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* Vols. 1-3 in one cover. Bnginning with voJume 4, a title page and index for eaeh toIiuim
is to be found at the end of the annual report for eaeh year. The year coverad by a Tobnae
formerly was the calendar year, but now it extenda from July 1 to June 90. Each VDluDe,
^•r»»»»g with Tolume 4. is paged aeparately. The Bulletina of a given year precede the Be
port, and the latter ia paged in continuation of the laat Bulletin belonging in the volume.



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BULLETINS



Aim



ANNUAL REPORT



OF



Rhode Island
Agricultural Experiment Station,



VOB THB



YEAR ENDING JUNE 30,

1905.



PROVIDENCE:

£*. L. FREBXAK * SONS, STATE PRIKTKHS

1006.



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IISTDEX

OF TBI

BULLETINS AND ANNUAL REPORT

OF TBI

Rhode Isuid Agricetuml Experiieit Smioi,

FOB TBI

TSAB BNBIKG JUNE 30, 1905.



PAOB.

Agriculture, U. S. Department of, oo-operation with 189, 190

Agricultural value of sodium salts 49-92, 111-138

Agronomy and Chemical Divisions, report of 223-288

Division of, outline of work of 185-188

American A'gl Chemical Co.'s goods, analyses of 4, 5

Farmers' Fertilizer Co.'s goods, analyses of 6, 7

Ammonium-citrate treatment, postponement of 227-230

Analyses, miscellaneous 223-228

Andrews' S. D., Son, wood ashes, analysis of 12

Animal Husbandry, Division of, outline of work of 179-183

Apple maggot 197, 198

resistance to wind 198, 199

Barley, Manshury, sodium salts, effect upon 67-61, 86

Beans, sodium salts, effect upon 78-^, 90

Beets, sodium salts, effect upon 63-66, 67, 129-132

Binding, directions for 362

Bowker Fertilizer Co., goods, analyses of 6-12

NoTB. — For pp. 1-14 see Bui. 102 ; for pp. 15-46 see Bui. 103 ; for pp. 47-92 aee Bui. 104 ;
for pp. 03-108 MO Bui. 105; for pp. 109-154 see Bui. 106 ; for pp. 155-168 see Bui. 107.



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iv. R. I. Agl. Expt. Sta. Rep., 1905.



Bran, analyses of 98

Brewers' grains, analyses of 100

Bush-fruits 199, 200

Canot,'8odium salts, effect upon 69-71, 88, 126-129

Cauliflower grown under tent 212

Celery grown under tent 213

Chemical Division, outline of work of 188, 189

Chicory, sodium salts, effect upon 66-68, 88, 123-126

Coe, £. Frank, Co.'s goods, analyses of 6, 7, 8, 9

Commercial feeding stuffs, analyses of 96-102

hints and suggestions regarding 103-107

Com seliection 200, 201

meal, analyses of 99

sodium salts, effect upon 111-117

Cotton-seed meal, analyses of 96

Cucumbers grown in glasa-house 166, 167

Dairy feed, analyses of 101

Director, report of 179-193

Exchanges 348-351

Feed, mixed, analyses of 96, 97, 98

Fertilizers, postponement of ammonium-citrate treatment 227-230

summary of complete, analyzed 13

Frauley's, T. H., wood ashes, analyses of 12

Qlass-house culture, influence of soil treatment in 157-167

Qluten feed, analyses of 96

meal, analyses of 96

Qrass, amount of nitrogen and mineral ingredients removed 22-27

analyses of dry matter in 21, 34, 40

culture experiments in 17-45

financial gain from nitrate of soda on 27-30

formula for annual topdressing 44

NoTB.— For pp. 1-14 see Bui. 102 ; for pp. 15-46 see Bui. 103 ; for pp. 47-02 sea Bui. 104 ;
for pp. 03-108 see Bui. 105 ; for pp. 100-154 see Bui. 106 ; for pp. 155-168 see Bui. 107.



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IndIjx. v.

PAOB.

Grass land, eoonomical quantities of acid phosphate for 30-^5, 42

muriate of potash for 35-40, 43

nitrogen for 18-30

sodium salts, effect upon 138-149

Hominy chops, anal3r8es of 99

feed, analyses of 99

meal, analyses of 99

Horse feed, analyses of 101

Horticultural Division, outline of work of 183-185

report of 197-219

Lettuce, grown under tent 210

sodium salts, effect upon 73-75, 89

Liming, effect of, upon soil constituents 242-252

Linseed meal, analyses of 96

oil meal, analyses of 96

Malt sprouts, analyses of 101

Meteorologist, report of 327-343

Middlings, analyses of 101

Millet, golden, sodium salts, effect upon 61-63, 87

Mitchell Fertilizer Co.'s goods, analyses of 8, 9

Mixed feeds, analyses of 96, 97

Molaases-beet-pulp, dried, analyses of 102

grains, analyses of 98, 99

National Fertilizer Co.'s goods, analyses of 8, 9

Ohio Farmers' Fertilizer Co.'s goods, analyses of 8, 9

Oat feed, analyses of 102

Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Co.'s goods, analyses of 8, 9

Peanut bran, analyses of 102

Phosphates, bone, effect of nitrogen associated with 267

effect of, upon phosphoric add content of crops 259-264

Nora.— For pp. 1-14 see Bui. 102 ; for pp. 15-46 see Bui. 103 ; for pp. 47-02 see Bui. 104 :
for pp. 93-108 aee Bui. 105 ; for pp. 109-154 see Bui. 106 ; for pp. 155-168 see BuL 107.



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vi. R. I. Agl. Expt?Sta. Rep., 1905.

PAGB.

Phosphoric add, deficiencies, ascertaining 253-285

determination, method of 231-235

Phosphorus, soil, effect of lime upon the assimilability of 264-267

solvent action of dilute add upon soil 273-281

Plant growth as affected by sodium and potassium salts 40-^2, 111-138

peculiarities as shown by sodium salts 49-92, 111-138

Potassium and sodium salts, after-effect of 138-149

Poultry feed, analyses of 102

Radishes grown in greenhouse 159-164

Rhode Island soil, causes of unproductivity in a 286-323

Rogers & Hubbard Co.'s goods, analyses of 8, 9

Rotation, a market garden 201-204

Russia Cement Co.'s goods, analyses of 10, 11

Rye, effect of sodium salts on growth of 64-57, 86

Sanderson Fertilizer & Chemical Co.'s goods, analyses of 10, 11

Ship stuff, analysis of ^ 98

Shoemaker, M. L., & Co.'s goods, analyses of 10, 11

Sodium salts, agricultural value of 49-92, 111-138

effect upon growth of beets 63-66, 87, 129-132

bariey, Manshury 57-61, 86

beans. 78-80, 90

carrots 69-71, 88, 126-129

com .111-117

clucory 66-«, 88, 123-126

grass 138-149

lettuce 73-75, 89

millet, golden 61-63, 87

radish. 75-78, 89, 119-123

rye, spring 54-^57, 86

squash, sunmier 132-136

soy bean 136-138

turnip, flat 80-82, 90

rutarbaga 82-85, 91

and potassium salts, after effect of 138-149

Nora.— For pp. 1-14 aee Bui. 102 ; for pp. 15-M aee Bui. 103 ; for pp. 47-92 see Bui. 104 ;
for pp. 93-106 tee Bui. 105 ; for pp. 109-154 see Bui. 106 ; for pp. 165-168 eee Bui. 107.



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Index. vii.

PAOB.

Soil, causes of unproductivity in a Rhode Island 289-323

constituents, effect of liming upon 242-252

Station staff 192-193

Stock-feed, analyses of 101

Strawberry seedlings 215-219

Tomatoes grown in greenhouse 164-166

Treasurer, report of 345

Vegetables, tent covering for 210-215

Wilcox Fertilizer Works, goods, analyses of 10, 11 '

Wood-ashes, analyses of 12

NoTB.— For pp. 1-14 see Bui. 102 ; for pp. 15-46 see Bui. 103 ; for pp. 47-02 see Bui. 104 ;
for pp. 93-106 see Bui. 106 ; for pp. 10»-164 see Bui. 106 ; for pp. 166-168 see Bui. 107.



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NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT

•F THV

RHODE ISLAND

Agrigdltural Experiment Station

1905-1906.



r-'^




PA.RT II.

OF TH»

NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT

OF THB

■ CORPORATION, BOARD OF MANAGERS

OF TUS

Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts,

MADK TO TH«

GENERAL ASSEMBLY AT ITS JANUARY SESSION, 1907.



[PABTB L AKD III. OF THIB REPORT ~ RePOBT OF PrESIDKNT AND BOABD OF MaITAGSBS AKS
COLLKOB CATALOOUB — ARE PBINTED UlfDXR 8EPABATX COTBRB.]



PROVIDENCE, R. I. :

B. L. FRBBMAB COMFANT, PRINTBRB TO THB BTATB.
1907.



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BOARD OF MANAGERS

OF THB

RHODE ISLAND |

College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.



Chas. Dean Kimball, Prendent, - - - - Providence Co., Providenoe, R I.

Robert S. Burlinoame, Vice-President, - - Newport Co., Newport^ R. L
C. H. CoGQEBHALL, Clerk and Treaeurer, .... Bristol Co., Bristol, R. L

Thomas G. Mathewson, ...... Kent Co., East Greenwich, R. I.

J. V. B. Watson, Washington Co., Wakefield, R. I.



EXPERIMENT STATION COUNCIL.

^ ^ . ,, ( President of the CoQ^.

Kenton L. Buttbbfield, A. M., -J „ ^ . ,, .

( EsHifficio Member.

H. J. Wheeler, Ph. D., ..... Director, Chemistry and Agronomy.

Fred W. Card, M. Sc, Horticulture.

Cooper Curtice, D. V. S., M. D., - - - - Animal Husbandry.

Burt L. Hartwell, Ph.D., - Associate, Chemistry.

George E. Adams, B. Sc, - Associate, Agronomy.

H. L. Barnes, B. Sc, Assistant, Horticulture.

W. F. Kirkpatrick,* B. Agr., B. £., ... Assistant, Animal Husbandry.

A. W. Richardson, B. Sc, - - - - - Assistant, Agronomy.



OTHER MEMBERS OF THE STATION STAFF.



P. H. Wessels, B. Sc, - Assistant, Chemistry.

F. L. YEAW,t B. Sc, Assistant, Chemistry

J. Frank Morgan, M. A., Assistant, Chemistry.

F. G. Ketes, B. Sc, Temporary Assistant, Chemistry.

Nathaniel Helme, -.. - . Meteorology.

Beulah a. Hoitt, Stenographer and Accountant.

E. Elizabeth Meears, Stenographer and Librarian.

THb publicationa of the Station vfiU he maUed fne on nquetl to any on§ in RkoiU Itland «»-
tereated in agriatUun, The Station detireM the eo-operaiion of the farmen of the Stale m tke
work of inveetigation, and any fade of epecial irOereet eoneen ti ng animal or veyelahle yroielh or
dieeaee are eolicited. Vieitore are alwaye weleome. Railway elation, teiegraph. ixjwiii. and
poei-oifioe—Kingeton Rhode leland. Long dietanee telephone, Narraganeett P%er exchange.

*Ebcpert in the Bureau of Animal InduBtry. U. 8. Department of Asrieultura. Eagaced
in co-operative work between the Bureau and the Station.

tAppointed special acent in the Bureau of Soils, U. 8. Department of Acrieulture. Wash-
incton, D. C. Engaced in co-operative work between the Bureau and the Station.



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL,



To His Excellency, James H. Higgins, Governor, and the Honorable
the General Assembly of the State of Rhode Island, at its January
Session, 1907.

Kingston, R. I., January 1, 1907.

I have the pleasure to present herewith, in compliance with the
statute of the State and the Congressional act of March 2, 1887,
the Report of the Director of the Rhode Island Agricultural Ex-
periment Station for the year ended June 30, 1906.

Respectfully submitted.

For the Board of Managers,

CHARLES DEAN KIMBALL,
President.



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AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

OF THE

Rhode Island College op Agmcultube and Mechanic Arts.

Kingston, R. I., June 30, 1906.

Hon. Charles Dean Kimball,

President, Board of Managers.

Sir: — I have the honor to transmit herewith the Nineteenth
Annual Report of the Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Station
for the year ending June 30, 1906.

Respectfully yours,

H. J. WHEELER,

Director.



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TABLE OF CONTENTS



PAQB

Board of Managers 140

Experiment Station Staff 140

Letter of Transmittal to the Governor and General Assembly 141

Board of Managers 143

Table of Contents 145

Report of Director 149

Division of Horticulture 159

Destroying Charlock in Grain Fields 159

Grafting Wax 160

Lawn Experiment 162

A Market Garden Rotation 166

A Raspberry Score-Card 168

Sterilized Soil 169

Tent Covering for Vegetables 172

Division of Chemistry 181

Miscellaneous Analyses 183

Concerning the Functions of Sodium Salts 186

Meteorologist 317

Treasurer 334

Directions for Binding 337

Exchanges 338

Index i-vii



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DIRECTOR'S REPORT.



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REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR



Kingston, R. I., August 15, 1906.

To Honorable Charles Dean Kimballj President of the Board of Man-
agers of the Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Mechanic
Arts,

Sir: — Below will be found a report concerning the work of the
Experiment Station for the year ended June 30, 1906.

Division of Chemistry.

The Division of Chemistry has continued the collection and analy-
sis of commercial fertilizers and commercial feeding-stuffs. Two
Bulletins have been published during the year on fertilizers, and one
on feeding-stuffs.

It is believed that the publication of these analyses, especially the
latter, has exerted an especially beneficial influence, and the cor-
respondence with manufacturers whose goods were found to be faulty
has in most cases resulted in immediate steps being taken to correct
the condition.

That such efforts are necessary in order to keep the goods up to a
proper standard must be evident to anyone who examines with care
the recent Bulletin No. 112.

Aside from the routine analytical work in connection with other
divisions, the most important analyses of the year have been made in
connection with the study of the assimil ability or actual agricultural
value of organic nitrogen derived from a considerable number of
different sources, and in the course of the study of the functions, and
the agricultural value, of certain sodium salts.



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160 R. I. Aql. Expt. Sta. Rep., 1906.

In all the work of the diviaion I have been ably assisted by Doctor
Hartwelly who has had the entire responsibility for all of the labora-
tory details and for the continuation of the work on the assimil-
ability of nitrogen.

Further details concerning special work of the Chemical Division
can be found in an article on the sodium investigations, which is to be
found in the subsequent pages.

Division op Horticulture.

The Horticultural Division has continued the experiments out-
lined in my report of the previous year. In addition an experiment
has been begun for the purpose of testing various individual grasses,
mixtures of grasses, and combinations of certain grasses with common
white clover, in order to ascertain their relative adaptability for ordi-
nary lawns, golf links, and polo grounds. In connection with this
trial it is designed to test the influence of various manurial combinar
tions upon the permanence of the clover and of the several grasses.

Further details of the work of the division may be found embodied
in the special report of the Horticulturist, Professor Card, which is to
be found in the subsequent pages.

Division op Agronomy.

The general work of the Division of Agronomy has been continued
in essentially the lines laid down in my former report. It consists in
the study of seven different rotations of crops, a trial of the relative
efflciency of several different phosphatic manures, a study of the
agricultural value of sodium salts, the influence of lime upon the
growth of miscellaneous plants, the most economical mixtures of
manures for use in grass culture, the efficiency of Peruvian guano
for grass and certain hoed crops, variety tests of early field com and
of potatoes, experiments in continuous corn and grass culture, and
tests of various fungicides and insecticides.



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Report of the Director. 151

My aesociate in this work, Mr. George E. Adams, has entire charge
of all the details, and has carried on independently the experiments
with potato varieties, potato spraying, and fungicides.

Division op Animal Husbandry.

The energies of the Division of Animal Husbandry, which is under
the direction of Doctor Curtice, have been devoted, as heretofore, to
questions of incubation and brooding, in connection with ordinary
fowl. In addition experiments have been begun with guinea fowl,
and pheasants, in the same direction. At the same time it was hoped
to learn some of the causes of the losses of young pheasants, to study
the methods of avoiding loss, and to ascertain if these two kinds of
birds are immune to the blackhead disease (Entero-hepatttis, Smith)
which is so fatal to the turkeys.

The chief work of the division has been in ascertaining, if possible
under what conditions turkeys could be reared successfully, the
means by which the black-head disease is communicated, and how it
can be most successfully combated.

In this connection the attempt is being made, in cooperation with
the Bureau of Animal Industry of the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, to ascertain if wild turkeys are immune to the disease and if it
is not possible to breed immune birds which shall possess high eco-
nomic value for various purposes.

Great difficulty has been experienced in securing wild stock, owing
to the fact that in several states and territories the laws prohibit the
exportation of the live birds. Nevertheless the local laws permit the
shooting of wild turkeys for several weeks during the year. In order
to meet this difficulty it has become necessary to appeal to the local
authorities to take steps to have the laws modified so as to permit the
eapture of wild turkeys in limited numbers for scientific breeding
purposes. Owing to the fact that the legislatures in most cases
meet only biennially, much time and patience is required to secure
help by way of local legislation.



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152 R. I. Agl. Expt. Sta. Rep., 1906.

Doctor Curtice now has a Bulletin in preparation which will set
forth some of the results obtained in connection with the turkey work,
and during the coming year it is hoped that additional matter con-
cerning turkeys, and also the results of the unpublished work on incu-
bation and brooding, may be issued.

The Adams Act.

Through the energy of the late Hon. H. C. Adams, Representative
in Congress from Wisconsin, aided by the fanners' organizations
throughout the United States, an act was passed by Congress, on
March 16, 1906, increasing the appropriation for each Agricultural
Experiment Station in the United States $5,000 for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1906; $7,000 for the following fiscal year, and so on
until the additional annual appropriation shall reach the sum of $15,-
000; or in other words until the total annual appropriation including
the fund derived from the Hatch act, shall reach the simi of $30,000
per annum.

Under a subsequent ruling of the Comptroller of the Treasury it was
held that the first appropriation was not legally made to begin before
the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1906. In view of this a rider was '
attached to the Agricultural Appropriation bill, interpreting the act
in such a way as to make the fund available from and after March 16,
1906. This bill was not, however, passed until a day or two before
the close of the fiscal year, on which account, due to the lapsing of
the fund on June 30 if unexpended, some of the Stations are likely
to lose the whole or a part of the first year's appropriation. By the
passage of this act this Station will have at disposal for the coming
year the sum of $22,000 for experimental purposes, in addition to aid
by way of cooperation on the part of the Bureau of Animal Industry
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture to the extent of $2,150 and on
the part of the Bureau of Soils to the extent of furnishing two men
for several months for investigation work.

Under the interpretation of the authorities in Washington the



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Report of the Director. 153

Adams fund can be applied only to paying the necessary expenses of
conducting original researches or experiments bearing directly on the
agricultural industry of the United States. Expenses for administra-
tion, care of buildings and grounds, insurance, office furniture and fit-
tings, demonstration and institute work, and travelling in connection
with administration duties, the printing and issuing of bulletins and
reports, can not be paid from this fund.

Needs of the Station.

Owing to the increased need of laboratory and office room in
consequence of the passage of the Adams act, it will probably soon
become necessary for the College to withdraw entirely from the Sta-
tion building. Heretofore one of the rooms has heen used exclusively
as an agricultural lecture room and another has been used for a por-
tion of the time as a physical soil laboratory and geological lecture
room. In addition, also, Mr. Stene, who is in charge of the extension
and demonstration work of the College, has maintained his office in
the building and also the heads of the Divisions of Agronomy and
Animal Husbandry of the College.

A most pressing need at the present time is a suitable fire and
moisture proof storage vault, in which all of the records of the ex-
perimental work can be kept. The present safe is practically full, and,
furthermore, it does not afford proper protection in case of fire.

It is obviously undesirable to accumulate experimental data, se-
cured at a cost of many thousands of dollars per year, without pro-
viding a place where they can be secure from the danger of fire. In
addition to the storage vault there should be provided a suitable
office for the Director, where it is possible to do consecutive work
without the continual disturbance which results when he is obliged to
do all of his work, as at present, in the chief business office of the Sta-
tion, which must of necessity be always open to the Station staff and
to the public. In this particular it is a matter of economy to furnish
the same facilities for writing and executive work which are provided



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164 R. I. Agl. Expt. Sta. Rep., 1906.

in every well-ordered business oj£ce and which are usually found in
other experiment stations.

It is of vital importance to the Station at this time that additional
land should be set aside for use in connection with the experiments in
agronomy and horticulture.

PUBUCATIONS OF THE YeAR.

The following is a list of the publications issued during the year:

Eighteenth Annual Report, pp. 179 to 352.

Bulletin No. 108, '' Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers." 12 pp.

Bulletin No. 109, ''A Comparison of the Results Obtained by the Method of
Cultures in Paraffined Wire Pots with the Field Results on the Same Soil." 22
pp.

Bulletin No. 110, "Commercial Fertilizers." 16 pp.

Bulletin No. 1 1 1 , " Potatoes." 16 pp.

Bulletin No. 1 12, " Commercial Feeding-Stuffs." 22 pp.

Bulletin No. 113, ''Continuous Com Culture." 18 pp.

Bulletin No. 114, ''A Test of Nine Phosphates with Different Plants." 23 pp.

Changes in the Station Staff.

On August 21, Mr. W. F. Kirkpatrick, B. Agr., B. E., a graduate of
the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arte, was ap-
pointed expert in the Bureau of Animal Husbandry of the U. 8. De-
partment of Agriculture. He was then detailed to assist in the work
conducted here in turkey breeding, in which the Bureau and Station
are cooperatively engaged.

On September 1, Mr. George E. Adams, B. Sc., formerly assistant
in agronomy was made associate agronomist.

Mr. James W. Kellogg, B. Sc, who had served most acceptably as
assistant chemist at the Station for about three 3^ears, resigned in
January, 1906, to accept a position as chemist in Atlanta, Ga.

On June 5, Mr. Matthew Steel, M. Sc, who had been employed at
the Station under appointment as expert in the Bureau of Soils of



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Report of the Director. 155

U. S. Department of Agriculture in cooperative chemical work con-
cerning the action of sodium salts upon soils and plants, tendered his
resignation in order to take up advanced studies at Columbia College,
New York. Mr. J. P. Gray, B. Sc, who had been connected with the
Station as assistant chemist, also tendered his resignation, which went
into effect on June 9.

The position as stenographer and librarian, made vacant by the
resignation of Miss Martha Vickery at the close of the previous fiscal
year, was filled by the appointment of Miss Alethea R. Puffer, A. B., a
graduate of Mt. Holyoke College, who in turn resigned, on February
1, 1906, to accept a more lucrative position elsewhere. Subsequently
Miss E. Elizabeth Meears was appointed to the position thus made
vacant.

On April 1, Mr. F. L. Yeaw, B. Sc, a graduate of the Massachusetts
Agricultural College, was appointed assistant in agronomy. Early
in May, 1906, he was appointed expert in the Bureau of Soils of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture and was detailed to this Station to



Online LibraryRhode Island Agricultural Experiment StationAnnual report of the Director of the Agricultural Station ... → online text (page 30 of 41)