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Raymond J McGough.

Local environmental factors affecting ice formation in North Star Bugt, Greenland online

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the case pointed out here is figures 23 and 2U> where the observed values
for snow cover and temperatures are used. Difficulty in making accurate
long-range predictions of snow depths and temperatures will vary for dif-
ferent areas. In general, the larger the monthly variation of these par-
ticular parameters, the more difficult the forecast will be Comparatively
the variation for these two parameters is small in the area of Thule.



For instance, table III indicates that the snowfall varies very
little . Therefore, accurate predictions for this element are relatively
easy* Temperature forecasting, however, is not so easy, as is evidenced
in figure 20, which shows considerable variation© For example, on 15
November 19h7 there was an accumulation of about 650 (°F,) degree days
of frost as compared to 1,200 (° F©) degree days of frost on the same
date in 1953 • In referring to figure 23 this difference would mean
approximately 10 inches more ice (19 versus 29 inches ). Of course,
the comparison assumes ell other influencing factors to be the same,,
This is clearly an extreme case 8 In other years the temperature values
are more nearly equal.

VI, CONCLUSIONS

The area of North Star Bugt and Wolstenholme Fjord constitutes an
open bay with free water exchange at all depths from surface to the
bottom. The special characteristics of this area from an oceanographic
standpoint are 1) the presence of continual water exchange and hence
temporal continuity in thermohaline structure, 2) the relatively small
importance of runoff water, and 3) the small annual change in surface
water temperatures during the open season,,

North Star Bugt, although a harbor suitable for shipping operations,
is not a closed water system but, instead, is an arm of Wolstenholm©
Fjord and open at all levels. Since the water of the bay is continually
mixed with that of the fjord, the thermohaline structure remains re-
latively constant from week to week* This continuity, in turn, is an
essential prerequisite for long-range ice forecasting, in which the
thermohaline structure must be studied in early autumn and the heat
budget utilized on the basis of the early sampling. It also makes
possible the use of an oceanographic sampling in deep water to predict
ice growth in the bay.

There is relatively little runoff into North Star Bugt, coming mostly
from the Pitufik River. This runoff stops by the first week in September,
so that there is essentially no runoff problem thereafter; the water sa-
linity remains nearly constant, increasing slightly due to evaporation.

The combination of the above characteristics makes North Star Bugt
a suitable harbor for the use of the techniques of long-range ice pre-
diction even though these techniques were developed for use in open-
water areas » The 1953 long-range ice prediction verified satisfactorily,
as shown by figures 23 and 2lu

In one aspect North Star Bugt presents obstacles to long-range ice
prediction methods. The techniques assume that the ice remains in situ
once it is formed. In North Star Bugt, however, it is normal for the ice
to break up in the area of the pier as often as three times during the
freeaeup period, sometimes not permanently until the first part of November,
Similar movement of the ice will generally apply to the greater part of
Baffin Bay north of 70° N»





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Table III

MONTHLY SNOWFALL IN INCHES



1946



1947



1949



Average



January




1.0


0.4


0.4


0.6


February




0.9


0.6


0.1


0.5


March




1.1


0.4


0.4


0.6


April




6.1


0.5


T


2.2


May




2.1


1.2


T


1.1


June




2.5


T


0.0


0.8


July




0.0


T


T


T


August




T


T


T


T


September




3.5


3.2


T


2.2


October


1.1


T


4.5


0.2


1.5


November


1.8


4.9


1.1


2.0


2.4


December


2.4


4.3


0.5


0.3


1.9










Annual


13.7




19




1? 3 3 §



ro fo m ro cm cj

Cdo) 3UniVU3dlAI3I



20



SV.. 31.0 31.2 31.4 31.6 31.8 32.0 32.2 32.4 32.6 32.8 33.0 33.2 33.4 33.6 33.8 34.0 34 2 34.4 34.6 34 8 35.0
T-C-2 -1.9 -1.8 -1.7 -1.6 -1.5 -1.4 -1.3 -1.2 -I.I -1.0 -0.9 -0.8 0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0
25 00 25.20 25 40 25.60 25 80 26.00 26 20 26 40 26.60 26.80 27.00 27.20 27.40 27.60 27.80 2 8.00 28.20 28.40 2 8.60 28.80 2 9.00




FIGURE 3. TEMPERATURE 9 SALINITY, AND DENSITY PROFILES FOR SITE A, 29 SEPTEMBER 1953



3 12

- 1.9
25 20



3 1.4 31.6

- 1.8 - 1.7
25 40 25.60



32.2 32.4 32.6 32.8 33.0 33 2 33.4 336 33.8 3 4.0 342 344 346 348 35.0

-14 -1.3 -1.2 -I.I -1.0 -09 -0.8 -0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -01 00

2620 26 40 26 60 26S0 2700 27 20 27.40 27.60 27.80 28 00 2820 28 40 28.60 2880 29 00




FIGURE 4. TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, AND DENSITY PROFILES FOR SITE A, 6 OCTOBER 1953



S%» 31 31 2

T °C -2 -1.9

a, Z5.00 2520



to



31.4 316' 311.



25.40 25.60' 25.6



Sg'.G' 32 2 32 4 32 6 32 8 330 33.2 33.4 336 33 8 34.0' 34.2 344 346. 348 35.0
-|i 5 -r4 4 3 -12 -II -to -09* -00 -07 -0.6 -0:5 -0.4 -03 -0'2' -Oil 0.0

26:00' 26.20 2640- 26.60 2680 27.00 27.20 2740 2760 2780 28.00' 28:20 2840 28:60 2880 29.00



20

30
40 •
50
60

70

m

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FIGURE 5. TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, AND DENSITY PROFILES FOR SITE A, 12 OCTOBER 1953



S %„ 310 31.2 314 316 31 B 32 32 2 32 4 32 6 32 8 330 33.2 33.4 336 338 34.0 34.2 344 346 34 8 35.0

1 °C -2.0 -1.9 -1.8 -17 -16 -1.5 -1.4 -13 -12 -I.I -1.0 -09 -08 -07 -06 -05 -0 4 -03 -0 2 -0.1 00

CTt 25.00 2520 2540 2560 25.80 26.00 2620 26.40 26.60 26.80 27.00 27.20 2740 2760 27 80 2800 2820 28.40 28.60 2880 2900



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FIGURE 6 TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, AND DENSITY PROFILES FOR SITE A, 21 OCTOBER 1953




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FIGURE 20. HISTORICAL DEGREE DAYS OF FROST



31 MAY

CURVES



36




500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 950010000

DEGREE DAYS OF FROST (°F)



FIGURE 21. COMPUTED
CQMPUTATt



JURVES FOR SELECTED S!
BASED ON DATA FROM S!TE A , 29 SEPTEMBER !953.




500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 95001000C

DEGREE DAYS OF FROST (BASE 28.8°F)



FIGURE 22. COMPUTED ICE-GROWTH
COMPUTATION BASED ON



S FOR SELECTED SNOW COVERS.
FROM SITE A . 12 OCTOBER 1953.



37



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100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200



DEGREE DAYS OF FROST (°F.)

FIGURE 23. COMPUTED AND OBSERVED SCE - GR0WTH
CURVES FOR NEW ICE



38



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DEGREE DAYS OF FRQST(°F.)

FIGURE 24. COMPUTED AND OBSERVED ICE- GROWTH
CURVES FOR OLD ICE



39



BIBLIOGRAPHY

LEE, O.S. and SIMPSON, L.S. A practical method of predicting sea ice

formation and growth, U. S. Hydrographic Office Technical Report 4t
9 p., 17 fig., 1954.

U.S. AIR FORCE. Daily weather records; Thule, Greenland, 1953, /n.pj 7 "
Unpublished.

U.S. WEATHER BUREAU. Ice measurements in North Star Bugt; Thule, Green-
land, 1948-1949, /n.pj' Unpublished.

Climatology summary; Thule, Greenland, October, 1946 through December,

1949, 38 p., 1950.



40



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2

Online LibraryRaymond J McGoughLocal environmental factors affecting ice formation in North Star Bugt, Greenland → online text (page 2 of 3)