202 and 203



facing



FrOPRK

272. Western States, Physical

318. Alaska "

Cuba and Porto Rico with Special Map
of the West Indies . . facing

United States' Dependencies in the Pacific



Online LibraryRalph S. (Ralph Stockman) TarrWorld geogaphy. One-volume ed. → online text (page 1 of 55)