Rhode Island. State Board of Health.

Annual report of the State Board of Health of the State of Rhode Island online

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1. Charlestown.

2. Albert A. Saunders. M. D., health officer.

3. There were no epidemics in this town during the year.

7. No sanitary inspections were made during the year.

8. No unhealthy localities in this town, are known.

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the town
council.

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, milk, or
ice supplies of this town.

11. J. C. Tucker, of Carolina, is the ice dealer of this town.

1. Exeter. Has no health officer.

1. HOPKINTON.

2. G. A. Langworthy. health officer.

8. There were no epidemics in this town during the year. Scarlet fever was
quite prevalent in Hope Valley, during the months of March and April, there
being fifteen cases, two of which were fatal.

4. Isolation was strictly maintained, and schools were closed, and all church
gatherings, etc., were stopped.

6. All of the sick, after coming to the knowledge of the health officer, were
isolated.

6. Sanitary inspections of premises where sickness prevailed, were made.

7. Several sanilary inspections were made during the year; one being on
complaint of the family, and the others by order of the town council.

8. There are at present no unhealthy localities in this town.

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., if not abated by my order,
are reported to the town council. I have but little trouble in abating all such
nuisances, having been obliged to report but one to the town council.

10. There has been to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, milk, or
ice supplies of this town.

11. B. F. Smith, H. G. Eenyon, Wm. L. Clarke, and Henry True, are the ice
dealers of this town.



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1896.] becretaby's report. 133

1. Nabraoansbtt.

2. Solomon H. Hale, health officer.

3. There were no epidemics in this district during the year. The contagious
diseases reported were one case of typhoid fever which recovered, and three
fatal cases of scarlet fever, during the months of May and June.

4. Isolation was maintained.

5. All of the sick were isolated.

6. Inspections of premises where sickness prevailed were made, and existing
conditions rectified.

7. No sanitary inspections were made during the year.

8. No unhealthy localities in this district are known.

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., when any such exist, are
reported to the district council.

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, milk, or
ice supplies of this district.

11. Browning and Griffin, Isaac Blanchard, and Wm. Friday, are the ice
dealers of this district.

1. NoBTH Kingstown.

2. Harold Me^lf, M. D., health officer.

8. Mumps was unusually severe, there being about two hundred cases.
Whooping cough quite prevalent, there being about fifty cases. There were
ten cases of orchitis and a few isolated cases of la grippe.

4. Isolation was not maintained to any great extent.

6. None of the sick were isolated.

6. In regard to prevalence of mumps, it could not be laid to any unsanitary
condition of premises. The parents were very careless and did not isolate their
children. The prevailing idea is that children must have the disease.

7. Six inspections of nuisances were made during the year, as well as several
inspections of privy vaults in Wickford.

8. No unhealthy localities in this town are known.

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the town

COODCil.

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, milk, or
ice supplies of this town.

11. J. B. Brayman, (George Orpin, and Charles McEttrick, are the ice dealers
of this town.



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134 STATE fiOABD O^ tfEAT.Ttt.

1. Richmond. Awaiting report of health officer.

1. South Einostowh.

2. Oscar Gardner, health officer.

8. Scarlet fever was quite prevalent during the last six months of the yeu,
there being fifty -six cases, four of which were fatal. There were also four cases
of typhoid reported during the year. The scarlet fever cases were all in the
village of Peacedale, and the typhoid in Wakefield.

4. Isolation was attempted in every case, and maintained by fprce in one
case.

0. Inspections of several premises where sickness prevailed were made, but
no cause for the outbreak of the disease could be found.

7. All sanitary inspections made during the year were at my own option.

8. No unhealthy localities in this town are known.

9. No public nuisances or unsanitary premises have been found during the
year, consequently have reported none to the town council.

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, milk, or
ice supplies of this town.

11. Isaac Blanchard, George Griffin, and the Peacedale Ice Co., are the ice
dealers of this town.

1. Westerly.

2. Ethan Wilcox, superintendent of health, William B. Gavitt, health officer.
8. There were no epidemics in this town during the year.

7. All sanitary inspections made during the year were at my own option.

8. No unhealthy localities in this town are known.

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the town
council.

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, milk, or
ice supplies of this town.

11. W. T. Babcock, and Lorenzo D. Richmond, are the ice dealers of this
town.



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WATER SUPPLIES.



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WATER SUPPLIES.



In July, 1894, the Board commenced a systematic monthly
chemical and bacteriological examination of the waters of the
Pawtuxet river. This river supplies the greatest number of pop-
ulation of the State, the population of the city of Providence being
145,472 as determined by the State census of 1895.

The advantage of periodical examinations has a value in com-
parison of the results from month to month and from year to
year, and thereby a determination as to the possibility of contami-
nation may be made. An individual examination made at any one
time would alone be of little value, for if the sample taken showed
a purity compared with samples from other rivers it would lead to
a conclusion which would be misleading, since during all the rest
of the year the supply might be poor in quality. Likewise an in-
dividual sample might be taken during peculiar and unusual con-
ditions of the source of supply, whereby a water of a very poor
quality would be obtained and on analysis might be condemned
as a continuous supply for drinking purposes, yet it might be the
case that eleven other samples taken at periodical intervals would
show an average quality which would be up to the standard.

Another advantage of the periodical examination is the possi-
bility of determining the opportunities for an outbreak of disease
before the epidemic may occur, and to study the relation of epi-
demics to the supply, and after years of records it would be possi-
ble to obtain information which would give practical deductions.

Owing to the limited amount of appropriations received from
the legislature this work has been limited to the one supply re-
ferred to ; and it is to be hoped that in future years a sufficient
amount may be appropriated to enable the Board to keep in-

18



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138 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1896.

formed of the condition of the various supplies, some of which are
controlled entirely by private corporations where care is some-
times diverted to the quantity rather that the quality.

The collections of the samples were not made on any particular
date, but were collected usually on the Thursday coming nearest
to the fifteenth of the month. This was done upon the suggestion
given by the Engineer's Department of the State Board of Health
of Massachusetts.

It was considered that a sample taken from the river on a par-
ticular date, as for instance the first or fifteenth of the month,
would not give a fair average of the quality of the water, inasmuch
as those dates might fall upon a Monday, in which case, the mills
having been shut down since Saturday night, thirty-six hours
would have passed, during which time the river was not being
used at its maximum and the maximum contamination would not
be present. Likewise if the sample was collected on a Saturday,
it would give the result of a whole week's contamination. Being
taken on a Thursday would give a sample which would have a
better average.

The locations from which the samples were taken from the
Pawtuxet river were as follows : One from the north branch of
the river at the village of Hope, at a point where the water enters
the mill in the trench. The second sample was taken at Washing-
ton, on the southwest branch, at a point located above the mill
and where the supply of the mill is taken in. The third sample
was collected on the same day as the other two and some hours
later, at the intake of the Pettaconsett pumping station and at the
same point where the samples are collected by the city of Provi-
dence for their analyses.

The north branch from Hope to where the river meets the
southwest branch at Eiver Point flows a distance of about three
and one-quarter miles, and has a drainage area, as given by Mr.
Weston, of the City Engineers Department, of Providence, of
about 107.79 square miles. The distance from Washington on the
southwest branch to the point where it joins the north branch is



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1896.] secretary's report. 139

about six miles and has a drainage area of about 67.79 square miles.
From Biyer Point to the intake at the Pettaconsett pumping sta-
tion where the third sample was taken, is about five miles and has
» drainage area of about 19.42 square miles. The total area of the
whole watershed above the pumping station is 195 square miles.

Along this stream, at frequent intervals below the points where
the first two samples were collected there are numerous cotton and
woolen mills from which, and from the towns which are made up
of the population which supplies these mills with labor, produce
a certain amount of refuse matter which finds its way into the
river. In addition to this, the distance of the points where the
different samples are taken would go to show that th'e sedimen-
tation, which occurs at the various dams where the water is held
back at these various mills, is not sufficient to reduce the amount
of accumulated contamination to any appreciable extent.

The reports of the examinations of the water taken at these
points are given below. The results are shown in parts in 100,000
as is customary in the reports made by the Massachusetts State
Board of Health.

The first arrangement is made collectively by dates, giving the
results of the examination of the samples taken at the different
sources on the same day, which admits of comparison of the
changes in the water from one point to the other.

The next arrangement is made collectively by dates at one point
only and will give the differences which occur from month to
month during the different seasons. This is followed by the ar-
rangement of average by years of each place.

The chemical analyses were made by Mr. Charles E. Swett,
state assayer ; and the bacteriological analyses were made by the
Bhode Island Laboratory, which is under the direction of Gard-
ner T. Swarts, M. D., and Jay Perkins, M. D.



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140



STATE BOABD OF HEALTH.



[1896.



Chemical and Bacteriological Examination of Water from the Pawtuxet
Hiver, at Hope Village, collectively^ by months, 1896.

(Parta per 100,000.)



Datb

OF
COLLKCTION.



1806.
January 10. . .

February 18.

MarohM

April 10

May 14

June 18

July 10

Auguit 18

September 18

October 15...

NoTember 13 .

December 94 .



Appbabamcb.


*i




■ligSt


pale
straw


very
slight




•T£2t




■light
brown




slight
brown




slight
brown




very
Blight


1.5


very
■light




slight


1.6


slight


1.5


slight




slight


1.5



Rbsiduv

ON EVAPO-
BATION. *



8.0



2.0



8.0



8.5



5.8



8.8



8.5



8.5



4.8



1.4



1.8



8.8



1.8



2.8



2.0



8.5



1.1



1.6



1.7



8.0



Ammokia.



.001



.0014



00184



1.8 trace



9.0 1.5



8.8



2.5



.002



1 .2 none



8.0 none



1.6 8.2 .008



4.5 8.0 1.5 .0026
8.7 1.5 2.S .002



Albuminoid.



.014



.012



.007



.009



.025



.009



.014



.018



.010



.022



.018



.014



very
ilight



.012



Blight
trace



.Blight



.0086



.028



.006



.0005



.008



.008



.014 trace



.018



.019



.022



.017



trace



trace



trace



.001



.45



.45



.0085 .0015, .6



NrTBOOEH.



I



.08



.04



.005



.0



trace



heavy



trace



5
S

5



.016 .0



.08



.0



.0



.0



I .0






460



.0 I .8 00



.8 I.



.8 I 778



.8 i 906



.8 198
.8 966



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Qoo^^



1896.]



SECBETABY 8 BEPOBT.



141



ChemiccU and Bacteriological Examination of Water from the jPatotuxet
River, at Washington Village^ collectively^ by months^ 1896.



(Parts per 100,000.)









BSSIDUX














1




APPXARAlieB.


OK Etapo-




Ammonia.




NZTBO«SV.










BATION.














f


DATS














Albomlnold.






1


or








%




















1




1


§


1


§
5


1


1


^


1


1


1


1

5


J


1


1


1896.






























Janoaryltt


8U^7t


pale
straw


4.0


9.0


9.0


.0086


.018


.018


trace




.09


.0






FebnurylS. ..


JSZt




8.8


9.0


1.9


.0Q14


.016


.015


Blight
trace




.0


.0




8099


March 96


rery
■light




4.4


1.4


8.0


none


.006


.006


trace




.01


.0






April 16


rery

BUght




8.5


8.0


1.5


.00188


.01


.01


trace




.0


.0




958


M»yl4


slight
brown




0.1


8.6


9.5


.0064


.088


.0197


.0088




.08


.0




1T9


June 18


slight
brown*




3.5


9.0


1.6


.004


.018


.009


.008




.09


.0






JttlyW


slight


1.6


4.1


8.8


1.8


.0016


.08


.08


trace




.0


.0




456


AofOftlS.


suj^t




4.0


9.0


8.6


.0014


.016


.016


trace


.56


.0


.0




89696




slight


1.5


5.5


8.0


8.6


none


.081


.081


trace


.46


.0


.0




91


OotoberlS


Blight


1.6


6.1


8.0


8.1


.004


.088


.088


trace


.6


trace


.0




860


5oTemberl2..


slight


2.


5.8


8.4


1.8


.008


.085


.0885


.0015


.6


trace


.0




889


DweoberM...


slight


1.5


4.0


8.5


1.6


trace


.018


.0095


.0086


.65


trace


.0




100



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142



STATE BOABD OP HEALTH.



[1896.



ChemiccU and Bacteriological Examination of Water from the Pawtuxet
Jiiver, at Pettaconaett Pumping Station^ collectively^ by months^ 1896.



(Paris per 100,000.)









RSSIDUS














1

e




APPBA BANCS.


OH EVAPO-




Ammonia.






NiTBOOBH.










BATION.














1


DATS








1
1

§

1






Albuminoid.






<t


OF
COLLXCTION.


4i

1


1


1


t


i


1


1
1


•a

s

QQ

.000


o


1

5


i

r,

m
<


«•


1


1800.
January 10


very
■light


straw


4.9


8.6


8.4


.0018


.081


.016


.6


.08


slight
trace


.7




February 18. . .


rery
Blight




8.9


1.0


8.9


.0016


.010


.010


Blight
truce


.4


trace


.0


.8


1444


March «6


slight




6.4


8.0


8.4


.0016


.01


.0086


.0016


.4


.08


.0







April 16


slii^t




6.8


1.4


8.9


.0087


.014


.018


.001


.0


very
slight
trace


very
slight
trace


.8




MayU


brown




7.1


8.0


8..*^


.008


.088


.019


.004


.6


.06


.0006


.8


1S6IS


Jane 18


brown+




6.0


8.6


8.6


.0004


.018


.007


.006


.6


.086


slUbt
trace


.8




July 10


green,
mossy


1.6


4.7


8.4


8.8


.000


.08


.0188


.0018


.6


trace


trace


1.8


181


Aar»tl8


heavy




6.8


8.1


8.8


.0000


.089


.006


.004


.6


trace


heavy
trace


.886


78740


September 10. .


heavy


1.6


7.6


8.6


4.0


.002


.086


.088


.008


.0


trace


.0


.8


flM4


October 16


consid.


1.6


0.0


8.6


8.1


.000


.0^


.081


.008


.8


trace


.0


.4




Norember 1< . .


oonsid.
brown
A floe.




7.6


8.6


4.0


.0080


.088


.086


.008


.7


heavy
trace


.0


.8


70


December 84...


very
heavy


1.6


4.8


1.8


8.4


.004


.014


.009


.006


.8


.08


heavy
trace


.8


860



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1896.]



8E0BBTABY 8 BSPOBT.



14S



Water Supply of Providence, by months, collectively, by locoUion, at dif-
ferent points on the Pawtuxet Eiver, 1896.

(ParU per 100.000.)









Residue












i




Apfxaramob.


OK Evapo-




Ammonia.




NiTBoam.








ration.












1


Place














Albaminoid.






1










1
















s








§




1


1


3


1
§

1


1


1


1


1


00


1


s
5


i
5


1

I


z



JANUARY.



Hope

WaahingtOD . . .
PetUoontett . .



▼ery
sUgfit


pale
straw


8.9


1.4


1
8.6 none


.014


.014


•s


.6


.016


.0


.8


Tcry
slight


straw


4.0


8.0


8.0 .0066

1


.018


.018


trace


.6


.08


.0


.6 1


yery
slight


straw


4.9


8.6


1
8.4 .0018

1
1


.081


.016


.008


.6


.06


slight
traoe


1



FEBRUARY.



Hope


Tery


1.


8 9


1 R


1 1


.001


.018


.018 »"»*>'


4


.08


.0


8


1808


Washington . . .


slight

very
slight


8.


8.8


8.6


1.8


.0014


.015


.016


traoe

slight
trace


.4


.0


.0


.8


8000


Pettaoonaett..


slight


8.


8.9


1.0


8.9 .0016

1


.016


.016


slight
trace


.4


trace


.0


.8


1444



MARCH.



Hope.



Washington . . .



Pettaoonsett .



m^t


1.


8.9 8.8


1.6


none


.007


•"*" trace


.4


.08


sSi^t


1.


4.4 1.4


8.0


none


.008


.006 trace


•*


.01


slight


1.


5.4 8.0

1


8.4


.0016


.01


.0066 .0016

1


.4


.08



.0 .8 1

i I

.0 .8 I

I I

.0 , .8 I



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144



STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.



[1896.



Water Supply of Providence, by months, collectively, by location, at dif-
ferent Points on the Patotuxet Jiiver, 1896. — Continued,

(Parts per 100,000.)



Flack

OF
COLLBCnON.







RXSIDUB


Apfbabamck.


0» BVAPO-




RATION.



















O








































&














g






g




1


1


1


1


I



Ammonia.



Albaminoid.



3





NlTBOOBK.






^


s




s


s


s


i


i


g


2


•g


g


^


<


«B



APRIL.



Hope


yery

Blight

brown


«.


8.6


1 '
1.8 1.7' .0014


.009


.0066


.0006


.4


.0


.0


WashiDgton . . .


very
Blight


8.


8.5


8.0 1.6.00188


.01


.01


trace


.5


.0


.0


Pettaoonaett . .


sligSt


8.


5.8


1.4 8.9 .0087


.014


.018


.001


.0


very
Blight
trace


very
Blight
trace



.8


480


.8


85S


.8 '





MAT.



HOP* 'sr^

W«hln,ton...'5|WJt
Pettaoonsett . . I brown



8.2


8.0


.00184

1


.085


.088


.000


.4


8.6


8.5 .0064j


.088


.0197


.0088


1


8.0


8.5


.006


.088


.019


.004


.5



.04
.08



.8 90

.8 179



.05 , .0006 .8 I5«86



JUNE.



Hon« »"»^*

^^P® brown

Washington..., •JlifJ'^V
PettaooDsett .., brown*



8. 8.8 8.0 1.2 trace .009' .006 .U08 .5 .086

' i I ■

8. 8.5 8.0! 1.5| .OM .018 .009 .008 .4 ' .08

6.0 8.61 8.61 .0094 .018 .007 .0C6 .6 .088



.0 ' .8

.0 I .8

slight I .

trace "



I



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1896.]



SECRETARY 8 REPORT.



145



Water Supply of Providence, by months, collectively, by location, at dif-
ferent points on the Pawtuxet Miver, 1896.— Continued,



(Parts per 100,000.)




Residub














8
g


ON Evapo-


AHMONIA.






Nitrogen.




ration.












1




















08




fl
















1




o






"










§




a
















n


3

O


c
o

1


H


,


5

o


1


1


i
1


1


i
%


1


1
i


H





e


H


^


93


o


<


■<


R


SS



JULY.



Hope

WashlDgton . . .
Pettaconsett . .



very
slight

sUght

green,
mossy



1.5
1.5
1.6



2.0 1.6 .008

1


.014


.014


trace .5


.0


.0


.3


778


2.3 1.8 .0016


.02


.02


trace .5


.0


.0


.3


466


2.4 2.3 .006

1 1


.08


.0188


.0012 .6


trace


trace


1.8


1881



AUGUST.



Hope


very
slight

very
slight


1.


8.6


8.8


1.8


none


.013


.013


trace


.45


.0


.0


.8


Washlnipton . . .


1.


4.0


2.0


2.0


.0014


.016


.016


trace


.56


.0


.0


.8


Pettaoonsett . .


heavy


1.


6.3


8.1


8.8


.0066


.029


.086


.004


.6


trace


heavy
trace


.886



66696



78740



SEPTEMBER.



Hope


slight


1.6


5.5


2.5 3.0 none

1 1


.019


.019


trace .46


trace


.0


.8


806


Waahiogton . . .


sUght


1.6


6.5


3.0 8.6


1
none


.021


.021


traoel .45


.0


.0


.8


91


Pettaoonsett . .


heavy


1.6


7.5


3.5 4.0


.002


.025


.022


.003 .6


trace


.0


.8


6944



19



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146



STATE BOABD OF HEALTH.



[1896.



Water Supply of Providence^ by tnontha^ collectively^ by location^ at dif-
ferent Points on the Pawtuxet River ^ 1S96,— Continued,

(Parts per 100.000.)







Rbsiduk




1




Appxaranob.


ON Etapo-

BATION.


Ammonia.




NlTBOOBN.


Flacb












OF












COLLSCTION.








1






1
J

1


1


1


1

J









OCTOBER.



Hope I slight

Washington ... I slight

Pettaconsett . . | oonsid.

I



1.5


1

4.8 1.6 8.8, .008


.088


.088 1 trace


.6


trace


.0


1.6


1

6.]| 8.0 2.1| .004


.088


.088 1 trace


.6


trace


.0


1.6


6.6 8.6 8.l' .006

1


.088


1
.081 .008


.8


trace


.0



NOVEMBER.



Hope


slight


8.


4.6


8.0| 1.6

1


Washington . . .


slight !


8.


6.8


8.4 1.8


Pettaconsett . .


oonsid.'
bmwn
& floo.


8.


7.6


8.6, 4.0



0086 .018

1


.017


.001


.7


heary
trace


000 .086


.0286


.0016


.6


trace


0086 .088


.086


.008


.7


heavy
trace



196



W



DECEMBER.



Hope slight

Washington.... slight
P.tuoonsett..!i,;«7y



1.5


j

8.7 1.6 8.2 .008


.01


.0066


.0016


.6


1.6


4.0 8.5 1.5; trace


.018


.0006


.0086'


.66


; 1.6

1


4.8, 1.8 8.4 .004

1 1


.014


.009


.006


.8



.08



.0 I .1

.0 , .« '

heavy i^ I
trace I *' 1



100



Digitized by



Google



1896.]



SECRETARY S REPORT.



147



Water Supply op Providence, by place and tear.



ChemiccU and BacteriologiccU Examination of Water from the Pawtuxet
River ^ by place ^ giving averages by years.



TEAR.



(Parts per 100,000.)



RStlDUB

OK Byaporation.



1



Ammonia.



Albuminoid.



I



I



NiTBOGXN.





.




^




o




Q




o




1


i


1


1


o

d


es


K



WASHINGTON.



18M«
1806.
1896.

18M*
18B6.
1806.

18M*
1806.
1806.,



6.2


1.2


8.0


.0014


.0012


.0118


4.7


1.9


2.7


.0019


.0178


.015


4.4


2.7


2.0


.00«1


.0177


.016



.0006 .8 .006

I i

.0008 .8

.0008 .6 I .006



hope.



4.6


1.6


8.2


1
.0007


1
4.04


1.9


2.14


.0012


4.0


2.0


2.0


.0111



I I

.01811 .0129 .0008



.01641 .0145



.014 .0186



.0007



.0007



.78
.68



.02
.007
.012



1.19 ' 568

I

.8 I 608
.81 < 8880

i



I 1.24 ' 8970
89 \ 660



.826' 7678

I



PETTACONSETT.



6.7
6.8
6.6


1.6
1.9
2.7


4.*

8.

8.1


.0015
.0028
.0048


.0199
.008.
.0197


.0192
.0174
.0166


.0006
.0088
.0029


.67
.66
.67


.02
.006
.018


.001



1.66 ' 9021
.57 I 8900
.68 I 11479



* Ayerage of the last six months of the year only.



Digitized by



Qoo^^



148



STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.



[1896.



Water Supply of Providence.



Chemical Examitiations of the Pawtuxet Jiiver, taken at the Petia-



Online LibraryRhode Island. State Board of HealthAnnual report of the State Board of Health of the State of Rhode Island → online text (page 12 of 37)