Rhodius Apollonius.

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98





THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



From the Library of

Henry Goldman, Ph.D.

1886-1972




HORN'S CLASSICAL LIBRARY.



"THE ARGONAUTICA"



OP



APOLLONIUS BHODIUS.

TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH PROSE FEOM THE
TEXT OF R. MEKKEL



EDWARD P. COLERIDGE, B.A.

E COLL. ORIEL, OXON.



LONDON :

GEORGE BELL AND SONS, YORK STREET,

COVENT GARDEN.

1889.



CHISWICK PRESS : c. WHITTINGHAM AND co., TOOKS COURT,

CHANCERY LANE.



Stack
Annex




TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

I. TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE ....... vii

II. LIFE OF AFOLLONIUS RHODIUS ix

III. Two ANCIENT ARGUMENTS OF THE " ARGONAUTICA ' . xv

IV. GENEALOGICAL TREE OF THE ^EOLID.E .... xix
V. ROUTE OF THE ARGONAUTS xx

VI. APOLLONIUS'S USE OF POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PER-
SONAL PRONOUNS X xiv

VII. TRANSLATION OF THE POEM WITH NOTES 1



SHORT LIFE OF APOLLONIUS RHODIUS,

WITH A FEW REMARKS ON HIS

" ARGONAUTICA."

A POLLONIUS RHODIUS was born about B.C. 235, in
JL\. the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes, either at Alexandria
or at Naucratis. Strabo is in favour of the former, while
Athenseus and ./Elian declare for the latter place.

He appears to have given himself up at an early age to-
literary pursuits, and his choice is scarcely to be wondered
at when we reflect upon the age in which he lived and
the literary atmosphere in which he found himself. We
are not expressly told whether it was choice or necessity
that led him to select the career he did, but from the fact
that the leading poet of that day took the young aspirant
in hand and instructed him in his art, we may fairly infer
that Apollonius was a man of some standing and position
in life. His studies, however, under his master Callimachus
were not destined to do either pupil or teacher much
credit ; no doubt he obtained some technical skill in his
art, but the tastes of Callimachus and Apollonius were so
diametrically opposed that the two poets quarrelled, and
allowed their professional jealousy to go to such lengths
that Apollonius lampooned the style of his teacher, while
Callimachus was weak enough to retaliate in a studied



X SHORT LIFE OF APOLLONIUS RHODIUS.

retort under the title of *' Ibis," the character of which
poem, though lost to us, may be gathered from Ovid's
poem of the same name.

Callimachus was the leading exponent of the strained
and artificial poetry of his day. Apollonius, with more
true artistic instinct, revolted from the want of reality
characteristic of most of his contemporaries, and having a
genuine admiration for the straightforward simplicity of
the Epic age, set himself to imitate Homer. Naturally he
made many enemies among the host of poetasters who
took their cue from the animosity shown to him by the
" Laureate " of the Alexandrine court. Hence, when the
" Argonautica " appeared, it was at once condemned as
violating the accepted canons of style and composition,
and partly, perhaps, owing to certain youthful crudities
which were afterwards corrected. Great was the chagrin
of the young poet at the reception of his work, and fierce
was his anger against Callimachus. The position of the
latter, however, was unassailable, and so Apollonius, after
a fruitless wordy warfare, determined to seek some new
opening for his genius. Accordingly he bade farewell to
ungrateful Alexandria, and retired to Rhodes, then the
second great seat of literature, taking his poem with
him.

Possibly experience had taught him wherein his poem was
deficient. At any rate, he revised the whole of it; and
now, free from the cabals of jealous rivals, he received a
fair verdict, and at once rose to fame. So popular, indeed,
did he become on the reading of his poem, that the
Rhodians, it is said, rewarded him with extraordinary
honours, and conferred their franchise upon him. From



SHORT LIFE OF APOLLONIUS RHODITTS. XI

this incident in his career he came to "be called "the
Ehodian," a name which has clung to him for ever.

It was only natural that in his hour of triumph he
should long to have his merit acknowledged in his native
city in Alexandria, the gathering place of the old world's
declining literature and art. Thither, therefore, he came,
with his honours upon him, and whether it was that
Callimachus and his followers were out of favour, or
whether the Alexandrines had relented towards their ill-
used poet, certain it is that he attained to great celebrity,
and was advanced to valuable posts of trust. Henceforth
he could afford to rest upon his hardly-won laurels, his
period of " Sturm und Drang " was over ; he had passed
through the fire, and it had done him no hurt weighed
in the balance he had not been found wanting.

Of his life henceforth we learn but little, beyond what
Suidas tells us as to his having become librarian in the
vast royal museum at Alexandria, about B.C. 194. It may
well be that this was so; for the PtDlemies, in whose
reigns Apollonius lived and wrote, were monarchs not
unlikely to bestow such an important literary post upon
a man of marked ability and studious habits. Assuming
that Suidas is correct in his statement, we find plenty of
internal evidence in the poem to suggest that the writer
must have been a man of vast erudition, or have had at
his command extensive stores of knowledge from which
to draw his materials.

During this period of his life the poet was not idle.
Imbued to some extent with the spirit of his age, he
produced works at a great pace; epigrams, grammars,
and the so-called KnVtic, i.e. poems on the origin and



Ill SHORT LIFE OF APOLLONIUS RHODIUS.

foundation of towns, but all these are lost to us save a
few mutilated fragments and stray lines preserved in
other writers.

In the library at Alexandria he remained until his
death in B.C. 181, happy enough, no doubt, amongst the
endless treasures of that vast repository of art and
learning.

Of his work that has come down to us, too little notice
has beeu taken by English scholars ; for though his style
at times bears too evident traces of laboured study, the
structure of his poem is simple and straightforward. The
mind is not burdened by a multiplicity of episodes, the
descriptions are singularly beautiful, and the similes,
which are abundant and varied, show the hand of a master,
who, if he did sometimes imitate, had at least something
graceful of his own to add to what he borrowed, and not
infrequently paid back his loan with interest.

The work found numerous commentators in ancient
times, to whom we are indebted for the Florentine and
Parisian Scholia. Moreover, Apollonius was very popular
among the Romans; so much so that his poem was trans-
lated by Publius Terentius Varro Atacinus, and was
imitated by Valerius Flaccus and many others.



EDITIONS.

(i.) J. Lascaris. A.D. 1496. Quarto. Florence. Con-
tains the Scholia.

(ii.) The Aldine edition. A.D. 1581. Octavo. Venice.
Little more than a reprint of the Florentine edition.

(iii.) Brunck. A.D. 1780. Quarto and octavo. Argen-
torat. First really critical edition.

(iv.) Beck. A.D. 1797. Octavo. Leipzig. Incomplete.
Text with Latin translation and a few critical notes.

(v.) G-. Schafer. A.D. 1810-13. 2 vols. octavo. Leipzig.
A better edition, and the first containing Paris Scholia.

(vi.) Wellauer. A.D. 1828. 2 vols. octavo. Leipzig.
Still better. Contains readings of thirteen MSS. ; also the
Scholia, and notes in Latin.

(vii.) E. Merkel. A.D. 1852. Teubner, Leipzig. A
careful revision of the Laurentine MS., with notes.

There are, besides these editions of the actual text,
certain German essays upon Apollonius, but in England
hitherto this author has received but scanty justice.



THE ARGUMENT OF THE "ARGOXAU-

TICA," FROM THE GREEK OF

THE SCHOLIASTS.



, the daughter of Salmoneus, had two sons by
J_ Poseidon, Neleus and Pelias ; she afterwards wedded
Cretheus, son of ^iEolus, and bore to him j^Eson, Pheres, and
Amythaon. From .^Eson sprang Jason ; from Pheres,
Admetus ; from Amythaon, Melampus.

Now Jason was handed over to the Centaur Chiron to be
brought up and to learn the art of healing ; while J^son, his
father, left the kingdom to Pelias, his own brother, bidding
him rule Thessaly until Jason's return from Chiron. But
Pelias had received an oracle from Apollo, bidding him
beware of a man who should come with only one sandal ;
for by him should he be slain.

So Jason grew up, and came to his uncle, for to take his
share in his father's kingdom. But when he came to the
river Anaurus, which is in Thessaly, wishing to ford it,
there upon the bank he found Hera in the disguise of an
old dame, and she would cross, but was afraid. Then did
Jason take her upon his shoulders, and carry her safe over,
but one sandal left he in the mud in the middle of the
river. Thence he fared to the city with his one sandal, and
there he found an assembly of the folk, and Pelias doing
sacrifice to the gods. When Pelias saw him thus he
minded him of the oracle, and being eager to be rid of him
he set him this task, that he should go to Scythia in quest



XVI ARGUMENT OF THE " ARGONATTTICA.

of the golden fleece, and then receive the kingdom. Now
this he did from no wish for the fleece, but because he
thought that Jason would be slain by some man in that
strange land, or be shipwrecked.

This is the story of the golden fleece.



A SECOND ARGUMENT, GIVEN BY

BRUNCK, FROM AN UNKNOWN

ANCIENT SOURCE.

A THAMAS, the son of ^Eolus, and brother of Cre-
jfjL theus, had to Avife Nephele first, and begat two
children, Phrixus and Helle. When Nephele died, he
married Ino, who did plot against the children of Nephele,
and persuaded her country-women to roast the seed for
sowing ; but the earth, receiving roasted seed, would not
bear her yearly crops. So Athamas sent to Delphi to in-
quire about the barrenness ; but Ino bribed his messengers,
telling them to return and say, that the god had answered
that Helle and Phrixus must be sacrificed if they wanted
the barrenness to cease. Wherefore Athamas was per-
suaded, and placed them at the altar ; but the gods in pity
snatched them away through the air by means of the ram
with the golden fleece ; now Helle let go, and fell into the
sea that bears her name, while Phrixus landed safe in
Colchis. There he offered up the ram to Zeus, who helped
his flight, for that he had escaped the plot of his step-
mother. And having married Chalciope, daughter of
^Eetes, king of the Scythians, he begat four sons, Argus,
Cytissorus, Melas, and Phrontis. And there he died.







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THE KOUTE OF THE ARGONAUTS

TO ^EA, AND THEIR RETURN

THENCE TO IOLCHOS.



r I "HERE is no particular difficulty in following Argo on her
-L outward voyage, or in identifying the numerous places
mentioned by Apollonius along the route ; indeed, his knowledge
of the geography up to ^Ea, the goal of the enterprisers singularly
accurate. It is when we attempt to follow his account of the
return journey, which was made by a different route, that we
find ourselves utterly perplexed, and forced to the conclusion
that our author has been drawing purely from imagination,
without any idea of the impossibility of the course which he
assigns to the heroes.

However, we purpose to give the route as described by the
poet, noticing difficulties as they occur, though we shall not
attempt to correct geographical errors in an account which by
no conceivable theory can be reconciled with actual fact.

The expedition starts from lolchos in Thessaly (i. 523). The
ship Argo is moored in the river Anaurus (i. 320). Leaving the
harbour of Pagasse (i. 623), the Argonauts sail through the
Sinus Pelasgicus, past the promontory of Tisa (i. 568) and the
headland of Sepias (i. 582); then coasting between the island of
Sciathus (i. 583) and along the Thessalian coast, past the tomb
of Dolops (i. 584), Meliboea (i. 592), the mouth of the river
Amyrus (i. 596), Eurymenae (i. 597), and the spurs of Ossa and
Olympus (i. 598), they make right across the mouth of the Ther-
maic gulf to the promontory of Pallene (i. 599) ; 'thence, after
sighting Mount Athos (i. 601), they steer for Lemnos (i. 608).
After some stay in this island, they go out of their course to the
isle of Electra or Samothrace, for the sake of certain mysteries
(i. 916) ; then keeping Thrace on the left of the ship and Imbros
on the right, they sail across the ^Egean Sea (i. 923) to the



THE ROUTE OF THE AKGONATJTS. XXI

mouth of the Hellespont (i. 928). Through the Hellespont they
sail past Bhoeteum, Ilium, Abydos, Percote, Abarnis, and so to
Cyzicus, then an island, now mainland (i. 929 sqq.) in the Pro-
pontis. Next they pass the mouth of the river ^Esepus (i. 940)
and come to the harbour and bay of Chytus (i. 987), but at this
point they are caught by contrary winds and driven back again
to Cyzicus (i. 1110). Halting here awhile they go inland to
ascend Mount Dindymus and spy out their further route ; then
go on again across the mouth of the river Rhyndacus in Mysia
(i. 1165) until they reach the headland of Posideum (i. 1279),
near to which live the savage Bebryces, whom they encounter
and defeat (ii. 1 sqq.) at the mouth of the Bosporus. Thence,
after meeting the blind prophet Phineus in Bithynia (ii. 177),
they pass through the dreadful Symplegades or Cyanean Bocks,
which guard the entrance to the Euxine Sea (ii. 560 sqq.) ;
coasting along Bithynia (ii. 621) they pass the mouth of the
river Bhebas (ii. 652), the rock of Colone, the Black Headland
(ii. 653), the river Phyllis (ii. 654), the river Calpe (ii. 661), and
anchor at the Thynian island (ii. 675). Next they cross the
mouth of the river Sangarius (ii. 724), passing the territory of
the Mariandyni (ii. 725), the river Lycus, lake Anthemous, the
river Acheron and its haven (ii. 726 sqq.) ; thence past river
Callichorus (ii. 906), the river Parthenius (ii. 938), Sesamus (ii.
943), Erythini, and the heights of Crobialus, Cromna, Cytorus
and Carambis in Paphlagonia (ii. 945) ; after this they pass
Sinope (ii. 948), the river Halys (ii. 965), the river Thermodon
(ii. 972), the Amazons and Chalybes (ii. 987 sqq.), the Tibareni,
Mossynoeci (ii. 1012 sqq.), land at the isle of Ares and rescue the
sons of Chalciope (ii. 1033); thence to the isle of Philyra (ii.
1234), past the territory of the Macrones, Becheiri, Sapeirse,
Byzeres, till they sight the range of Caucasus and the limit of
their voyage (ii. 1245 sqq.) ; they now enter the river Phasis,
the river of Colchis, wherein lies the isle of JEa (ii. 1264).

The Argonauts have thus reached ^Ea. Their voyage as
sketched by Apollonius is singularly accurate, and it is clear that
he must have been familiar with the geography to have given
such an exhaustive list of places, hills, and rivers.

Briefly the voyage amounts to this. The Argonauts leave the
Pelasgicus Sinus (Gulf of Volo), coast along Thessaly to Ther-
maicus Sinus (Gulf of Salonica), steer across ^Egaeum Mare
(Archipelago) to the Hellespont (Dardanelles) ; through this
strait into the Propontis (Sea of Marmara) ; through the Bos-
porus into the Euxine (Black Sea).

Except when they cross the Archipelago, their voyage is
almost entirely a coasting one, and is easy to follow on a map.



XX11 THE ROUTE OF THE ARGONAUTS.

The return route retraces their steps as far as the river Halys-
in Paphlagonia ( iv. 245 ) , but then, instead of rounding the headland
of Carambis and following the coast-line (iv. 300), they strike
out a new course across the open sea to the mouth of the Ister
(Danube) (iv. 302). From this point very little information is
afforded us by Apollonius as to the places through which the
heroes passed. Certain names indeed are mentioned, but they
are difficult to identify or localize, e.g., Mount Auchurus (iv.
323), the rock of Cauliacus (iv. 324), the plain of Laurium (iv.
326), the Brygian isles (iv. 330). Apollonius was evidently
aware of the weakness of his own geography, and avoids all
details concerning this remarkable river-voyage ; he eventually
brings the heroes otit into the Adriatic near the peninsula of
Hyllis (iv. 524). It is scarcely necessary to remark on the
impossibility of this route, owing to rocks, rapids, cataracts,
and an impassable current ; nor are we told into what river the
Argonauts made their way out of the Ister in order to arrive at
the Adriatic at all. After this they steer towards the Italian
coast, passing the islands of Issa, Dusceladus, Pityeia, Corey ra
the Black (iv. 563), Melite, Cerossus, Nymphsea, and the
Ceraunian hills (iv. 570 sqq.) ; they come to the Eridanus (Po)
(iv. 594), and apparently sailing right across northern Italy, gain
by some unaccountable means the river Rhone (iv. 625). Here
again we are not informed how they achieved this remarkable
feat ; the poet seems to labour under the delusion that the
Eridanus and Ehone are connected, and that a continuous
voyage is possible. Next the heroes are somewhat vaguely said
to pass through the territory of the Celts and Ligyans (iv. 645),
but no further point on their course is mentioned until they
arrive at the Stcechades Insulse (Is. d'Hieres, off the southern
coast of Provence) (iv. 652) ; thence they sail across the open
sea (Mediterranean) to the isle of JEthalia, passing above
Corsica (iv. 652), and so by a long coasting voyage along Italy
they reach the yEsean harbour and the promontory of Circe (iv.
659) ; thence passing the island of the Sirens (iv. 890) they come
to the ^Eolian isles, run the gauntlet of Scylla and Charybdis in
the straits between Italy and Sicily (iv. 920 sqq.), coast round the
bottom of Italy, and land at Drepane, i.e. Corcyra, where the
Phseacians live (iv. 980 sqq.) ; from Drepane they coast along
Epirus, Ambracia, and Acarnania, till they reach the Echinades
Insulae (iv. 1228) ; but here they are caught by a violent tem-
pest and driven to the Syrtis Minor of Africa (iv. 1233). Being
unable to get out of the quicksands they carry Argo overland
to lake Tritonis (iv. 1389), and, launching her again, sail out to
sea. Apparently they now made a very circuitous voyage along
the coasts of Africa and Asia Minor until they were opposite to



THE ROUTE OF THE ARGONAUTS. XX1I1

the island of Carpathus, which they are said to pass ; from
thence they came to Crete (iv. 1635) ; thence through the
Sporades into the ^Egean to ^Egina (iv. 1764) ; then along the
coast of Attica and between Eubcea and the Opuntian Locri (iv.
1779), through the Sinus Pelasgicus, to Pagasae, whence they
had started.

The return voyage teems with such insurmountable difficul-
ties, and is altogether so hopelessly confused and mythical, that
it would be a mere waste of time and patience to attempt to
follow it on a modern map.

We can only indicate briefly the course the heroes are said to
have taken. After crossing the Euxine (Black Sea), they rowed
through river-ways right across Dacia, Moesia, Illyria, and
Dalmatia (Bulgaria, Servia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina), into the
Adriatic ; sailing to Italy they cross the northern part by the
Eridanus (Po) ; sail into the Rhone, thence into the Mediter-
ranean ; right across to the west coast of Italy, along which they
pass ; through the Lipari islands and the strait of Messina ; up
the east coast of Italy to the Adriatic again ; thence driven by
storms they come to the African coast ; being caught in the
shoals of the Syrtis they carry Argo overland to lake Tritonis
(Bahr Faraouni in Tunis), and finding an outlet into the Medi-
terranean, sail along the African coast to the coast of Asia
Minor, and so into the ^Egean homewards.



THE USE OF POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

AND PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN

APOLLONIUS.



EPIC poets after Homer, and perhaps none more than Apol-
lonius, affect a singular licence in the use of possessive
adjectives, and to a less extent of personal pronouns, confusing
their strict meaning to such a degree, that it may he of some
service to collect in a short scheme examples of Apollonius 1
more notable divergences from classical usage.



I. fffuiinpoc, the possessive adj. of the 2nd person dual, does
duty for

(a) Possessive adj. of 2nd person singular. Cf. iii. 395.
(/3) Possessive adj. of 3rd person singular. Cf. i. 643 ; iii.

335, 600, 625.
(y) Possessive adj. of 3rd person plural. Cf. i. 1286.

II. ff(j>irfpo, the possessive adj. of 3rd person plural, does duty
for

(a) Possessive adj. of 3rd person singular. Cf. iii. 186,

622.
(/3) Possessive adj. of 2nd person plural. Cf. iv. 1325.

III. tor, the possessive adj. of 3rd person singular, does duty
for

(a) Possessive adj. of 2nd person singular. Cf. ii. 636 ;

iii. 140.
(3) Possessive adj. of 3rd person plural. Cf. i. 1113 ; iii. 327.

IV. The personal pronoun of 3rd person singular does duty
for

(a) 1st person singular. Cf. ii. 637 ; iii. 99.
(/3) 2nd person singular. Cf. i. 893.



BOOK I.






AKGTJMENT.

Pelias, in alarm, sends Jason to Colchis to fetch the golden fleece.
So Jason gathers the chieftains, and is chosen captain himself. After
launching Argo they sail on without adventure as far as Lemnos, where
they stay awhile, and are hospitably received by Hypsipyle the queen.
Thence they come to the Doliones and their king Cyzicus, and are
kindlj- entertained. Giants withstand them at Dindymus, but these
are shot by Heracles. On the same night a storm drives the ship back
to Cyzicus, and in the darkness they and the J)olioncs come to blows,
and Cyzicus is slain. After mourning for him, they sail on to Mysia,
where Hylas is lost, and Heracles, who will not be comforted, is left
behind with Polyphemus.



THE ARGONAUTICA OF APOLLONIUS
RHODIUS.

WITH thee, Phoebus, will I begin and record the
famous deeds of those men of old time, who, at the
bidding of king Pelias, rowed the good ship Argo past the
mouth of the Euxine and through the rocks Cyanean 1 to
fetch the golden fleece.

For Pelias had heard an oracle on this wise, that in the
latter days a hateful doom awaited him, even death at the
prompting of one whom he should see come forth from the
people with but one sandal. And not long after, according
to the sure report, came Jason on foot across the stream of
a swollen torrent, and one sandal did he save from 'neath
the mud, but the other left he there sticking in the river-
bed. So he came to Pelias forthwith to take a part in the
solemn feast, which he was offering to his father Poseidon
and the other gods, but to Pelasgian Hera 2 he paid no
heed. And the instant Pelias saw Jason, he was ware of
him, and made ready to his hurt a grievous task of seaman-



1 Kvaviai TrtTpai, elsewhere called IIXayKrai and Sv/jTrXr/yafoe. These
famous rocks, which are also mentioned by Homer and Euripides, were
said to guard the entrance to the Pontus.

2 The poet, whilst noticing the favour borne by Hera to Jason, gives
no reason for the neglect shown to her by Pelias.

TleXatrylSoc here = 9(T<ra\ucJje ; the Pelasgi inhabiting Phthiotis in
Thessaly. Cf. Horn. 11. ii. 681.



4 APOLLONIUS RHODIUS. [BOOK I.

ship, that so he might lose his return in the deep or haply
among strange folk.

Now minstrels even before my day do tell how Argus by
the counsels of Athene built a ship for him ; but mine
shall it now be to declare the lineage and name of the
heroes, and their passage of the long sea, and all that they
did in their wanderings ; and may the Muses be the
heralds of my song !

First then let us make mention of Orpheus ; he it was,
whom, on a day, as rumour saith, Calliope bare beside the
peak of Pimpleia, her pledge of love to Thracian (Eager.
He, men say, did charm the stubborn rocks upon the hills
and the river streams by the strains of his minstrelsy.
And wild oaks, memorials yet of that his singing, which
he had led right on from Pieria by the spell of his lyre,
marched in ordered ranks, each behind his fellow, to range


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