Raphael Holinshed.

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SHAKESPEARE'S HOLINSHED
THE CHRONICLE AND THE
HISTORICAL PLAYS COM-
PARED BY W. G. BOSWELL-
STONE




CHATTO AND WINDUS, PUBLISHERS
LONDON MCMVII



First Edition, i8g6 ; Second Edition, igoy



All righti rrirrx'td



"Ml.]

ho7



LIBRUM HUNG

QUEM SI APUD NOS HODIE VERSARETUR

IPSIS MANIBUS ACCIPERE DEBUIT

IN MEMORIAM MATRIS OPTIMAE

QUOD RESTAT, DEDICO.



261071



CONTENTS.



Preface

Authorities referred to in this Book
Corrections and Additions .





,, iii., II. iv.




IV.vii.— V.iii.


Cymheline III. i. . . .
V. iii. . . .


Macbeth


Li


jj


,, iii. — II. iii.




II. iv. . . .




III. iii. . . .


>>


IV. i. . . .


i>


„ u. . . .


>>


,, 111. . . .




V. ii. — viii.


John


I. i




]I.— III. . .




IV


»> •


V. i


>) •


„ 11


>>


,, 111. . . .




,, IV. . . .




V. V. — vii.


Ilkh. II.


Li




,, 11




„ 111




,, IV




II. i




„ 11. . . .




„ 111. . . .




,, IV. . . .




III. i. . . .




,, 11. . . .




„ 111. . . .




,, IV. . . .




IV. i. . . .




V. i. ...




,, 11. — 111. . .




,, IV.— V. . .


M ,, VI. . . .

\Hen.IV.l. i


1)


,, HI. . . .



PAGE
1

4

5

7

15

18

22

31

33

35

36

37

40

45

51

59

63

68

71

72

73

77

84

86

89

91

97

100

102

104

106

107

110

120

124
126
130
133



\Hen.



2 Hen



Hen



V.





PAGE


II. iii. . .


136


,, IV. . .


jj


III. i. . .


137


,,11. . .


139


IV. i. . .


142


,, 11. . .


143


,, 111. . .
V. i. . .


))


,, 11. IV. .


144


,, V. . .


147


Li.. . .


148


,, 111. . .


,,


II. iii. . .


149


III. i. . .


150


IV. i.— ii. .


,,


„ 111. . .


155


,, IV, . .


156


,, V. . .


158


V. ii. . .


161


,, V. . .


164


I. Piol. . .


165


,, i.


167


,,11. . .


168


II. Chorus .


173


,, u. . .


,,


11. iv. . .


177


III. Chorus


179


,,1. . .
,, ii- ■ •


180


,, 111. . .
,, v. . .


182


,, VI. . .


183


,, vu. . .


185


IV. Chorus .


186


,,1. . .


187


,, 11. . .


188


,, 111. . .


189


,, IV. . .


191


,, VI. . .


192


„ Vll. . .


>>



Hen. V. IV. viii. .

,, V. Chorus

,, ,, ii.

I Hen. VI.l. i. .



111.
iv.
v.—



II.



,, V.

III. i.



,, 111.
,, iv.

IV. i.

,, ii.- —

V. i.
,, ii.
,, ill.



2 Hen.


VI.l.






))


,,


u.




))


))


HI.




>>


i'l


IV.

. i.



III. i.



IV. i.



PAOB

is

xvii
xxiii

195
197
199
205
209
212
213
215
216
217
218

219
220
224
226
228

230
234
236
237
238
241
242
248

252
253
255
258
261
262
266
269
270
271
272
273
275



vm






CONTENTS.












PAGE




PAGE




PAOK


2 Fen.


F/. IV.vi. .


. 275


Zmn.FLlY.vin. .


. 332


Eich. III. IV. iii. .


. 394




„ vii. .


. 276


V. i.


. 333


,, ,, iv. .


. 397




„ viii. .


. 279


i> ., ii- •


. 337


,, ., V. .


. 406




„ ix. .


. 281


„ „ iii. . .


) J


V. i.


. 40;)




,, X. .


. 283


„ „ iv. . .


. 338


), ,, ii-


. 410




V. i. .


. 284


>• ., V.


M


,, ,, iii.







,, ii. — iii.


. 288


,, ,, vi. . .


.' 340


., ,, iv.


. 418


3 Hen.


Vl.l.i. .


. 289


,, ,, vii. .


. 341


,, ,, V.






„ ii.


. 295


Rich. II T. I. i.


. 343


Hen. Fill. I. i. . .


. 4->'4




„ iii. .


. 297


,, ii-


. 345


,, ,, ii.


. 431




,, iv.


298


,, ,, iii.


. 346


,, iii. .


. 439




II. i. .


. 300


,, ,, iv.


. 348


,, M iv.


. 440




» ii- •


. 303


11. i. .


. ,1


II. i. .


. 446




,, iii. .


. 305


„ „ ii- •


. 350


,, ,. ii- -


. 454




,, V. .


. 306


,, ,, iii. .


. 353


1) )> iii- .


. 455




„ vi. .


. 307


.» ,, iv. .


.


,, ,, iv.







III. i. .


. 308


III. i. .


. 356


III. i. .


. 466




,, ii. .


. 309


). ,, ii- .


. 362


,, ,, ii- •


. 469




,, iii. .


. 312


,, ,, iii. .


. 368


IV. i. .


. 482




IV. i. .


. 318


,. ), iv. .


> • ))


)) >> ii- .


. 487




,, ii. — iii.


. 322


,, ,) V. .


. 373


V. i. .


. 493




,, iv. .


. 324


,, ,, vi. .


. 376


,, ,, ii.


. 493




,, V. .


))


)> I. vii..


. 377


,, iii. .


. 499




,, vi. .


. 326


IV. i. .


. 386


,, ,, V.


. 505




,, vii. .


. 330


„ ii. .


. 387







PHEFACE.

About the compiler of the chronicles whence most of the historical
excerpts in this book have been taken, we know nothing save what his
will reveals. He there described himself as "Raphael Hollynshed of
Bromecote [Bramcott] in the County of Warr[wick] " ; and bequeathed all
his property to "Thomas Burdett of Bromecote aforesaid Esq.," whom he
calls "my Master," The will was made on October 1, 1578, and proved
on April 24, 1582.^

The first edition of Holinshed's Chronicles appeared in 1577. John
Hooker alias Vowell, Abraham Fleming, Francis Thynne, and others,
produced a second edition, bringing down the English annals to January,
1587. In this second edition the text was altered or modernized,^ and
many new passages were added.

The historical authority used for some of the plays (when other wor^s-
were not consulted) was apparently the second edition of Holinshed. ' In
the subjoined parallel columns certain different readings of the two
editions are collated, and a few enlargements of the second edition are
noted. The left-hand column's references indicate the pages of this book,
where the later readings or fresh matter will be found. The right-hand
column gives references to the plays which have readings identical with or
like the readings presented by the text of the second edition, or which
embody matter added to that edition.

1 Camden's Annals, I. exlix, cl. For conjectures touching Holinshed's kindred, see
the Dictionary of National Biography, under his name.

2 In the story of Lear more tlian a dozen textual changes were made. I give two
examples: tlmt you haue ahvaies home towards me] ed. 2 (p. 3 below), that towards me
you haue always home ed. 1. — scarslie} ed. 2 (p. 4 below), vnneth ed. 1.



X


PREFACE.


HOLINSHED, ed. 2.


HOLINSHED, ed. 1.


wild] p. 23.


ferly


In this yeare . . , vnlcnowne


Not in ed. 1.


euent] p. 103.




pickthanks] p. 140.


>>


In this ycare . . . to he scene]


>>


p. 158.




alledge exier against the kings of


aJ ledge to defeate the Kyngs of


England in barre of their iust


Eyigland of their iust . . .


title] p. 169.


title


dishonest] p. 169.


vnhonest


who vsurped] p. 170.


which vsurped


Numbers] p. 171.


Numeri


should shake the ivalles of the


shoulde breake and batter doione


best court in France, p. 173.


the roofes of his houses ahffiit




hys eares.


desolation] p. 177.


destruction


offenses] p. 177.


Not in ed. 1.


die your tawnie ground with


make red your tawny ground


ymtr red bloud.] p. 185.


with the effusion of christian




bloud.


In time of this siege . . . here-


Not iu ed. 1.


after followeth.] pp. 210-




212.




for Mr 2}ranks. . . and witches.]


>>


pp. 238, 239.




Edward the third . . . his grand-


)>


sire; . . .] p. 256.




Lionell the third . . . died ivith-


jj


out issue.] p. 257.




And the said , . . same king


»»


Edward.] p. 258.




a taper in hir hand.] p. 261.


)>


created the lord Thomas... saint


))


Edwards chamber.] p. 347.




wishing and . . . casting away.]


>)


p. 410.




The oration . . . his armie.] p.

414.
Tfie oration . . . his armie ] p.


))


>)


416.




j^ - ' moothers meanes, . . .] p. 417.


brothers meanes


^/^





Play.

loildc] Macb, I. iii.
Rich. II., II. iv. 8,



40.



1 Hen. IV., III. ii. 25.

2 Hen. IV., IV. iv. 125.

There is no barre
To make against your High-

nesse claime] Hen. V., I. ii.

34, 35.
dishonest] Hen. V., I. ii. 49.
who rsurpt] Hen. V., I. ii. 69.
Numbers] Hen. V., I. ii. 98.
That all the Courts of France

will be disturb' d^ Hen. V.,

I. ii. 265.
desolation] Hen. V., II. ii. 173.
offenses] Hen. V., II. ii. 181.
We shall your tawny ground

with your red blood
Discolour: . . .] Hen. V., III.

vi. 170, 171.
1 Hen. VI., I. ii.



1 Hen. VI., V. iv.

2 Hen. VI., II. ii. 10-20,

2 Hen. VI., II. ii. 34-38.

2 Hen. VI., II. ii. 44-52.

2 Hen. VI., II. iv. 16 (S. D.).
Rich. III., I. iii. 255, 256.

Eich. III.,V. ii. 20, 21.

Rich. III., V. iii. 236 (S. D.).

V. iii. 313 (S. D.

Rich. III., V.



Rich. III.

in Qq.).
Mothers cost?]

iii. 324.



The second edition of Holinshed must have been employed for those
parts of Henry VIII. which are based on Cavendish's Life of Wolscy ; if
the dramatist did not resort directly to Stow, in wliose Chronicles of
England (1580) selections from this biography were first published.

With regard to the wider question of sources, the reader will find
that, in Lear, CymlcUne, and the historical plays preceding 1 Henry
VI., most of the borrowed action and dialogue can be illustrated by
excerpts from Ilolinshed. Passages in the following plays — not traceable
to Holinshcd — arc compared with other likely sources at the references
given below: John (pp. 48-51); I\i chard II. (p. 118); 1 Hen. IV. (pp.



I PREFACE. XI

139 n. 2, 141 n. 2) ; 2 Ren. IV. (p. 163); Hen. V. (pp. 172, 173 n. 1,
185 n. 3, 186, 188).

/As most of the quotations from Holinshed, illustrating the three Parts I
oiRenry VI., are paraphrases of Halle, it is generally impossible to |
determine which of these authorities was used, and I have therefore in !
such cases added a reference to the latter chronicler. /But, when Ilalle
alone is cited, the reader will understand that the subsequent excerpt is
not paraphrased or copied in the second edition of Holinshed.^ It is clear
that the dramatist of The First Part of Henry VI. availed himself of
accounts of Jeanne Dare, given by Holinshed (see pp. 210-212, 238, 239), '^
which are not in Halle ; and we may conjecture that Holinshed's paraphrase
of Halle was the source of 1 Reii: VI., V. i. 5, 6. In the passage illustrating
these lines (p, 234 below), both editions of Holinshed read 2Jcacc for concorde.
Holinshed has : " exhorting them ... to conforme themselues to reason,
... so that, in concluding a godlie peace, they might receiue profit and
quietnesse heere in this world," &c. The equivalent words of Halle are :
" exhorting . . . them, . . . that they would . . . conforme themselfes to
reason, and to Godly concorde, by the whiche they should receaue honor,
profite, and continuall quietnesse in the worlde," &c. LI. 83 and 95, 96,
Act III. so. ii. (pp. 225, 226), were probably derived from Holinshed.
Fabyan may have yielded some details in Act I. sc. iii. (p. 213), Act III.
sc. i. (p. 221), and Act III. sc. ii. (p. 225). LI. 61-71, Act IV. sc. vii.
(p. 233), were copied from an epitaph published by Crompton and Brooke
in 1599 and 1619, respectively. ^

The reviser who turned The Contention into The Second Part of Henry \\
VI. was indebted to Holinshed or Stow for York's full pedigree ^ (pp. 256- \\
258). Amalgamated with the dramatic version of Cade's revolt are many
particulars — recorded by these chroniclers — of the villeins' outbreak in the
reign of Richard II. (pp. 271, 272, 272 n. 2, 273 n. 4, 277, 278). Recourse ^
to Holinshed (p. 251) is indicated by 11. 163, 164, Act I. sc. iii. ; and a hint ''
for the Entry at Act II. sc. iv. 1. 16, was probably taken from his chronicle
(p. 261). The excerpts from Holinshed (pp. 246-249, 281), and from.Stow
(pp. 253, 261), may be regarded as possible sources of the play both in its

1 Balle, 256 ("This deadly," &c., p. 306), the last clause of Ealle, 293 (p. 334),—
including the words " periured duke," — and Ilalle, 300 (p. 338), are in the first edition
of Holinshed. Balle, 296 (p. 337) and 295 (p. 338, n. 2), are slightly changed in Hoi. ed. 1.

2 Slight verbal resemblances suggest that the text of the inscription given by Brooke
was the immediate source of these lines. See p. 233, n. 1, below.

3 The pedigree in The Contention (1594) is very erroneous and defective. In The
Whole Contention (1619) some mistakes were corrected, but York's descent from
Philippa, daugliter of Lionel Duke of Clarence, was not traced.



xii PREFACE.

original and enlarged form. The same may be said of the quotations from
Fabyan^ at pp. 246, 2G8, 276, and 286 ; though, in I. i. 114, the reviser uses
a phrase — not, however, an uncommon one — which occurs vcrhatim in that
chronicler (p. 245). A doubtful instance of resort to Hardyng will be
found at p. 262. Neither Halle nor Holinshed gives Sir Thomas More's
story of the sham miracle at St. Albans (pp. 253-255) ; dramatized in both
forms of the play.

^ The Third Part of Henry VI. is, as a rule, based on Halle or on his
paraphraser Holinshed ; but the dramatist appears to have profited also
by Stow and parts of Holinshed's compilation which were not drawn from
Halle. See pp. 291 n. 3, 293, 295, 296, 299, 302, 309.

Holinshed was the chief historical source of Richard III. Halle and
Grafton contain the story mentioned in HI. v. 76-79 (p. 374). In an Entry
at HI. vii. 94 (p. 383) Halle or Grafton's continuation of Hardyng was
turned to account.

The primary authorities dramatized in Henry VIII. are Halle, Stow,
Polydore Vergil, Foxe, and Cavendish. These materials — Foxe excepted
— are brought together in the second edition of Holinshed. Most of the
Fifth Act and some other portions of the play were derived from Foxe.

Valuable as Holinshed's Chronicles were as a store-house of our national
history, the method pursued by the editors was uncritical. Thus, Raphael
and his successors interwove the late and mostly fictitious Historia
Britonum with authentic notices of British affairs, taken from Roman
writers. (See pp. 7-13 below.) A few meagre facts recorded by JNIarianus
Scottus, Tighernac, the Ulster Annals, and the Saxon Chronicle embrace
nearly all that we know about the real Macbeth, but Holinshed presented
to the reader a circumstantial romance composed by Hector Bocce. From
the scant genuine particulars extant, we may, I think, conjecture that
Macbeth was not regarded as "an vntitled Tyrant" {Macl. IV. iii. 104)
among his own Gaelic countrymen dwelling north of Edinburgh, though, in
the Anglicized region of Lothian, his rival Malcolm— who had adopted the
customs of strangers — was doubtless preferred.^ It is certain at least that



^ Halle (246, n. 2) is a more likdy source of I. i. 159 tlitin Fah., whom I have quoted
in the text (24G). From HalU (217, n. 2) also, perliap.s, ratlier tliau from Holh reprint
of Blow (247), came I. i. 191-193.

2 These facts, recorded in the Saxon Chronide (ed. Inf^ram, p. 307), are siVn i fioant :
Malcolm III., and Marj^aret, his English wife, died in 1093. ]>isivi,'arding the claim of
their sons, "the Scots [the Gael] then chose Dufenal [Donalbain] to king, IMelcolm's
brother, and drove out all the English that formerly were with the king Melcolm."



PREFACE. Xlll

Macbeth ruled for fourteen jears ; ^ from the time when young ^ Duncan
^as murdered to the day when Siward triumphed. Three of the stories
;ommon]y associated with Macbeth — the weird sisters' predictions, Birnam
»Vood coming to Dunsinane, and his death at the hand of a foe not born
of woman — were first narrated by Andrew Wyntoun, Prior of St. Serf, who
finished his Cronyhil of Scotland about 1424. According to Wyntoun,
Macbeth saw the weird sisters in a dream (p. 24, n. 1, below), and was
slain by a "knycht," whose name is not given. Subjected to the fancy of
Boece, the dream became an apparition ; and the nameless knight assumed
definite shape as Macdufij Thane of Fife. Fordun, — who was writing in
the last quarter of the fourteenth century, — and Wyntoun, first make
mention of Macduff. Banquo and Fleance were, I suppose, creatures of
Boece's imagination. Of Gruoch, Macbeth's wife, there is one contemporary
memorial. It is a copy of a charter whereby " Machbet filius finlach . . .
& gruoch filia bodhe rex et regina Scotorw??z. " gave Kyrkenes to the Culdees
of St. Serfs monastery on Loch Leven ; free of all obligations save the duty
of praying for the donors.^

The purpose of this book does not include a detailed examination of
the evidence which a dramatist found in the printed chronicles of his
times, and I therefore say no more anent the materials used by Holinshed.
I warn the reader (if a caution be needed) to take with a large grain of
salt what Holinshed, Halle, and others relate concerning the youthful
follies of Henry V., the evil life and death of Cardinal Beaufort, and the
crimes of Cardinal Wolsey. The shameful charges against Jeanne Dare
need, of course, no comment. Before, however, closing these prefatory |
words, I shall briefly notice two cases in which treatment of character has
far exceeded such historical warrant as was easily accessible. Margaret of



Dmcan II. — a son of Malcolm by a prior union— assembled an Anglo-Norman army
and deposed Donalbain. '' But the Scots afterwards gathered some force together, and
slew fall nigh all his men ; and he himself with a few made his escape. Afterwards
they were reconciled, on the condition that he never again brought into the land English
or French." See pp. 41, 42 below.

1 In 1046, according to Ann. Dunelm. (Pertz, xix. 508), Siward dethroned Macbeth,
who, however, was speedily reinstated. A revolt seems to have broken out on behalf
of Duncan's sons, for under the year 1045 we find the following entry: "Battle
between the Albanich on both sides, in which Crinan, abbot of Dunkeld [Dimcan's
father], was slain, and many with him, viz. nine times twenty heroes." — Tighernac
(Skene), 78.

2 Dreaming of Duncan's murder. Lady Macbeth says : " yet who would haue thought
the olde man to haue had so much blood in him " (V. i. 43-45). The historical Duncan I.
was slain "iramatura etate." — Tighernac (Skene), 78.

3 Liber Cartarum Prioratm Sancti Andree in Scotia (Bannatyne Club), ed. T.
Thomson, 1841, p. 114.



XIV PREFACE. r

Anjou's guilty love for SuflFolk is sheer fiction ; or was perhaps inferred
from expressions which describe him as a minister whom she trusted.
"By the queenes meanes," we are told, Suffolk was "aduanced so in
authoritie, that he mled the king at his pleasure" {Hoi. iii. 626/1/43.
Halle, 207). She is saiTTalso to have "intierlie loued the duke" (Hoi. iii.
632/1 Ig. Halle, 218). Moreover, Halle (219, om. Hoi.) employed a phrase
capable of injurious construction when he called Suffolk "the Queues
'^ dearlynge." There can be little doubt that Richard III. was unscrupulous
in gratifying his ambition, but he was not a flawless villain, who loved evil
for its own sake, apart from its results. Just before the armies joined
battle at Bosworth he is alleged to have thus disclosed to his followers
remorse for his nephews' murder: "And although in the adeption and
obteigning of the garland, I, being seduced and prouoked by sinister
counsell and diabolicall temptation, did commit a wicked and detestable
act, yet I haue with streict penance and salt tears (as I trust) expiated
& cleerelie purged the same offense : which abominable crime I require
you of frendship as cleerelie to forget, as I dailie remember to deplore and
lament the sume" (Hoi. iii. 756/i/i8. Halle, 415). Other parts of his
speech were Avorked into the play (pp. 416, 417 below), but this passage
was ignored, and some prelusive words,^ well becoming the superhuman
impiety of the dramatic Richard, were invented. Still, he was false to
himself once, and a parallel of this passage is, perhaps, to be found in
the confession (V. iii. 193-200) wrung from him by the dreams of his
last night.

The plan of ShaJcspere's Holinshed requires brief explanation. The
historical excerpts are arranged in the dramatic order, and the action
of the j)lay which they illustrate is briefly described. I quote the second
edition (1587) of Holinshed's Ch-onicles. Each excerpt is preceded by
a bracketed reference to the volume, page, column, and first line of the
quotation, as it stands in that edition. The three volumes of Holinshed
are cited as Hoi. i. H. E. (Holinshed, vol. i., Histoi-ie of England), Hoi. ii.
H. S. (Holinshed, vol. ii., Histoo-ic of Scotland), and Hoi. iii. (Holinsiied,
vol. iii.). The line-numbers of the Globe Shakespeare (1891) are followed



^ " Let not our babling Dreames affrij^lit our soules :
Conscience is but a word that Cowards vse
Deuis'd at first to keepe the strong in awe :
Our strong armes be our Conscience, Swords our Law !
March on, ioyne brauely, let va to't pell nu'll ;
If not to heaueu, then hand in hand to Hell ! "

(V. iii. 308-313. Q. reading of 1. 309.)



PEEFACE. XV

ill quoting or referring to the plays. Identical words arc italicized both
in the excerpts and the plays compared.^

New sidenotes, and additions to the original text or sidenotes of the
chronicles quoted, are bracketed. The original punctuation of the excerpts
from Holinshed's Chronicles, given on pp. 1-32, has been slightly modified,
but, in subsequent pages, I have freely altered, augmented, and — in
comparatively few cases — retrenched it.

The assistance and advice of Mr. P. A. Daniel, Dr. F. J. Furnivall, and
the late Dr. Brinsley Nicholson have been of great service to me. I am
much beholden to Mr. James Gairdner for his responses to various
questions touching historical matters. I am also obliged to Mr. James E.
Doyle and the Rev. S. J. Johnson for the communications which are given
at pp. QQ, 396, below. Mr. Oswald Barron and Mr. Halliday Sparling
supplied me with those citations of public records which have appended
to them the initials 0. B. and H. S. To my brother I am indebted for the
dedicatory inscription of this book, and my thanks are due to my sister for
reading proofs.

I would here acknowledge my general obligations to the Right Hon.
T. P. Courtenay's Commentaries on the Historical Plays of Shahsjpcare, and
to Mr. G. R. French's Shakspeareana Gcnealogica. I have had the ad-
vantage of consulting Sir James H. Ramsay's Lancaster and YorJc, and
the published volumes of Mr. J. H. Wylie's History of England under
Henry the Fourth.

Walter George Boswell-Stone.

Beckenham, Julxj 29, 1896.



* The original black-letter sidenotes have been set in italic. A few words — for
example, Bequiem, (p. 128 below) — have been left in the original italic. Italic has been
substituted for the Roman type which, in copies of Holinshed, distinguish writers'
names — for example, Galfrid (p. 14) — from the black-letter text.



AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO IN THIS BOOK.

An asterisk (*) indicates that an authority is contemporaneous or nearly contemporaneous with
the event related below. A dash ( — ) precedes the last date of an authority, when the first year
is not given.

* Aim. Burton. Annales de Burton. 1004 — 1263. H. E. Luard. (Chronicles and
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