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if any community can show a larger proportion of volunteers than
this." (Annual Report, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1862, p. 23.)

"One-half of the adult population are in the volunteer service of the
United States. They make the best soldiers and are highly esteemed
by their officers. The tribe has shown their devotion and loyalty to

40



COMPENSATION OF DELAWARE INDIANS. 23

the Government by the number of men furnished to the Army." (Re-
port, Agent Johnson, Sept. 25, 1863.)

"I must not omit to mention the subject of their loyalty to the Gov-
ernment. More than one-half of their adult male population is regu-
larly enlisted in the volunteer forces of the Government, and as soldiers
are highly esteemed by their officers. It is perhaps not too much to
claim that no community within the limits of the loyal States can show
a better record, than this." (Annual Report, Commissioner of Indian
Affairs, 1863, p. 29.)

"The male portion of the tribe are either in the Army or are em-
ployed in its connection, and it is a matter of some satisfaction to be
able to say they have distinguished themselves in the Army of the
frontier as most excellent troops. A party of 20 left here latterly,
under Capt. Fall Leaf, to assist in the expedition now being engaged
against the Sioux." (Report, Sept. 13, 1864, by Agent Pratt.)

"In connection with this subject, however, it would be unjust to
omit the fact that a large portion of the men of the tribe are enlisted
in the United States Army, where they have distinguished themselves
as faithful soldiers. Their absence from the reservation in the service
of the country may account, in a great measure, for the failure to put
more land under cultivation this year." (Annual Report, Commis-
sioner of Indian Affairs, 1864, p. 37.)

"It affords me great pleasure to chronicle the continued loyalty of
the tribe during the past eventful four years, and as events tend west-
ward they evince every disposition to aid the Government by contribut-
ing their knowledge of the country to the officers of the Army and
rendering such service thereto as they are qualified to perform." (Re-
port, Sept. 25, 1865, by Agent Pratt.)

"The Indians number about 1.000, and maintain fully their reputa-
tion for devoted loyalty, having furnished many good soldiers to the
Army." (Annual Report, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1865,
p. 43.)

These latter services of the Delawares are mentioned to show their
continued loyalty to the Government and their ever readiness to render
military services.

REASONS FOR ISSUING BOUNTIES TO THE TRIBE INSTEAD OF THE

INDIVIDUAL.

At this date it would be impossible to issue bounties to the Delawares
under the general law where strict proof of heirship is necessary. In-
asmuch as the tribe furnished the soldiers or warriors under treaty
stipulations with the Government, and inasmuch as the tribe supported
and sustained the members (and their families) who were at war, the
Delaware Indians believe it is right and just now that bounties should
be issued in favor of the tribe without tracing heirship to the indi-
vidual soldiers who served in the various wars. To require strict proof
of heirship would be attempting the impossible and result in giving

41



24 COMPENSATION OF DELAWARE INDIANS.

them no reward for their services. As far as your memorialists have
'been able to learn, no other tribe or community furnished soldiers
under like circumstances and conditions, and therefore there can be no
question of discrimination. Other soldiers enlisted as individuals,
were treated as individuals, and received their bounties, whether cash
or land, as individuals, but the Delaware warriors were furnished
by the tribe and their families supported by the tribe while the war-
riors were away fighting, and it is equitable and just that the tribe
should receive the compensation.

As to the impossibility of proving heirship, attention is directed to
a report rendered by Hon. L. P. Waldo, Commissioner of Pensions,
on October 10, 1853, in which he states among other things :

"In executing the act of September 28, 1850, I found a large num-
ber of claims filed by individuals belonging to various Indian tribes who
still retain their tribal character, but who claim to have been soldiers
in the various wars described in said act and entitled to its benefits.
Some of these claims have been admitted and warrants have been is-
sued. Others have been suspended.

"I also found great embarrassment attending the examination and
final disposition of these claims in consequence of the difficulty in
communicating with the claimants, their inability to state the facts
connected with their services as explictly as desired, and the want of
the muster rolls known to be authentic to verify their statement. These
embarrassments are greatly increased when the claims are presented by
the widow and minor children of a deceased soldier. Evidence of mar-
riage and heirship and the proper appointment of guardian is in most
cases next to impossible to obtain according to any well-established
rules."

The difficulties which confronted Commissioner Waldo 56 years ago,
in the adjudication of individual claims, are insurmountable today, and
disclose a strong argument in favor of the provisions of the bill, which
provides that the compensation shall be made to the Delawares as a
tribe, and not to the heirs of the individuals who fought in the various
wars. Even if the heirs could establish their claims, it was the tribe
that furnished the soldiers in accordance with treaties or agreements
with the Government, and it is the tribe which should receive the
benefits and distribute them among the members of the tribe in accord-
ance with well-recognized Indian customs.

The records fail to disclose that any considerable number of the Dela-
wares have ever received bounties. Your memorialists have made
careful search and all that have been discovered are the 13 who re-
ceived bounties for services against the Sioux. Commissioner Waldo's
letter shows how impossible it is for these Indians to prove up under
existing law. Furthermore, the Delawares fought more as allies than
as individuals, without pay, and mainly under their own officers, many
of whom were commissioned by the Government, in much the same
way as the French. This may account for the lack of authentic rec-

42



COMPENSATION OF DELAWARE INDIANS. 2o

ords which would enable the Delawares to comply with the technical
requirements of the present law.

Respectfully submitted.

The Delaware Indians Residing in Oklahoma,
By Richard C. Adams,



Appendix.

EXTRACTS FROM COL. DANIEL BRODHEAD's LETTERS.

[Pennsylvania Archives, Series I, vol. 12.]

We find from Daniel Brodhead's letter, who was colonel and com-
mander of the western district (letter No. 2, p. 107) April 15, 1779,
to his excellency Joseph Reed, governor of the State of Pennsylvania :

"I am persuaded the Delawares may be engaged to fight against the
Six Nations, although more numerous than themselves, provided they
are well supplied, and we have the means — that is, Indian goods, trin-
kets, and black wampum — to pay them for their services."

In letter Xo. 5, to Rev. John Heckwelder, May 13, 1779, Col. Broad-
head says, in speaking of the endeavors of the British to strike the
Delawares :

"But I will venture to predict that they will not do it. They will
consider the Delaware Indians allies as no contemptible foes, which,
added to the fast connection between them and us, must and surely
will end in their final extirpation. I sincerely wish our allies, the Dela-
wares, may make themselves easy and no longer remain in a state of
such apprehension. They will shortly hear from the northward as well
as from the southward that their brethren are by no means idle."

In letter No. 8, to Gen. Washington, dated Pittsburgh, May 22, 1779,
Col. Brodhead says :

"You may rely on my close attention to the movements of the enemy
and that they can not approach nearer to any advanced post without
receiving intelligence from the Delawares."

In letter No. 10 to Col. George Morgan, May 27, 1779, Col. Brod-
head says :

"I wish the Delaware chiefs may return according to their promise."

In letter No. 14. May 29, 1779, to Gen. Washington, Col. Brod-
head writes :

"The Delaware warriors assure me that the enemy are considerably
reenforced by white men."

Further on in the same letter he says :

"A voung Delaware Indian who calls me father offered his serv-
ices to" bring me a Mingo scalp, and is now fitting his arms. etc.. for
that purpose."

43



26 COMPENSATION OF DELAWARE INDIANS.

In letter No. 18, June 3, 1779, to Col. Archibald Lochry, Col. Brod-
head writes :

"Two Delaware warriors are arriving- with intelligence that the
Wyandotte Nation are bidding farewell to the English forever, and
their chiefs are now on the way to take me by the hand and make a
lasting peace with Americans."

In letter No. 1!) to Rev. Heckwelder, June 3, 177!). Col. Brodhead
writes :

"I have a party of warriors out toward the Mingo towns, and others
are preparing. I believe they will be convinced that we can act in their
own way. This may drive them from their designs against the settle-
ment."

In letter No. 20, June 5, 1779, to Gen. Washington, Col. Brodhead
writes :

"I have sent out one scalping party toward the Mingo towns and
am preparing another. If they answer no other purpose, they may
bring intelligence of an approaching enemy ; but should a firm peace
be concluded, as I have reasons to believe with the Wyandottes there
is, it would give me great pleasure to make one grand push against the
Mingoes."

In the same letter, speaking of a Delaware that was killed, he says :

"As yet I am ignorant of the name of the Delaware man."

In letter No. 24, to Col. Archibald Lochry, June 23, 1779, speaking
of the fight at Perry Mills, Col. Brodhead says :

"One of the Delaware chiefs who went with Capt. Bready distin-
guished himself on this occasion."

In letter No. 25, June 25, 1779, to Gen. Washington, Col. Brodhead
says:

"A few days ago Col. Brady, with 20 white men and I young Dela-
ware chief, all well painted, set out toward the Seneca country."

Further on in the letter he says :

"Capt. Bready and most of his men acted with great spirit and in-
trepidity, but it is confessed that the young Delaware chief, Nonow-
land, or George Wilson, distinguished himself on this enterprise, and
I have the pleasure to inform your excellency that the Delaware chiefs
are safely returned from Philadelphia, and one of them, agreeable to
their customs, stepped forward to the party and received the scalp in
triumph."

In letter No. 2G, June 27, 1779, to Hon. Timothy Pickering, Col.
Brodhead writes :

"I have at length the pleasure to inform you that the western In-
dians have changed sides and one of the young Delaware chiefs has
already assisted one of my party in defeating and taking a scalp from
one of the Muncy and Senecas ; and some other young Delawares are
just arrived who the chiefs inform me are upon my invitation to join
some party of white men."

44



COMPENSATION OF DELAWARE INDIANS.



27



In letter 27 to Lieut. Col. Stephen Bayard. July 1, 177!) Col Brod-
head says :

"An express is dispatched by the Delaware chiefs to order the Dela-
wares of Coochoching to seize Girty and his party should he return
there, and they are to be brought to me."

In letter No. 28 to Col. Stephen Bayard, July 9, 177!), Col. Brodhead
says :

"Mr. Patterson and Ward with a small park of white men and eight
or nine Delaware warriors will proceed toward the Seneca country
within a day or two. The warriors will go with the full consent and
approbation of the chiefs, and I wish them success."

In letter No. 29 to Col. Campbell, July 14, 1779, Col. Brodhead
writes :

"I have 2 Muncy scalps, and several more were killed by our party
of whites and Delawares. Lieut. Peterson and Ensign Wood with 18
whites and 6 Delawares are gone to try their fortune toward the Seneca
towns."

In letter 35 to Col. Archibald Lochry, July 29, 1779, Col. Brodhead
writes, in speaking of a treaty under Capt. Jack :

"The Delawares that accompanied him seemed anxious to come up
with them."

In letter 46 to Gen. Washington, July 31, 1779, Col. Brodhead states:

"A party of white men and Delawares under the command of Ensign
Morrison have brought in 1 Indian scalp since my last, and others have
taken a considerable share of plunder near their towns, and we had 2
men killed within 300 yards of Fort Lawrens. * * * Capt. Kill-
buck is here. He has sent for a great number of Delaware warriors
to join him on the intended expedition."

In letter No. 48, to Timothy Pickering, August 3, 1779, Col. Brod-
head says :

"I shall set out on an expedition against the Seneca towns about the
7th, and a number of Delawares have promised to join me."

In letter No. 49, to Gov. Reed, August 3, 1779, Col. Brodhead says:

"I expect to have a number of Delaware warriors join me, but have
nothing to reward them with."

In letter No. 54, to Col. Morgan, August 4, 1779, Col. Brodhead says:

"Several Delawares are here waiting and more are expected to join
me in my expedition up the Allegheny."

In letter No. 56, to Maj. Gen. Sullivan, August 6, 1779, Col. Brod-
head says :

"I have 12 Delaware warriors ready and have the promise of a num-
ber more."

In letter No. 57, to Gen. Washington, September 16, 1779, speaking
of the Battle of Cuscushing, Col. Brodhead says :

45



28 COMPENSATION OF DELAWARE INDIANS.

"One of the advanced guards, consisting of 15 white men, including
spies, and 8 Delaware Indians, under the command of Lieut. Hardin,
of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, whom I have he fore recom-
mended to your excellency for his great bravery and skill as a partisan,
discovered between 30 and 40 warriors coming down the Allegheny
River in 7 canoes. These warriors having likewise discovered some of
the troops, immediately landed, stripped off their shirts, and prepared
for action, and the advanced guard immediately began the attack.

"All the troops, except 1 column and flankers being in the narrows
between the river and the high hill, were immediately prepared to re-
ceive the enemy, which being done, I went forward to discover the
enemy, and 6 of them retreating over the river without arms, at the
same time the rest ran away leaving their canoes, blankets, shirts, pro-
visions, and 8 guns, besides 5 dead, and by the signs of blood several
went off wounded. Only 2 of my men and 1 of the Delaware Indians
were wounded and so slightly that they are already recovered and fit
for action * * *. On my return here I found the chiefs of the
Delawares, the principal chiefs of the Hurons, and now the king of
Maquichee Tribe of the Shawnees is likewise come to treat with me ;
about 30 Delaware warriors are here likewise ready to go to war, but
T have nothing to encourage them with."

Further on he says :

"A few Indian goods, paint, and trinkets at this juncture would
enable me to encourage the Delawares to harass the enemy frequently."

A postscript to this letter is :

"The Delaware chiefs have just called on me to build some block-
houses at Cushocken for the protection of their women and children
while they are out against the English and Mingoes, and I have agreed
to send a detachment for that purpose agreeable to the Articles of
Confederation."

In letter No. 58 September 23, 1779, to Timothy Pickering, Col.
Crodhead says :

"I inclose you the talks of the Delawares, Wyandotts, and Maquichee
tribe of Shawnees and I' flatter myself that there is a great share of
sincerity in their present profession."

In letter No. 66 to Gen. Sullivan, October 10, 1779, speaking of a
fight won by the advanced guard on the Allegheny River, Col. Brod-
head says :

"This was done in a few minutes by the advanced guard composed
of 15 light infantry and 8 Delaware Indians."

In letter No. 80 to John Fay, October 26, 1779, Col. Brodhead says:

"It is hard to determine what effect this imprudent conduct may
have on the minds of the Delaware chiefs and warriors, but I hope a
favorable answer to the speech I sent them."

In letter No. 81 to Gen. Washington. October 26, 1779, Col. Brod-
head says :

46



COMPENSATION OF DELAWARE INDIANS. 29

"I sent a runner to the Delaware council at Coochocking to inform
them of the trespass, and assure them it was committed hv some
foolish people and requested them to rely on my doing them' justice
and punishing the offenders, but as yet have not received an answer
T have not yet sent men to build the blockhouses at Ooochocking I
told the Indians I would send 200 or 300 men to do that work but I
apprehend 600 or TOO will not be too many, because it is ver V uncertain
what part the Wyandottes will take or what influence the trespass will
have on the minds of the Delawares."

In letter No. 85 to Timothy Pickering, November 3 1779 Col
Brodhead says :

"But the Delawares inform me that most of the other nations to the
westward and southward are friendly to the United States."

In letter No. 87 to Maj. Richard Taylor, November 11, 1779 Col
Brodhead writes :

"I expect that you will be honored with the Delaware delegation
company in a few days."

In letter No. 95, November 22, 1779, to Gen. Washington, Col. Brod-
head says :

"The Delaware chiefs have paid me another visit and the Wyandotte
chiefs are said to be on the way to this place. The Delaware chiefs
inform me that the English at Detroit have refused to supply the
WVandottes with clothing because they had entered into a treaty of
friendship with us. * * * The Delaware chiefs came to this place
with a determination to pay another visit to Your Excellency, but upon
my telling them that I should shortly strike the war post they im-
mediately declined going and declared that they and their best war-
riors would join me."

In letter No. 96, to Timothy Pickering, November 22, 1779, Col.
Brodhead writes :

"The Delaware chiefs are again come to this place. They intended
to visit Congress, but as I could see no benefit that could at present
be derived to the public from another treaty with them, I dissuaded
them from their purpose by telling I should soon strike the war post,
and they offered themselves and their best warriors to join me."

In letter No. 118, to Hon. Richard Peters, February 12, 1780, Col.
Brodhead says:

"My last accounts from the western Indians are flattering, and the
Delawares continue their friendly offices."

In letter No. 124, to Gen. Washington, March 8, 1780, Col. Brod-
head says :

"If the Delaware Nation should declare against us this frontier
will be greatly distressed, as many other nations who have hitherto
been neuter will join them, and my force is by no means sufficient to
protect the settlements."

47



30 COMPENSATION OF DELAWARE INDIAN'S.

In letter No. 152, to Gen. Washington. May 13, 1780, Col. Brod-
head says :

"The Delaware Indians continue their professions, of friendship and
some of their warriors are now out with my scouts, but as I have little
or nothing to give them but good words and fair promises, I appre-
hend they will soon decline the service."

In letter No. 153. to Hon. Richard Peters. May 14, 1780, Col. Brod-
head says :

"The Delawares continue their professions of friendship, but often
mention the promises made them of supplies and their extreme poverty.
Some of them are now out with my scouts, but if I am not suddenly
furnished with something to pay them for their services they will
doubtless leave me and seek a more easy or profitable employment.
* * * The Delaware chiefs intend another visit to honorable Con-
gress, and as fresh proof of their friendship intend to take with them
a large pack of beaver skins to kindle the council fire, and as a security
for their engagements intend taking more of their children to be edu-
cated at college."

In letter No. 159 to Col. Archibald Lochry, May 20, 1780, Col.
Brodhead writes :

"I know the influence of the Delaware councils with 20 different
tribes, and am sensible it is upon their account that so few of their
color are active against us."

In letter No. 160 to Col. John Evans, May 27, 1780. Col. Brodhead
says, relating to the proclamation declaring war against all Indians :

"The right of making peace and war rests with the honorable Con-
gress only. The Delaware council has power to influence a great
number of tribes, who to my certain knowledge are neuter on their
account. * * * I expect you will to the utmost of your power
discountenance every undertaking that may tend to bring further ca-
lamities upon -the good people of the frontier counties and give orders
to all your officers to give notice of every design that may be calcu-
lated to infringe a solemn treaty entered into by the commissioners of
Congress with the Delaware Nation until it shall be authorized by the
authority of the United States.

"The honorable American Congress have remitted to my care sundry
blank commissions to be filled up for such trusty Delaware Indians
as I can confide in, and I expect to make 'them useful instruments
against the British Indian allies."

In letter No. 162, to Gen. Washington, May 30, 1780, Col. Brod-
head says :

"This has determined me to send Capt. Brady with five white men
and two Delaware Indians to Sandusky to endeavor to take a British
prisoner, and I hope he will effect. I have likewise offered other
Delaware warriors 50 hard dollars' worth of goods for one British
soldier, and they have promised to bring him immediately."

48



COMPENSATION OF DELAWARE INDIANS. 31

In letter No. 166, to Maj. Lanctot, July 7, 1780, Col. Brodhead says:
"You will make such speeches to the Delaware council as you shall
judge necessary and endeavor to excite them to remain steady in their
alliance with us. and encourage their warriors to bring in English
prisoners, by which I may gain proper intelligence of the strength at
Detroit."

In letter No. 169, July 21, 1780, to Hon. Timothy Pickering, Col.
Brodhead says :

"Another party was immediately detached up the Allegheny River
with two Delaware Indians to take their tracks and make pursuits,
but as this party is not yet returned I can not inform you of its
success."

In letter 178. to Gen. Washington, August 18, 1780, Col. Brod-
head says :

"I have received two letters from the Delaware towns of which I
likewise inclose. It appears by the contents that the Delawares and
Wyandottes and their numerous allies might be speedily involved in
war against each other, provided we were possessed of the means to
reward the Delawares for bringing in Wyandotte scalps and prisoners."

In letter No. 181, to Gen. Washington, August 21, 1780, Col. Brod-
head says :

"By Capt. Duplantain. who is just arrived from the Delaware
towns, I am informed that the British at Detroit treat the French
inhabitants with great severity and that they wish for nothing more
than the approach of a body of troops from this place."

In letter No. 182 to Maj. Godfrey Lanctot, August 23, 1780, Col.
Brodhead says :

"You will please inform the Delaware Council that they shall speed-
ily see their wish complied with, and then I shall discover how far
they are desirious to favor an attempt against our common enemy."

In letter No. 1!)'2 to Benjamin Stoddard, September 14, 1780, Col.
Brodhead says :

"If the interest of the Delaware Indians is worth preserving, it is
high time that a quantity of goods be sent to clothe them, agreeable to
the terms of treaty ; at any rate, a quantity of vermilion is indispensably
necessary for my white warriors."

In letter No. 10.") to Gen. Washington. September 17, 1780, Col.
Brodhead says :

"As no supply of goods has yet been sent for the Delaware Indians,
agreeable to treaty. I conceive they will be compelled to make terms
with the British or perish, and next spring we shall have a general
Indian war. The Delaware runners add that a party of 20 Indian
warriors have been discovered about six days ago marching toward
these settlements, and that a large party of Senecas may soon be ex-
pected down the Allegheny."

49



32 COMPENSATION OF DELAWARE INDIANS.

In letter No. 197, to Hon. Richard Peters, September 17, 1780, Col.
Brodhead says :

"I am greatly indebted * * * to the Indians who have been
employed as guides, spies, and expresses, besides some small presents
to the chiefs."

From the journal of Lieut. Erkieries Beatty in the expedition against
the Six Nations under Gen. Sullivan, 1779, there is mention of having


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