Randolph Silliman Bourne.

Towards an enduring peace; a symposium of peace proposals and programs, 1914-1916 online

. (page 18 of 24)
Online LibraryRandolph Silliman BourneTowards an enduring peace; a symposium of peace proposals and programs, 1914-1916 → online text (page 18 of 24)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


1. INTERNATIONAL

NEUTRAL CONFERENCE FOR CONTINUOUS MEDIATION,
STOCKHOLM

To the Governments, Parliaments and Peoples of the
Warring Nations:

A conference composed of delegates from six neutral Ford Neutral

" Conference at

countries Denmark, Holland, Norway, Sweden, Switzer- Stockholm,
land and the United States has been convened at Stock-
holm upon the initiative of Henry Ford to work for the
achievement of an early and lasting peace, based upon
principles of justice and humanity. This conference
represents no government. It has no official sanction.
It represents the good will of millions throughout the
civilized world who cannot stand idly by while the deadly
combat rages unchecked. It does not attempt to im-
pose its judgment upon the belligerents, but its mem-
bers, as private individuals, unhampered by considera-
tions which restrain governments, have resolved to do
everything within their power to promote such discus-
sion as may tend to bring the belligerents together on
just and reasonable terms.

Through a thousand channels utterances have already
reached the conference pleading that a long continuance
of the struggle will mean ruin for all, but as both sides
believe that only complete victory can decide the issue,

243



ever new sacrifices of blood and treasure are made, ex-
hausting the present and impoverishing the future.
Still, we are convinced that an agreement between the
warring nations might even now be reached were cer-
tain universal principles to be accepted as a basis of
discussion ; principles which cannot be violated with im-
punity, whatever the military results of the war.

The first duty of a neutral conference, then, is to call
attention to those universal principles and concrete pro-
posals upon which agreement seems possible, and upon
which there may be founded a peace that will not only
satisfy the legitimate demands of the warring nations
themselves, but also advance the welfare of humanity
at large. The neutral conference does not propose to
discuss all the issues at stake. Nor does it desire to set
forth a plan for the construction of a perfect world.
But it emphasizes the universal demand that peace, when
it comes, shall be real, insuring mankind against the re-
currence of a world war. Humanity demands a lasting
peace.

In presenting this appeal to governments, parliaments
and peoples for discussion and comment the neutral con-
ference hopes that no formal objection may prevent its
sympathetic consideration both by those in authority
and by the people whom they represent.

(A) Right of Nations to Decide Their Own Fate.
History demonstrates that dispositions contrary to the
wishes of the peoples concerned bring with them the dan-
ger of future wars of liberation. Hence the acceptance
of these principles appears generally to be regarded as
an essential prerequisite to the satisfactory settlement of
this war; namely, that no transfer of territory should
take place without the consent of the population in-
volved, and that nations should have the right to decide
their own fate.

244



It follows that the restoration of Belgium must first
be agreed upon before there can be an understanding
between the belligerent powers. Furthermore, the oc-
cupied French territory should be returned. A recon-
sideration of the difficult Alsace-Lorraine question is also
an absolute necessity. The independence of Serbia and
Montenegro should be assured.

In its wider interpretation, the principle of the right
of nations to decide their own fate postulates the solu-
tion of a problem like the Polish question by guarantee-
ing the union of the Polish nation as an independent
people. Further applications would be the adjustment
of the frontiers between Austria and Italy, as far as
possible, according to the principle of nationality; au-
tonomy for Armenia under international guarantee, and
the solution of various national questions in the Bal-
kans and in Asiatic Turkey by international agreement.

(B) Economic Guarantees. Economic competition
is generally admitted to be one of the causes of the
present war. Hence the demand becomes more and
more insistent that the economic activity of all peoples
should be afforded development on equal terms. The
recognition of the principle of the open door in the col-
onies, protectorates, and spheres of influence would be
an important step in this direction, as would also the
internationalization of certain waterways, e. g., the
Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. The German colonies
ought to be returned, the exchange of colonies made pos-
sible by satisfactory compensation, and Germany 's access
to the Near East guaranteed.

(C) Freedom of the Seas. The principle of the free-
dom of the seas should be recognized.

(D) Parliamentary Control of Foreign Policy. Ef-
fective parliamentary control of foreign policy should
be established, so that secret treaties and secret diplo-

245



macy may no longer endanger the most vital interests of
the nation.

(E) International Organization. Far more impor-
tant, however, for the welfare of humanity than the
solutions thus far suggested is the creation of an inter-
national organization, founded, upon law and justice,
which would include an agreement to submit all disputes
between States for peaceful settlement. Hence the al-
most universal opinion that in the coming treaty of
peace the principle of such an international order of
justice must be accepted.

(F) Disarmament. Equally important with the in-
sistence upon an international organization is the de-
mand that disarmament be brought about by interna-
tional agreement.

(G) A World Congress. In order to bring about
the creation of an international order of justice it will
be necessary to secure the adherence thereto of both
belligerents and neutrals. The difficulties that result
from the present catastrophe do not affect the warring
nations alone. They affect the whole world. In their
settlement the whole world should participate. A world
congress should therefore be called together. Such a
congress should concern itself with more than the im-
mediate questions arising out of this war. Problems
like that of guaranteeing political and spiritual freedom
to special nationalities united with other peoples, though
not direct issues of this war, are nevertheless of vital im-
portance to the future maintenance of peace.

In the foregoing an attempt has been made to sug-
gest a possible approach to the task of uniting again
the international bonds that have been torn asunder in
this fratricide war. Whatever may be the ultimate so-
lution, there is abundant evidence of the growing con-
viction among belligerents and neutrals alike that the

246



hope of the world lies in the substitution of law and
order for international anarchy. The neutral confer-
ence, therefore, feels justified in hoping that the end of
this war will witness the institution of an international
order of justice which shall make possible an enduring
peace for all mankind.
Easter, 1916.



CENTRAL ORGANIZATION FOR A DURABLE PEACE
The Hague.

An important international gathering was held at The qrganiz
Hague from the seventh to the tenth of April, 1915. u n r *j r e
The meeting, for which arrangements had been made Peace.
by the "Dutch Anti-War Council/' who sent invita-
tions to a limited number of persons, was composed of
more than thirty people, belonging to the following coun-
tries: United States of America, Austria, Belgium,
Germany, Great Britain, Holland, Hungary, Norway,
Sweden and Switzerland. Letters of sympathy were
also received from Denmark, France, Italy, Russia and
.Spain.

The object of the meeting was not to suggest steps to
bring the war to an end, but to consider by what prin-
ciples the future peace of the world could be best guar-
anteed. After full discussion a minimum program was
unanimously adopted.

MINIMUM-PROGRAM

1. No annexation or transfer of territory shall be
made contrary to the interests and wishes of the popula-
tion concerned. Where possible their consent shall be
obtained by plebiscite or otherwise.

The States shall guarantee to the various nationalities,
247



included in their boundaries, equality before the law,
religious liberty and the free use of their native lan-
guages.

2. The States shall agree to introduce in their col-
onies, protectorates and spheres of influence, liberty of
commerce, or at least equal treatment for all nations.

3. The work of the Hague Conferences with a view to
the peaceful organization of the Society of Nations shall
be developed.

The Hague Conference shall be given a permanent or-
ganization and meet at regular intervals.

The States shall agree to submit all their disputes to
peaceful settlement. For this purpose there shall be
created, in addition to the existent Hague Court of Arbi-
tration (a) a permanent Court of International Justice;
(b) a permanent international Council of Investigation
and Conciliation. The States shall bind themselves to
take concerted action, diplomatic, economic or military,
in case any State should resort to military measures in-
stead of submitting the dispute to judicial decision or tb
the mediation of the Council of Investigation and Con-
ciliation.

4. The States shall agree to reduce their armaments.
In order to facilitate the reduction of naval armaments,
the right of capture shall be abolished and the freedom
of the seas assured.

5. Foreign policy shall be under the effective control
of the Parliaments of the respective nations.

Secret treaties shall be void.



Union of
Interna-
tional Ag-
tociationa.



UNION OF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS: BRUSSELS
Secretary-General: Paul Otlet.

Project of World-Charter ("Charte Mondiale"), by
M. Paul Otlet.

248



1. Court of arbitration and court of justice.

2. Council of inquiry and conciliation.

3. Council of States, taking in concert diplomatic,
economic and military measures. International armed
force consisting of national contingents under an inter-
national general staff.

4. International Parliament with two houses the
lower composed of delegates from the various Parlia-
ments; upper, of delegates from the international asso-
ciations representing the fundamental social forces.

5. No annexation and no right of conquest. Guaran-
tee of rights of minorities. Freedom of nationalities.

6. Democratic control of foreign policy. Suppres-
sion of alliances and of secret treaties.

7. Considerable reduction of armies, and application
of war budgets to education, etc.

8. Freedom of commerce, at least in colonies.

9. Woman suffrage. Reform of education and of the
press.



INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF PEACE (BUREAU INTER-
NATIONAL DE LA PAIX)

President: H. La Fontaine.

1. Neutral States should be called to participate in

. , tional Bu-

the peace negotiations, because a permanent peace ought reau of
to be guaranteed by the signature of all the powers of
the world.

2. No annexations must take place without the consent
of the populations concerned. In all the States of di-
verse nationalities the rights of minorities must be guar-
anteed.

3. There should be established an international or-
ganization of States, with permanent bodies and espe-

249



cially an international tribunal before which will be
brought international disputes.

4. Armaments must be reduced according to general
agreement and placed under an international control.
All industrial establishments occupied with the manu-
facture of munitions must be expropriated.

5. Diplomacy in all the nations must be put under
the control of parliaments and public opinion. All trea-
ties and agreements which are not made public and
have the ratification of the representative bodies of the
nation are to be considered null and void.

6. All alliances, offensive or defensive, are to be pro-
hibited.

7. To all colonies without distinction must be applied
the principle of the "open door." No State shall be
able to impose a tariff system on another. The develop-
ment of free trade through international agreements
must be furthered.

8. The public institutions and the honor of each na-
tion are to be protected against foreign insult by penal
regulations internationally devised and guaranteed by an
international judicial body.

9. A new peace conference is to be called with the ob-
ject of establishing the permanent character of the in-
stitution and ensuring its automatic reunion.



INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF WOMEN
The Hague, Holland, April 28th, 29th, 30th, 1915

tioui M 6on- In a preparatory meeting of English, German, Belgian
w^men f and Dutch women, held at Amsterdam (February, 1915),

the following resolutions were drawn up to be put before

the International Congress:

250



I. Plea for definition of terms of peace.
Considering that the people in each of the countries

now at war believe themselves to be fighting, not as ag-
gressors but in self-defense and for their national ex-
istence, this International Congress of Women urges the
Governments of the belligerent countries, publicly to
define the terms on which they are willing to make peace
and for this purpose immediately to call a truce.

II. Arbitration and conciliation.

This International Congress of Women, believing that
war is the negation of all progress and civilization, de-
clares its conviction that future international disputes
should be referred to arbitration or conciliation; and
demands that in future these methods shall be adopted
by the governments of all nations.

III. International pressure.

This International Congress of Women urges the Pow-
ers to come to an agreement to unite in bringing pressure
to bear upon any country which resorts to arms without
having referred its case to arbitration or conciliation.

IV. Democratic control of foreign policy.

War is brought about not by the peoples of the world,
who do not desire it, but by groups of individuals rep-
resenting particular interests. This International Con-
gress of Women demands therefore that Foreign Poli-
tics shall be subject to Democratic Control; and at the
same time declares that it can only recognize as demo-
cratic a system which includes the equal representation
of men and women.

V. Transference of territory.

This International Congress of women affirms that
251



there should be no transference of territory without the
consent of the men and women in it.

VI. Women's responsibility.

This International "Women's Congress is convinced
that one of the strongest forces for the prevention of
war will be the combined influence of the women of all
countries and that therefore upon women as well as
men rests the responsibility for the outbreak of future
wars. But as women can only make their influence ef-
fective if they have equal political rights with men, this
Congress declares that it is the duty of all women to
work with all their force for their political enfranchise-
ment.

VII. Women delegates in the conference of the powers.
Believing that it is essential for the future peace of

the world that representatives of the people should take
part in the Conference of the Powers after the war, this
International Women's Congress urges, that among the
representatives women delegates should be included.

VIII. Woman suffrage resolution.

This International Women's Congress urges, that in
the interests of civilization the Conference of the Pow-
ers after the war should pass a resolution affirming the
need in all countries of extending the parliamentary
franchise to women.

IX. Promotion of good feeling between nations.

This International Congress of Women, which in it-
self is evidence of the serious desire of women to bring
together mankind in the work of building up our com-
mon civilization, considers that every means should be
used for promoting mutual understanding and good

252



will between the nations and for resisting any tendency
to hatred and revenge.



RESOLUTIONS OF WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL PEACE
CONGRESS AT THE HAGUE

I. WOMEN AND WAR

1. Protest.

We women, in International Congress assembled, pro-
test against the madness and the horror of war, involv-
ing as it does a reckless sacrifice of human life and the
destruction of so much that humanity has labored
through centuries to build up.

2. Women's Sufferings in War.

This International Congress of Women opposes the
assumption that women can be protected under the con-
ditions of modern warfare. It protests vehemently
against the odious wrongs of which women are the vic-
tims in time of war, and especially against the horrible
violation of women which attends all war.

H. ACTION TOWARD PEACE

The Peace Settlement.

This International Congress of Women of different
nations, classes, creeds and parties is united in express-
ing sympathy with the suffering of all, whatever their
nationality, who are fighting for their country or labor-
ing under the burden of war.

Since the mass of the people in each of the countries
now at war believe themselves to be fighting, not as ag-
gressors but in self-defense and for their national ex-
istence, there can be no irreconcilable difference between
them, and their common ideals afford a basis upon which
a magnanimous and honorable peace might be estab-

253



lished. The congress therefore urges the governments
of the world to put an end to this bloodshed and to be-
gin peace negotiations. It demands that the peace which
follows shall be permanent, and therefore based on prin-
ciples of justice, including those laid down in the resolu-
tions adopted by this congress namely:

That no territory should be transferred without the
consent of the men and women in it, and that the right
of conquest should not be recognized.

That autonomy and a democratic parliament should
not be refused to any people.

That the governments of all nations should come to
an agreement to refer future international disputes to
arbitration or conciliation, and to bring social, moral and
economic pressure to bear upon any country which re-
sorts to arms.

That foreign politics should be subject to democratic
control.

That women should be granted equal political rights
with men.

4. Continuous Mediation.

This International Congress of "Women resolves to
ask the neutral countries to take immediate steps to cre-
ate a conference of neutral nations which shall without
delay offer continuous mediation. The congress shall in-
vite suggestions for settlement from each of the bellig-
erent nations, and in any case shall submit to all of
them, simultaneously, reasonable proposals as a basis of
peace.

m. PRINCIPLES OF A PERMANENT PEACE

5. Respect for Nationality.

This International Congress of Women, recognizing
the right of the people to self-government, affirms that

254



there should be no transference of territory without
the consent of the men and women residing therein, and
urges that autonomy and a democratic parliament should
not be refused to any people.

6. Arbitration and Conciliation.

This International Congress of Women, believing that
war is the negation of progress and civilization, urges
the governments of all nations to come to an agreement
to refer future international disputes to arbitration and
conciliation.

7. International Pressure.

This International Congress of Women urges the gov-
ernments of all nations to come to an agreement to unite
in bringing social, moral and economic pressure to bear
upon any country which resorts to arms instead of re-
ferring its case to arbitration or conciliation.

8. Democratic Control of Foreign Policy.

Since war is commonly brought about not by the
mass of the people, who do not desire it, but by groups
representing particular interests, this International Con-
gress of Women urges that foreign politics shall be sub-
ject to democratic control, and declares that it can only
recognize as democratic a system which includes the equal
representation of men and women.

9. The Enfranchisement of Women.

Since the combined influence of the women of all coun-
tries is one of the strongest forces for the prevention of
war, and since women can only have full responsibility
and effective influence when they have equal political
rights with men, this International Congress of Women
demands their political enfranchisement.



255



IV. INTERNATIONAL. COOPERATION

10. Third Hague Conference.

This International Congress of Women urges that a
third Hague Conference be convened immediately after
the war.

11. International Organization.

This International "Women's Congress urges that the
organization of the Society of Nations should be further
developed on the basis of a constructive peace, and that
it should include:

(a) As a development of The Hague Court of Arbi-
tration, a permanent International Court of Justice to
settle questions or differences of a justiciable character,
such as arise on the interpretation of treaty rights or of
the law of nations.

(b) As a development of the constructive work of
The Hague Conference, a permanent international con-
ference holding regular meetings, in which women should
take part, to deal not with the rules of warfare but
with practical proposals for further international co-
operation among the States. This conference should be
so constituted that it could formulate and enforce those
principles of justice, equity and good-will in accord-
ance with which the struggles of subject communities
could be more fully recognized and the interests and
rights not only of the great Powers and small nations,
but also those of weaker countries and primitive peo-
ples, gradually adjusted under an enlightened interna-
tional public opinion.

The International Conference shall appoint: A per-
manent council of conciliation and investigation for
the settlement of international differences arising from
economic competition, expanding commerce, increasing

256



population and changes in social and political stand-
ards.

12. General Disarmament.

This International Congress of Women, advocating
universal disarmament and realizing that it can only
be secured by international agreement, urges as a step
to this end that all countries should, by such an inter-
national agreement, take over the manufacture of arms
and munitions of war and should control all interna-
tional traffic in the same. It sees in the private profits
accruing from the great armament factories a powerful
hindrance to the abolition of war.

13. Commerce and Investments.

The Congress urges that in all countries there shall
be liberty of commerce, that the seas shall be free and
the trade routes open on equal terms to the shipping of
all nations.

Inasmuch as the investment by capitalists of one coun-
try in the resources of another and the claims arising
therefrom are a fertile source of international compli-
cations, this congress urges the widest possible accept-
ance of the principle that such investments shall be made
at the risk of the investor, without claim to the official
protection of his government.

14. National Foreign Policy.

This International Congress of Women demands that
all secret treaties shall be void, and that for the ratifi-
cation of future treaties the participation of at least
the legislature of every government shall be necessary.

This International Congress of Women recommends
that national commissions be created and international
conferences convened for the scientific study and elabora-
tion of the principles and conditions of permanent peace

257



which might contribute to the development of an inter-
national federation. These commissions and conferences
should be recognized by the governments and should in-
clude women in their deliberations.

15. Women in National and International Politics.

This International Congress of Women declares it to
be essential, both nationally and internationally, to put
into practise the principle that women should share all
civil and political rights and responsibilities on the same
terms as men.

V. THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN

16. This International Congress of Women urges the
necessity of so directing the education of children that
their thoughts and desires may be directed toward the
ideal of constructive peace.

VI. WOMEN AND THE PEACE SETTLEMENT CONFERENCE

17. This International Congress of Women urges that
in the interests of lasting peace and civilization the con-
ference which shall frame the peace settlement after the
war should pass a resolution affirming the need in all


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 21 22 23 24

Online LibraryRandolph Silliman BourneTowards an enduring peace; a symposium of peace proposals and programs, 1914-1916 → online text (page 18 of 24)