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account of the American troops from the time of their being levied, to the time of
their discharge ; and when the same shall be fully adjusted and liquidated, you
will transmit it to me, with the proper vouchers, from the several Governors, that
it may be laid before Parliament, to the end that provision may be made for the
payment ; and in the mean time, in order to prevent any comjilaint amongst the
men that have been enlisted, (as well those that shall be discharged, as those that
shall continue in service,) for want of immediate pay, you will recommend it to the
Governors of the provinces, where these levies have been made, to procure credit
from their respective Assemblies for that purpose, which His Majesty hopes may
be done without difficulty.

" It is also His Majesty's pleasure, that Mr. Knowles and you should consider what
number of Americans will be really wanted for the service above mentioned ;
and the King would have you retain as many as may be absolutely necessary for
that service, and no more ; and the King hopes that a small number of Americans,
with His Majesty's forces, which you have, may be sufficient for that purpose, as
the expense of these Americans is very great ; and as to the Americans in general,
except only such as may be wanted for the service above mentioned, it is His Maj-
esty's pleasure, that you, in conjunction with Commodore Knowles, should thank
them in such manner as you think proper, and immediately discharge them upon



230 RECORDS OF THE COLONY OF RHODE ISLAND [1747.'

the best and the cheapest foot you can ; and in order thereto, you .will consult with
the respective governors, upon the manner of closing it ; and you will transmit to
His ALijesly an immediate account of what you shall do therein."

N. 13. This paragraph should have been inserted between the fourth and fifth
paragraphs. W. SHIRLEY,

CHARLES KNOWLES.

To the Hon. Gideon Wanton.



Governor Wanton to Governor Shirlefj and Admiral Rnowles.

Newport, on Rhode Island, 23d October, 174 7.

Gentlemen : — When I wrote you, the 14th current, I was in hopes that I should
have transmitted to you this week, the papers, accounts, &c., relating to the expedi-
tion against Canada, so far as this government hath been concerned therein, but
have been since informed, that they cannot be completed till some time the next
week.

I will take due care to communicate to the General Assemblv of this colonj', who
are to sit on Wednesday ne.\t, at South Kingstown, your letter, together with the
copy of the extracts that accompanied it; but having been confined at home for
several weeks past, with the gout, I fear I shall not be able to meet them there.

At our last choice, in August past, several towns thought fit to change their depu-
ties, so that the lower house will consist of a majority of new members, with whose
sentiments concerning the pay of the soldiers, being wholly unac({uainted, I cannot
possibly tell what they will resolve upon.

In October past, the committee of war took up about £11,000, in pursuance of an
act of Assembly, authorizing them so to do, of some merchants of this town ; which
sum being reduced into sterling money, at the rate of £750 this currency for £lOO
sterling, was paid to the officers and soldiers in part of their pay, and for their
clothing, a few days before their embarkation for Annapolis.

The committee of war contracted with the said merchants to give them bills of
e.xchange for sterling money, at the rate above mentioned, for the sum they ad-
vanced. This, in expectation of directions from Great Britain, was for some time
delayed, and hath not yet been complied with.

But in August past, the General Assembly resolved that the accounts of the
charges expended by this colony in raising three companies for the expedition
against Canada, should be drawn out by the commissary, and sent with proper
vouchers, to our agent ; and that the Governor should draw bills for the amount of
said accounts, on the lords commissioners of the treasury, or on whom the payment
of such bills m ly concern, pa)-able to our agent ; and likewise bills on the agent
for such money as hath been paid to the officers and soldiers of said companies, to-
wards their wages, and for clotiiing, payable to the merchants who advanced it.

This money being paid to the officers and soldiers to induce them willingly to go
to succor and relieve Annapolis, whither this government was strongly urged to
send them by His Excellency, Governor Shirley, and the Honorable Admiral
Warren, and the merchants who advanced it, being highly dissatisfied and uneasy
at so long a delay, I beg you to recommend it in the strongest terms to His Grace,
the Duke of Newcastle, that the bills now to be drawn in their favor, be punctually
paid. There was another payment made to the ofllcers and soldiers in September



1747.]



AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS. 231



past, by order of the General Assembly, for which, not knowing the sum, I must
refer to the accounts.

The extreme hardships the officers and soldiers underwent in their voyage to-
wards Annapolis, by the shipwreck of the transport vessels, the severity of the sea-
son, and the sickness with which they were visited, of which many of them died, do
in my opinion, entitle the survivors and the heirs of the deceased, to full pay ; and
I hope Your Excellencies will concur with me herein, and likewise that you will
do this colony, which hath remarkably distinguished itself by its readiness and zeal to
serve His Majesty, in the intended expedition against Canada, in giving a higher
bounty to soldiers than any other government did, all the good offices in your pow-
er towards getting their charges reimbursed ; and I promise myself you will the
more readily do this, as great part of the charge was incurred by that fatal expedi-
tion intended for the relief of Annapolis, and undertaken at the instance of, and in
deference to the directions of the gentlemen above mentioned.

I request the favor of you to let me know at what rate you fix the exchange be-
tween sterling money and New England currency.

As soon as the accounts, &c., are finished, I intend to send them per Col. Kinni-
cutt ; and in the mean time, am, gentlemen, &c., G. WANTON.

Wm. Shirley and Charles Knowles, Esqs.

Governor Shirk// to Governor If anion.

Boston October 2G, 1747.
Sir: — We are favored with your letter by the last post, and are glad to find there
is a probability of our receiving a full answer to every particular part of ours of the
10th instant, because the expense to the crown now running on, is large, and liis
Majesty's service in the West Indies requires Mr. Knowles's presence there as soon
as possible, to take upon him the command of His Majesty's ships at Jamaica, &c.

We must desire you would be pleased, in your next, to inform us when the
levies, raised within your government, embarked for Annapolis Royal, and when
they returned to Newport ; and are, sir,

Your obedient, humble servants,

W. SHIRLEY.
To Governor Wanton.

P. S. Mr. Knowles being gone to Nantasket before this was copied, I am obliged
to sign this, in behalf of us both.



Governor SUrhy to Governor Wanton.

Boston, October 29th, 174 7.
Sir: — Mr. Knowles and I have received your letter, dated the 23d instant, and
as very great expense to the crown is running on, whilst the accounts of the forces
raised within your government for the expedition against Canada, are preparing
and adjusting, we think it our indispensable duty to send you the enclosed dis-
charge of them, which we desire you would have published among the levies in such
manner as you shall think proper.



232 RECORDS OF THE COLONY OF RHODE ISLAND [1747.

You will perceive by the extract from the Duke of Newcastle's letter, which we
enclosed in our last, that it is His Majesty's pleasure that the levies should be dis-
charged in the most frugal manner ; so that it is doubtless his expectation that all
such of them as have not marched out of the province or colony where they were
raised, should be paid off at the rate of the ordinary establishment for all His Maj-
esty's regiments of foot, viz. :

The private men, at the rate of Cd. sterling per day ; out of which, a stoppage must
be made of -id., for their provisions ; so that there will remain to be paid in money, to
them, onlv 2d. per day. The corporals, after the rate of Sd. per day ; out of which,
a stoppaae of 4d., for their provisions ; so that id. per day will remain to be paid in
money, to them. The sergeants, after the rate of Is. per day ; out of which, a stop-
pai^e must be made of 4d., for their provisions ; so that there will remain 8d. per
day, to be paid to them ; and this is agreeably to the laws of their enlistment, in
which no more is promised than the usual pay of His Majesty's troops, viz. :

Sixpence sterling per day, for a private man ; Sd. for a corporal, and 12d. for a
sergeant ; out of which, they find themselves with provisions ; and where provisions
are found for them, as in the case of Lieut. Gen. Phillips's regiment, posted in
Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, a stoppage o{4d. per day, is made out of their pay
for it ; and in this case, it makes no difference with respect to the soldiers, that pro.
visions have been generally found for them, at the .charge of the colonies, where
they were raised, and not the crown's ; for that was not given them as the bounty
of the several colonies, but was required by His Majesty from those colonies, to be
done in ease of the national expense ; and as what was their reasonable part of the
clKir^es to be incurred by the late intended expedition, set on foot chlelly for the
immediate benefit of the several colonies concerned in it ; and considering these
troops have not marched out of their respective colonies, they have no pretence to
expect more than what was promised them by the terms of their enlistment, and
ought to be satisfied with that.

As to all those levies, which have marched out of the several provinces, where they
were rai'sed, except those sent to Nova Scotia, an allowance of 2d. per day extraor-
dlnai'y, to them, upon that consideration, will be sufficient ; but as to those troops
which were sent to Nova Scotia, or embarked for that province, though they had
the misfortune, through shipwreck and sickness, not to arrive there, Mr. Knowles
and I think they ought to have, on account of their . service and hard duty, which
occasioned them a greater expense of clothes and other things, than the rest of the
troops iiad, Gd. over and above their provisions, from the time of their embarka-
tion for Nova Scotia, till their return to their respective colonies ; before and after
which times a stoppage must be made out of their pay, for their provisions ; and
they receive no more in money, than 2d. per day ; and the several levies are to be
paid oil" accordingly, after those rates.

As to the method of paying oS' the men, when they are discharged ; it appears to
Mr. Knowles and me, that there are but two ways of doing it, viz. :

Either by procuring money, or credit from your Assembly, which we are com-
manded by His j\lajef;ty to recommend to you ; or else, by borrowing money of the
merchants, upon public bills, payable when the Parliament shall make provision for
defraying the charges incurred on account of these levies ; which bills, Mr. Knowles
and I think should be sold for the highest txchange that can be got, for the bene-
fit of the men ; but not at a lower rate than £700 per cent, advance, in bills
i)f till' old tiMior ; or *;«oo n( that currency, for £100 sterling; and if both



1747.]



AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS. 233



these methods should fail, then we can't see what more can possibly be done, than to
give the men certificates of what is due to them, at the time of their being dis-
charged, with a promise of paying them as soon as possible ; but we hope there will
be no necessity of having recourse to this method.

Mr. Knowles being very much engaged in the business of his squadron, which
detains him great part of his time at Nantasket, has desired me to take upon myself
the settling of the terms for paying the men off; and as he is under orders from the
lords of admiralty, to repair to Jamaica, to take upon him the command of His
Majesty's ships there, and designs to sail in about a fortnight, we shall be glad to
proceed as far as possible in the execution of His Majesty's orders committed to our
care, before he goes; and besides, if the accounts are not transmitted home in time
to be laid before Parliament this session, it may occasion a delay in raisins the
money for defraying the charges.

Since Mr. Knowles' and my joint letter to you, I am informed by Mr. Secretary
Willard, that upon the first raising of troops in this Province, for the expedition
against Canada, in Queen Anne's time. Her Majesty expressly promised, (among
other things,) as an encouragement for volunteers to enlist, that they should retain
their arms, which had been provided for them by the crown ; but as the expedition
did not proceed that year, and the Queen sent orders to disband those levies,
which was done. This government then thought proper, notwithstanding the
Queen's express promise, and those troops had marched out of the Province, to be
ready to proceed by land to Canada, to make the soldiers deliver up their arms, as
they had not actually proceeded to Canada, in order to be kept for the service of the
expedition, when it should be prosecuted ; which seems to be a case, where the
men had far greater reason to expect to retain their arms, than they have in this ;
especially as the Duke of Newcastle, in his letter to me, of the 30th of May, only
says that His Majesty had laid aside the design of tlie expedition for the present.

It was necessary to transmit to you the terms for the payment of the men and
non-commissioned offii.'ers, together with the enclosed discharge of them.

As to the ofEcers, it may be time enough to send you Mr. Knowles' and my
opinion of the terms on which they should be paid off, by the post following, he
being now at Nantasket. With regard to myself, I must in the mean time, say, that
I think they ought to have the full sterling pay, which the oflicers of His Majesty's
otiier troops in their ranks receive.

I am, sir. Your Honor's most obedient humble servant,

W. SHIRLEY.

To the Hon. Governor Wanton.

Governor Wanton to Governor Shlrleij and Admiral Knotvles.

Newport, on Rhode Island, October 31st, 1747.
Gentlemen : — I have received your favor of the 26th current. The forces raised
within this government, embarked for Annapolis Royal, on the 31st day of October,
1746, and returned to this place on the 2d of January, following, excepting some,
who were left sick, at Martha's Vineyard.

I herewith send you, by Col. Kinnicutt, the muster rolls, accounts, acts of Assem.
Illy and other papers, wrote for in your letter of the 10th current, all duly attested.
VOL. V. 30



234 RECORDS OF THE COLONY OF RHODE ISLAND [1747.

I hope they will be to your satisfaction ; but if you think any one or more articles
of the expense not sufficiently proved by proper vouchers, please to let me know
it, and I will endeavor to get the defect supplied.

The soldiers were enlisted into His Majesty's service, according to the method
ordered by an act of the General Assembly, made for that purpose; and no one of
them received the government's bounty of £50, till he had taken the oath in that act
prescribed, and had obtained a certificate thereof from a justice of the peace.

Of this lar^e bounty, please to observe, the government hath made no charge to
His Majesty ; and after their enlistment, were disciplined by their ofiicers, and kept
on duty, waiting His Majesty's commands, till they were ordered to embark for
Annapolis Royal, in compliance with the pressing instance and direction of His
Excellency, Governor Shirley, and the Hon. Admiral Warren, to whom His Maj-
esty had given power to regulate or order the plan of operations, and the disposi-
tion of the forces.

A committee of war was appointed by the General Assembly of this colony, and
fully empowered to act in all things relating to the expedition ; they inspected into
and audited all the accounts, and gave orders to the general treasurer for the pay-
ment thereof; and there has no money been paid by him on account of this expedi-
tion, without an order from said committee, or from the General Assembly, or from
some person by them duly authorized.

The hire of transports and the misfortune of losing two of them at Martha's Vine-
yard, for which the government was by contract obliged to pay, hath much aug-
mented the expense. What could be saved of said transports, and the provisions,
stores, &c., that were not expended, have been sold at public auction, and the
amount of the sale deducted.

^Vhen the forces landed here, on January 3d, in a weak and distressed condition,
and many of them sick, the severity of the weather made it very difHcult to induce
persons to receive them into their houses, to nurse and take care of them ; and that
time of the year being wholly unfit for action, they were furloughed till the 1st of
i\Iarch, excepting the sick, and a few whom the ofiicers could not trust; and since
that time, they have been billeted out till the 22d of August past, except some who
choose rather to forego it, than to appear every day before their officers as
required.

I fear you will think the account of billeting to be irregular ; but the soldiers be-
ing sometimes allowed billeting and sometimes not, I could not get it put into a
better form ; and when they were sick, (which many of them were,) it was impos-
sible to billet them at the price the government had stated ; and be pleased to ob-
serve, that no accounts of billeting were paid, before they had been strictly exam-
ined, and allowed.

Due care shall be taken of the arms of the soldiers ; and if any of them are lost,
the value shall be discounted out of their pay.

By the accounts, it appears that the three companies raised within this govern-
ment, have been paid £ 1,455 14s., for which they have given their receipts. My
opinion about their pay, I have already signified to you ; but it appears to me, by
the copy of the extracts of the letter from His Grace, the Duke of Newcastle, that
Your Excellencies are to determine that point ; when, therefore, you have liqui-
dated the sum this colony's companies are to receive, I presume you will let me
know ; and likewise at what rate you fix the exchange between sterling money and



1747.]



AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS.



New England cun-ency ; for I believe the General Assembly of this colony will
abide by your determination in both these points ; and till they are known I
think it altogether impracticable to pay off the forces.

All possible frugality having been used, and the government having been obliired
to advance part of their pay to the soldiers, and some additional clothino', to induce
them cheerfully to go on the expedition to Annapolis, many of them havino- fami-
lies to support, and the winter then approaching, I beg leave to renew my request
of your good offices as well in behalf of the merchants who advanced the money for
that payment made a twelve-month ago, as of the colony getting their expense in-
curred by this expedition, reimbursed ; which favor shall ever be gratefully ac-
knowledged by Your most humble servant,

GIDEON WANTON.

To Governor Shirley, and Admiral KnoAvles.

P. y. I am apprehensive there are demands for services done, relating to this
expedition, that are not yet brought in.

Governor Shirk?/ to Governor Ifanion.

Boston, IJeeembei 28, 1747.

Sir: — I sometime ago informed Your Honor of a meeting of commissioners, to
be appointed from the governments from Virginia as far as New Hampshire, being
proposed to be at New Yjrk ; and am now to apprise you, that in consequence of
that proposal, there has been a meeting of commissioners from this government,
New York and Connecticut, at New York ; and that they agreed on another
meetmg, now fixed to be at Middletown, in Connecticut, the 20th of next month.

Those commissioners have reported, that there be a representation made to His
Majesty, as to those governments which refuse to assist in this common cause ;
thinking, I suppose, that there is a necessity for it, when there is such danger
of losing the Six Nations, and the other numerous tribes of Indians, their allies, to
the westward ; for the preservation of whose friendship, the King has always been
very solicitous; as also for the safety of his province of New York.

And in his instructions to the present Governor, has, as I am informed, directed
that the other governments should give their assistance in it.

I hope your government will look on my apprising Your Honor of this, to pro-
ceed, as it really does, from a most friendly disposition to them, and my hearty
zeal to promote the interest of the common cause ; and that they will send one or
more commissioners to meet and act with the others, upon this important affair.

I hear all the people at Pennsylvania, are willing to assist in preventing the
western Indians going over to the French.

I am, sir. Your Honor's most obedient and humble servant,

W. SHIRLEY.

To the Hon. Governor Wanton.



236 ' RECORDS OF THE COLONY Of RHODE ISLAND [1748.



Governor Wanton io the Lords Commissioners of the Treasur//.

Newport, on Khode Island, January 9, 174 7-8.

IMv Lords : — Tlie Governor and Company of tliis, His Majesty's colony of Khode
Island and Providence Plantations, in New England, having, in obedience to His
Majesty's commands, transmitted to them by His Grace, the Duke of Newcastle,
bearing date the 9th of April, 1 746, raised three companies of soldiers within this col-
ony, for His Majesty's service, in the intended expedition against Canada ; and hav-
ing, besides a bounty of £50 to each soldier, expended £76,083 Us. 4d., New Eng-
land currency, in levying said soldiers, in purchasing arms, ammunition, tents and
provisions for them, in billeting them, and in advancing to them part of their pay, in
hirin'T transports, and in equipping and manning a convoy, and in other necessary
charges on account of said three companies, all which will appear by proper vouch-
ers, sent to His Excelloncy, Governor Shirley, and the Honorable Admiral
Knowles; and also to Mr. Richard Partridge, agent for this colony; and the Gen-
eral Assembly having enjoined and authorised me, the subscriber. Governor of the
colony, abovcsaid, to draw bills for the expense incurred by this colony on the oc-
casion above mentioned ; I have, pursuant thereto, drawn upon Your Lordships for
the said sum of £76^83 lis. 4rf., reduced to sterling money, at the rate of £750
currency, for £lOO sterling, two sets of bills of this date ; one, for £3,662 13s. bd-
sterling; and the other for £6,481 16s. l^Z. sterling, payable to the said Richard
Partridge.

I beg leave to observe to Your Lordships, that the Governor and Company of
this colony, have remarkably distinguished themselves by their zeal to serve His
Majesty on this occassion,in giving a greater bounty to the soldiers than any of the
other governments did ; and readily sending them at the instance and bj' the direc-
tion of Governor Shirley and the Honorable Admiral Warren, to attempt the relief
of His Majesty's garrison at Annapolis Royal, at an advanced season of the year ;
and that they have thereby contracted a heavy load of debt, beyond their ability to
pay, if their expense should not be reimbursed.

I am, &c., GIDEON WANTON.

To the Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.

Governor Wanton to Richard Partridye, Agent for Rhode Island,

in London.

Newport, Rhode Island, January 11th, 174 7-8.
Sir ; — In pursuance of a vote of the General Assembly, I herewith transmit you
the accounts of the whole expense arising upon the three companies of soldiers
raised in this colony for the intended expedition against Canada ; as also an account
of the charge of equipping, manning and victualling the colony's sloop for the same
service, all which arc attested and authenticated in the best manner we are capable
of doing it ; and as the whole of said service was undertaken in obedience to His
Majesty's royal instructions, signified to the Governor and Company of this colony,
by His Grace, the Duke of Newcastle, an attested copy whereof, you will receive
herewith ; wherein we v.ere rlirected and ordered to raise as nian\ men as tlio



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